Measure the extent to which the features Sartre claims for words affect – negatively or positively – different Areas of Knowledge.
As a defination, “ Word is a unit of linguistic communication which has significance and is used with others to organize sentences, promises, comands and messages ” ( Oxford Dicxtionary ) .
Wordss are an of import portion of both the history of our species every bit good as our cognition of it. Missing in many natural protective versions, we rely on the ability to pass on information between our equals and from one coevals to the following. There is barely any uncertainty that words are extremly powerful tools, and words have destroyed adequate metropoliss, lives, and reputes to turn out their possible perfidy.
Wordss, linguistic communication, are the strongest arm if used decently since they have the power to influence, manipulate & A ; control people and state of affairs situations.Words are really powerful, and sometimes the words we use offend people. Freedom of address is extremely valued but what happens when your freedom becomes hurtful or disrespectful to person else? There are so many different sorts of people and different things that offend each individual. In this twenty-four hours where we are more inclined to state whatever we want, we see more and more discourtesy being taken to the words that get said. It ‘s difficult to understand why certain words can be dissing to person when it may non look that manner to you. We have to inquire ourselves, why do we care what other people say and should we ban everything that goes into the public merely so people do n’t acquire offended?
Apparently they are lone words but some believe the school-yard twit: “ Sticks and rocks can interrupt my castanetss, but words can ne’er ache me. ” are incorrect and it is true that words can ache you in the workplace.Now these are non the acerb 1s spoken ( or received ) full with irony, annoyance, choler or defeat, transporting an emotional clout. I ‘m speaking about simple, mundane, normal word picks. These words, like black ice, are non an obvious danger at first glimpse. But, they can impact your consequences. So, user-beware. Wordss create assorted feelings, images and outlooks. They build many psychological connexions. They influence and consequence how we think. Since ideas determine actions, there ‘s a powerful connexion between the words we use and the consequences we get. Think about these two words: spend and invest. Would you like your bank to pass your money or put it? Since disbursement implies the money is gone, you likely want a bank that invests. Now apply these same words to corporate budgets and see how that influences believing. Early in my calling, I saw budgets as allocated company money I had permission to pass. And I did pass it. I ne’er thought of budgets as puting in the company ‘s hereafter until I was given net income and loss answerability for a new section and discovered my blemished thought. I learned that in order to turn the section, I needed to budget with an investing outlook. Switching words shifted my thought and my consequences.
Now lets expression at a simple basic illustration, seek these words: job and challenge. Would you instead a foreman see your error as a job or as a challenge? It ‘s more than semantics. Problems are fixed ; challenges are met. Different words evoke different feelings. I have a more positive frame of head run intoing a challenge than repairing a job. I realized the words I use to believe and speak about my work load, my ends, my undertakings and the people I worked with influenced my ideas and actions about them. So, I changed my words. If I say I work “ for ” person I have a different vision about my work-life than if I work “ with ” them ; same with my staff working with, non for me. Poorly chosen words can kill enthusiasm, impact self-esteem, lower outlooks and hold people back. Well chosen 1s can actuate, offer hope, create vision, impact thought and alter consequences. I learned in twenty old ages in direction my words have power over my ideas and actions. They besides impact and influence people I speak them to. In order to be winning at working, learn to tackle your word power to work for, non against you ; choose words that create a ocular of the coveted result ; and take each word as if it mattered.
Now lets expression at a possibility where we can somehow demo the importance of words among audiences and different groups of people with assorted cultural and cultural backgrounds.First, allow us analyze the ways in which words can hold an impact. Each word has two definitions, the denotative and the connotative. The denotive significance is fundamentally the dictionary significance, the 1 that about anyone can understand who speaks or desires to talk the linguistic communication.
For illustration, take the word “ chair ” . It has a denotive significance: a piece of furniture designed for one individual to sit upon. Anybody can indicate at such a piece of furniture and the audience will react with “ chair ” ( or whatever word means “ a piece of furniture designed for one individual to sit upon ” in their linguistic communication ) . It is this denotive significance pupils learn in foreign linguistic communication categories so they will cognize the word “ daybed ” means “ chair ” in French.
However, of greater importance, peculiarly in advertisement, is the connotative definition, the definition each person conjures up in rher head in response to hearing or reading the word. That definition can be denotive in consequence, but purely single. For illustration, person hearing the word chair will seldom believe “ a piece of furniture designed for one individual to sit upon. ” Alternatively they will conceive of what they consider a chair. It could be a desk chair, a Queen Anne flying chair, a dining room chair, or whatever image appears before the head ‘s oculus stand foring to that individual a “ chair ” . This is non a specific image common to all, but a general construct dependant on the person. This is why people use qualifiers like adjectives and adverbs: they narrow the general construct to one particular to the talker ‘s purpose. Therefore, when the talker has an image of a wing chair, rhe adds the qualifier “ wing ” . This prevents the audience thought of a desk chair.
Therefore the connotative definition of a word can be denotive in consequence. However, of far more importance is that the connotative significance of a word can hold a strong emotional content. In other words, the audience can react emotionally instead than intellectually to hearing or reading a word.
Why is this difference between the denotative and connotative definitions of words of such importance? It is because the greatest impact of words comes from utilizing the connotative significances to impact the audience ‘s emotional response. One ground for this is that you can non reason away emotions because they do non react to logic. Therefore if you can do your audience agree with your point of position on an emotional degree, your competition ‘s logical statements wo n’t rock them about why they should n’t experience that manner.
An illustration that merely about everybody can associate to: you ‘re in love ; he-she-it is the most fantastic, perfect individual in the universe, flawless, faultless ( “ love is unsighted ” is non merely a platitude, it is a truism ) . Then he-she-it mopess you ; cryings, howling, depression, etc. , ensues. Your friends gather about and state you that he-she-it is a dork, a craven, non worth the cryings, that he-she-it does non merit the injury through which you are seting yourself. You nod, agree, so you burst into cryings afresh, crying “ but I ca n’t assist it, this is how I feel. ” All the logical statements in the universe about why you should n’t experience bad about being dumped have no consequence on your emotions. That ‘s how you feel.
That you can non reason away emotions is merely one of the grounds that intensions have impact. Another is that abstract words are about wholly defined by their intensions. Abstract words such as truth, beauty, and justness mean what the single feels they mean. There is no referent rhe can indicate to as a concrete illustration. Therefore, abstractions affect most people emotionally. If, hence, you can do a treatment of abstractions emotional by personalising or anthropomorphising them, they can hold a greater impact. Moliere used this thought in his drama TARTUFFE. He personalized spiritual lip service, the cloaking of frailty in a mantle of virtuousness, in the character of Tartuffe, a rather unpleasant individual. Therefore, if you do n’t wish Tartuffe, an attitude hard to avoid, you wo n’t wish what he stands for.
Another component of words that ‘s of import is that there are concrete and fuzzed words. Concrete words are those that have definite referents. That is, you can indicate at an illustration of what you mean by that word. For illustration, when you say the word “ chair, ” you can indicate at the concrete point, a chair, to clear up your intending to your hearer. Concrete words have definite denotive significances, and frequently have weak emotional intensions. Fuzzy words are those that have no concrete referents, for which there is no object that can be pointed at to clear up what the talker means. Fuzzy words can intend whatever you think they mean, and therefore can intend different things to different people. For illustration, one fuzzy word is “ beauty. ” Beauty truly is in the oculus of the perceiver, is dependent on civilization, and alterations from clip to clip and individual to individual. Other fuzzed words include “ justness, ” which can intend anything from equality before the jurisprudence to the blood feud, and “ truth, ” which depends on how you view the universe, what you know ( or believe you know ) , what others tell you, etc. , etc. , ad nauseam. The thing that is clear is that fuzzed words are virtually all intension, with their denotive significances dependant on who is specifying them. For illustration, Samuel Johnson, who wrote one of the first lexicons in 1755, “ defined a frequenter as ‘one who supports with crust, and is paid with flattery.