The Alliess won the war but at a lay waste toing cost ; American, British, Russian, and Gallic lives. After the war the Alliess and all the states in Europe had a really difficult determination, what to make with the also-rans. The reply came in the signifier of the Nuremberg Trials. This is a really large point in history because it is the first clip that leaders of the losing states were to be charged with war offenses. The Nuremberg Trials began November twentieth 1945 and ended April thirteenth 1949. The 4 twelvemonth Nuremberg tests sentenced 18 people to penalties runing from 10 old ages to decease. This paper besides shows how each suspect reacted to their finding of fact.
The Nazi political party blamed all their political, economic, and any other jobs on the Alliess along with the Judaic population. When Hitler rose to power in the Nazi party, shortly after that became the leader of Germany, he used the alibi of their political jobs to impel himself to dictator. He claimed that merely the “ superior ” races should be allowed in Germany. The “ inferior ” races included Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah ‘s Witnesses, along with Jews. Hitler used the look “ Lebensraum ” ( populating infinite ) to warrant his invasion of Rhineland in the Czech Republic. Great Britain was angered and met with Hitler to discourse peace. Weeks after the peace treatment Hitler broke the pact and invaded the remainder of the Czech Republic in 1938. The German war machine did n’t halt at that place they took over many other states such as Austria besides in 1938. Poland put up a small spot of a battle but still ended up in German custodies in 1939. Next was Hungary, who fell into Hitler ‘s clasp in 1940. The concluding state to fall to Germany was France ; Paris was lost in 1940. Still with all of this the United States stood by its isolationism and remained impersonal. It was n’t till after the bombardment of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 that the U.S declared war on Japan. Because of the confederation between Germany, Italy and Japan both Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. During the bloody contending the Nazis non merely were stoping the lives of other states work forces but besides at that place ain people. This act of mass killing the “ inferior ” people in Germany was called the Holocaust. During the Holocaust Judaic people were kicked out of their places and relocated against their will. They were put into ghettos with other Judaic households. The households lived in atrocious conditions and many people died due to miss of fresh H2O and non plenty nutrient. Many households would deprive off all of the apparels when person would decease merely so the constabulary would n’t be able to place the individual and the household would still be able to acquire his or her rations. With the Americans assisting the Alliess and Russia fall ining the Alliess Germany was on the tally. Hitler saw merely one solution to his “ Judaic job ” . He called it the Final Solution. This is when Hitler established “ work ” cantonments such as Auschwitz and Sachsenhausen. From 1933 to 1945 the Nazi group established over 20,000 concentration cantonments for the individual intent of killing the Judaic population. With Germany on the tally triumph was shortly at manus for the Alliess. Hitler chose to perpetrate suicide alternatively of being taken. When the Alliess liberated the concentration cantonments they knew something had to be done. This is where the Nuremberg Trials come in, to find the destiny of Nazi leaders who had been apart of the Holocaust and the war.
The determination to travel in front with the Nuremberg tests was made at the Yalta conference ; this is where they decided to convict the German leaders as war felons. On May 2nd the Alliess appointed Robert Jackson as the main prosecuting officer. Based on a conference in London in the summer of 1945, Jackson and his associates drew up the London Charter. This Charter classified there to be three classs of offense. The first being traditional war offenses, mistreatment of POW ‘s. The 2nd class was new, it was offenses against peace, and this was for aggression and confederacy. . The concluding type of offense was besides new and it was called offenses against humanity, which was against civilians. The charter besides set up that places or orders of higher-ups was non a valid defence. On November 20th when the tests began, you could state that this was a “ master ‘s ” test. The test was really unjust, the defence was non allowed to entree captured paperss, or statements that Alliess committed similar offenses, besides they could non mention to the “ unfairness ” of the Versailles Treaty and eventually they could n’t utilize the bombardment of Dresden as an alibi for bombing London. A sum of 18 people were convicted at the first Nuremberg test, 12 of them were given the decease sentence, two given life, two 20 old ages in prison, one 15 old ages, and the last given 10 old ages. Three of the people at the test were acquitted. The Sovietss disagreed with the three acquitted and Rudolf Hess merely acquiring a life sentence. While the U.S soldiers believed Alfred Jodl and Karl Doenitz were merely supporting their state and did non merit the decease sentence and 10 old ages for the other. There were 12 follow-up tests at Nuremberg, 175 people were convicted. For all of the tests for war offenses during World War II there were a sum of 10,000 convicted and 250 decease sentences.
Meet the suspects ; Karl Doenitz, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Hans Fritzsche, Walter Funk, Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Konstantin Von Neurath, Franz Von Papen, Erich Raeder, Joachim Von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Hjalmar Schacht, Baldur Von Schirach, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Albert Speer, and Julius Streicher. Karl Doenitz was a German Admiral who commanded the full German Navy. Doenitz was chosen was Hitler himself to win him as Fuhrer. Karl let lose the “ Laconia Order ” which forbade Germans from salvaging enemies in droping ships. He besides had a really high IQ of 138. Hans Frank was the Governor/General of Nazi occupied Poland. He was nicknamed the “ Jew Butcher of Carcow ” . In April of 1930 Frank investigated, for Adolf Hitler, if his Fuhrer had any Judaic blood, there was a 50-50 opportunity he was a one-fourth Jewish. Hans IQ was besides high at 130. Wilhelm Frick was the Minister of the inside for Germany. Frick claimed non to be an anit-Semite.A He besides said he drafted the Nuremberg Laws to protect the pureness of German blood. Wilhelm ‘s IQ was 124. Hans Fritzche was the Head of the Radio Division. This was one of 12 sections in Goebbel ‘s Propaganda Ministry. Fritzche was one of two suspects turned over to the tribunal by the Russians. Hans had an IQ of 130. Walter Funk was the Minister of Economics and agreed with Himmler to have gold from the SS. The gold came from Judaic people in concentration cantonments. Funk had an IQ of 124. Hermann Goering was the Reichsmarschall and Luftwaffe ( Air Force ) Chief, President of Reichstag and the Director of the “ Four Year Plan. ” As Director of the Four Year Plan, Goering held the duty for the riddance of Hebrews from political life and for the devastation and coup d’etat of Judaic concerns and belongings in Germany. Hermann had a really high IQ of 138. Rudolf Hess was the deputy to the Fuhrer and the Nazi party leader. Hess suffered from paranoid psychotic beliefs, apathy, memory loss, and was diagnosed as holding a “ hysterical personality. ” He remained in England till the terminal of the war. He held an IQ of 120. Alfred Jodl was the Chief of Operations for the German High Command. Jodl gave the orders for the German ground forces ‘s onslaught against Holland, Belgium, Norway, and Poland. He besides surrendered for Germany on May 7th, 1945. Jodl disagreed with many of Hitler ‘s orders. Ernst Kaltenbrunner was the Chief of RSHA and the Chief of Security Police. Kaltenbrunner and the RSHA are responsible for the “ Concluding Solution ” to the Judaic job. Kaltenbrunner believed that fertile German adult females had a responsibility to bring forth babes, and if their hubbies could n’t acquire them pregnant, other work forces should be given the occupation. Wilhelm Keitel was the Chief of Staff for the German High Command. Keitel signed orders authorising the violent death of captured ranger ; he besides drafted the “ Night and Fog ” edict. Konstantin Von Neurath was the Minister of Foreign personal businesss boulder clay 1938 so he became the Reich Protector for Bohemia and Moravia. Neurath was the oldest suspect in the Major War Figures Trial at the age of 73. Franz Von Papen was the Reich Chancellor prior to Hitler so he was the Vice Chancellor under Hitler and subsequently he was the embassador to Turkey. Erich Raeder was the Commander in Chief of the German Navy. Reader broke international jurisprudence by assailing impersonal ships. He was the other suspect turned over by the Russians. Joachim Von Ribbentrop was the Foreign Minister. Ribbentrop program onslaughts against Poland and Russia. He besides participated in aggressive programs toward the Czech Republic. Alfred Rosenberg was the Chief Nazi Philosopher and Reichminister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. Rosenberg helped program onslaughts against Norway. He besides arranged for the larceny of all right art and furniture from Judaic flats in Paris. Fritz Sauckel was the Chief of Slave Labor Recruitment. Sauckel ‘s plan resulted in the exile of five million people for slave labour. Hjalmar Schacht was the Reichsbank President and Minister of Economics before the War. Schacht spent 10 months in a concentration cantonment because he was assumed to be plotting against Hitler. Baldur Von Schirach was the Hitler Youth leader. Von Schirach subjected German young person to an extended plan of Nazi propaganda and participated in the deporting of Jews from Vienna. Arthur Seyss-Inquart was the Austrian Chancellor, at the clip the ReichA Commissioner for the Netherlands. Seyss-Inquart suppressed resistance in the Netherlands toward the Nazi political party. Albert Speer was the Reichminister of Armaments and Munitions. Speer transmitted to Sauckel estimations of Numberss of slave workers needed, and so sent those workers to assorted armaments and weaponries workss all across German occupied lands. Finally was Julius Streicher who was the anti-semitic editor of the German paper, Der Sturmer. Streicher was known as the “ figure one Anti-semite ” . He besides set up the boycott of Judaic concern in 1935. This is all of the “ chief ” leaders in the first Nuremberg tests. Each of these people held high ranks so they were apart of the first tests.
The judgements on each of these war felons came fleetly and were followed really purely. Along with the judgements came reactions and statements from each convicted.
Karl Doenitz served 10 old ages and so died in 1981.
“ Politicians brought the Nazis to power and started the war.A They are the 1s who brought about these gross outing offenses, and now we have to sit at that place in the dock with them and portion the incrimination! ” ( 5/27/46 )
Han dynasties Frank was given the decease sentence. Frank was seen with a smiling as they hanged him at Nuremberg on October 16, 1946.
Before he died Frank said ; “ Hitler has disgraced Germany for all clip! A He betrayed and disgraced the people that loved him! … I will be the first to acknowledge my guilt. ” ( 4/17/46 ) .
Wilhelm Frick was sentenced to hang at Nuremberg.
He said, “ Hanging — I did n’t anticipate anything different… .Well, I hope they get it over with fast. ” ( 10/1/46 ) .
Han dynasties Fritzsche was acquitted ; he was subsequently tried by a German tribunal and convicted.
He said, “ I am wholly overwhelmed — to be set free right here, non even to be sent back to Russia.A That was more than I hoped for. ” Walter Funk was convicted and sentenced to life in prison, he was released in 1957 because of bad wellness. “ I signed the Torahs for the aryanization of Judaic property.A Whether that makes me lawfully guilty or non, is another affair. But it makes me morally guilty, there is no uncertainty about that.A I should hold listened to my married woman at the end.A She said we ‘d be better off dropping the whole curate concern and traveling into a three-bedroom flat. ” ( 7/8/46 ) .
Hermann Goering committed suicide the twenty-four hours he was suppose to be hanged.
“ The whole confederacy thought is cockeyed.A We had orders to obey the caput of state.A We were n’t a set of felons run intoing in the forests in the dead of dark to be after aggregate slayings… The four existent plotters are losing: The Fuhrer, Himmler, Bormann, and Goebbels. “ A “ The people can ever be brought to the command of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to make is state them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacificists for deficiency of nationalism, and exposing the state to greater danger. ”
Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life in prison. Hess remained baffled and seemed to be in a shock the remainder of his life. He eventually committed self-destruction in 1987 at the aged age of 93.
“ It is merely inexplicable how those things [ atrociousnesss ] came approximately… Every mastermind has the devil in him.A You ca n’t fault him [ Hitler ] — it is merely in him… It is all really tragic.A But at least I have the satisfaction of cognizing that I tried to make something to stop the war. ” ( 12/16/45 )
Alfred Jodl ‘s decease sentence seemed rough compared to that of others in similar places as him. Jodl was hung in Nuremberg on October 16, 1946 merely like all of the other decease sentences.
“ The indictment knocked me on the head.A First of all, I manus no thought at all about 90 per cent of the accusals in it.A The offenses are atrocious beyond belief, if they are true.A Secondly, I do n’t see how they can neglect to acknowledge a soldier ‘s duty to obey orders.A That ‘s the codification I ‘ve live by all my life. “ A ( 11/1/45 )
Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim Von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel and Arthur Seyess-Inquart were all hung at Nuremberg on October 16, 1946. Konstantin Von Neurath was sentenced to 15 old ages ; he was released in 1954 because of hapless wellness and died 2 old ages subsequently. Franz von Papen was acquitted. Erich Raeder was sentenced to life in prison and served nine old ages before being released in 1955. He so died in 1960 at the age of 84. Hjalmar Schacht was found non guilty by the IMT. Later in his life he was convicted by a German tribunal and sentenced to 8 old ages. Schacht died at the age of 93 in 1970. Baldur Von Schirach was sentenced to 20 old ages ; he was released in 1966 and died in 1974 at the age of 67. Albert Speer served 20 old ages and wrote two books about his experiences.
Julius Streicher was a really coarse adult male and despised by most of the suspects. Streicher was hung at Nuremberg.
Julius Streicher ‘s concluding statement:
“ The prosecution had asserted that mass violent deaths [ of Jews ] could non hold been possible without Streicher and his Sturmer.A The prosecution neither offered nor submitted any cogent evidence of this averment. . . .
These actions of the leader of the State [ Hitler ] against the Jews can be explained by the attitude toward the Judaic inquiry, which was exhaustively different from mine.A Hitler wanted to penalize the Jews because he held them responsible for unleashing the war and for the bombardment of the German population. . . . I repudiate the mass violent deaths. . . in the same manner as they are repudiated by every nice German.
Your Awards! A Neither in my capacity as Gauleiter nor every bit political writer have I committed a offense, and I therefore look frontward to your judgement with a good scruples.
I have no petition to do for myself.A I have one for the German people from whom I come.A Your Awards, destiny has given you the power to articulate any judgment.A Do non articulate a judgement which would form the cast of dishonour upon the brow of an full state. ”
All of the people convicted at the Nuremberg Trials were really extremely educated and cognize precisely what they were acquiring into during World War II. Each one of the suspects took there judgements in different ways. Some merely broke down ; others seem to stand strong in the face of decease. The four old ages of the Nuremberg Trials were barbarous for non merely the suspects but for the jury and justice because of the atrocious eyewitness histories of the people who suffered first manus from the Holocaust and other German atrociousnesss. To reason, the Nuremberg Trials was really intriguing to me and I did n’t genuinely understand it till the terminal of this paper.