Were Do The Hungarians Come From History Essay

The Hungarians call themselves Magyarok and the name “ Hungarians ” was given to them by aliens. In the English name – as in name signifiers stemming from the same beginning such as German Ungarn or Gallic Hongrois – one finds a contemplation of the name for a Turkic people, the Onogurs, who one time roamed the steppe of southern Russia in the first millenary C.E. It was under the leading of the Onogurs that the Hungarians migrated to cardinal Europe and into the Pannonian field from the East. The mediaeval chroniclers confounded the name of the Turkic elite with that of the people that came with them, so the Hungarians came to be named after their leaders during the clip of migration. The Hungarians are the lone Finno-Ugrian population that migrated every bit far as cardinal Europe.

There are some 14.5 million Hungarians in the universe of whom 10 million inhabit Hungary. The Hungarians history for 96 per cent of the states population ; among the cultural minorities are ( — – & gt ; ) Roma ( Gypsies ) , ( — – & gt ; ) Germans, ( — – & gt ; ) Romanians, ( — – & gt ; ) Croats and others. The largest group of Hungarians outside Hungary lives in neighbouring Romania, in the part of Transylvania ( 1.4 million ) . Their figure had decreased dramatically during the Communist government. In the early 1980s, Transylvania was still the place of some 2 million Hungarians. Populous Magyar minorities are scattered in other next provinces of the Magyar heartland ; i.e. in Slovakia ( 0.57 million ) , Serbia ( 0.34 million in the independent part of Vojvodina ) , Ukraine ( 0.11 million in the Transcarpathian state of western Ukraine ) , Croatia ( 0.224 million ) , Austria ( 15,000 ) and Slovenia ( 9,500 ) . Some 0.7 million people of Magyar descent live in abroad states, most of them in The United States ( 0.45 million ) .

From the societal and economic point of view, the state of affairs of the Gypsies in Hungary is non balanced. Although their figure, harmonizing to estimations, may transcend half a million – which makes them the most thickly settled of all cultural minorities in Hungary – they are stigmatized because of the prevailing biass and stereotypes in the heads of the Magyar bulk: “ The usual bias portrays Gypsies as undependable, anti-social, and semi-nomadic people – all harmonizing to the stereotypes of the Gypsy traditional knowledge of modern society ” ( Fenyvesi 1998: 152 ) .

The people populating in the portion of Europe that was to go the land of the Hungarians experienced an early displacement to sedentism and agricultural lifeways. The Old Europeans accustomed to agriculture already in the 6th millenary B.C.E. Early agricultural colonies were established along the Middle Danube ( Lengyel civilization ) and in the vale of the river Tisza, a feeder of the Danube ( Tisza civilization ) . These regional civilizations are northern outliers of the Danube civilisation in Southeast Europe ( — – & gt ; Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Romanians ) . Among the grounds for a developed spiritual system in that part are the copiousness of female statuettes, elaborated cult vass and ceremonial gatherings at sacred topographic points ( e.g. Veszto-Magor in eastern Hungary ) . The carriers of the Old European civilization were non kindred to any of the peoples that subsequently came to populate Hungary, the Longobards ( a Germanic people ) and Slavs – both of Indo-European association – , the Avars ( of Turkic stock ) and the Hungarians ( of Finno-Ugrian association ) . Distant soundings of the Old European cultural bequest can be found in certain signifiers of clayware and in some cosmetic motives in fabrics that have persisted.

The beginnings of Magyar ethnicity are connected with the migrations of Finno-Ugrian populations. Since the original fatherland of the Finno-Ugrians is in eastern Europe – that is, west of the Ural mountains – the formation of the Magyar ethnic group is portion of European history. The Hungarians are most closely affiliated with two other Ugrian peoples, the Mansi ( Voguls ) and Khanty ( Ostyaks ) . While the other Ugrian peoples moved into Siberia the Hungarians migrated west. The motive for them to choose for the western way is ill-defined, as is their credence of the Onogur nomads as their leaders. The first Turkic folk to look in the southern steppe were the Huns, followed by others such as Onogurs, Bolgars, Khazars, Avars, Pechenegs, etc. Those mobile groups were good organized and sometimes took the function of a opinion elite for groups of non-Turkic association. One such instance is the partnership between South Slavs in the eastern Balkans who were ruled by a Bolgar Turkic elite from whom they adopted the name, but non the linguistic communication ( — – & gt ; Bulgarians ) . Another instance is the patron-client relationship of Onogurs ( as elite ) and Hungarians that ended with their reaching in Transylvania and Pannonia. The Hungarians maintained their civilization and linguistic communication, and besides their self-given name, while the name of the Turkic elite ( i.e. Onogurs ) was mistakenly transferred to the Onogurs ‘ clients by foreigners.

The Onogurs were the major kin of the Turkic Bolgars who had settled in the country of the Middle Volga in the 7th century C.E. and who are hence called Volga Bolgars. The Magyars joined the Onogurs and acknowledged their leading. The traditional position is that there was merely one migration of the Magyars under Onogur leading from the eastern steppe to the Pannonian field, the heartland of Hungary. Recent findings of the archeology of nomad civilizations suggest that there were two moving ridges of migrations affecting Magyars and Onogurs, one in the 7th century and another in the 9th century. The 2nd migration was decisive for the peopling of Hungary with the Ugrian Magyars. Their legendary leader was Arpad and they came in groups of seven folks. The day of the month for the reaching of the Magyars is given, in Magyar histories, as 896. The business of the land was partially peaceable, partially violent. The entryway to Transylvania had to be earned in battles against the indigens. Those who settled in Hungary prior to the Magyars, Avars and Slavic groups, assimilated fleetly into the bulk population of Ugrian stock within a few coevalss.

In the decennaries after their reaching the Hungarians expanded their country of colony and engaged in boundary line clangs with their western neighbours. In 955, the Hungarians were defeated by the German emperor Otto I, the Great ( reigned 936 – 973 ) , and this event dimmed Magyar aspirations for farther due west pushs. The western ( i.e. Catholic ) tradition of Christianity spread into Magyar lands in the late 10th century and it was proclaimed province faith by Stephen the Saint ( reigned 1000 – 1038 ) . This swayer organized the disposal of his state harmonizing to the Frankish theoretical account, and the district was divided into comitats ( county units ) . As a Christian land, Hungary entered the universe of mediaeval statehood in Europe. Under Stephen ‘s replacements the Hungarian-held district extended far beyond the core country of Magyar colony. In 1102, Croatia entered a brotherhood with Hungary and this brotherhood turned out to go Hungarian-dominated. The lifting power in cardinal Europe managed to retain its independency and to equilibrate political involvements between its two powerful neighbours, the Holy Roman Empire ( i.e. the German province ) in the West and the Byzantine Empire in the East. The reign of king Matthias Corvinus ( reigned 1458 – 1490 ) marked the concluding stage for Hungary as a medieval great power.

Pressure from the Ottoman Turks in the South increased and, in the decisive conflict at Mohacs in 1526, the Magyar ground forces was defeated and the southern parts of Hungary fell to the Turks. The Northwest of the Magyar land came under the control of the Habsburg dynasty. In a series of wars ( from 1683 to 1699 ) the Habsburg ground forcess succeeded in throw outing the Turks from Hungarian district which left the whole state to Habsburg sovereignty. Officially, Hungary continued to be as a land offprint from the Austrian province although Habsburg authorization was felt in all spheres of public life. A lasting docket of struggle with the Austrian was the fright of the Magyar aristocracy to lose any influence on the internal personal businesss of their state. Hungary ‘s factual independency depended on the good-will of the single Habsburg swayers. How existent the fright of the Magyar Lords was to be marginalized became apparent under the regulation of Josef II ( reigned 1780 – 1790 ) . Josef took a base against any signifier of Magyar particularism and favored a run of unfastened Germanization, with linguistic communication usage and disposal as mark countries. This imbalanced political brotherhood of Hungary with Austria remained delicate and it produced resistance, in peaceable and hawkish footings.

The broad motion that was supported by the Magyar aristocracy won bulks and was in the place to put the class for national legislative assembly. The first accomplishment, in 1847, was the abolishment of Latin in official usage and its permutation with the national linguistic communication, Magyar. Political aspirations for republican statehood that flared up with the revolution of 1848-49 were dimmed by the suppression of the Magyar rebellion by an Austrian-Russian confederation. In the old ages following the events of 1848 the Habsburg authorities did non win in accomplishing a balance of involvements. Finally, in 1867, a via media was reached with the installment of a fresh type of reign, the “ double monarchy ” , with two, officially independent authoritiess. Hungary had its ain parliament which retained the right to roll up revenue enhancements. This political dualism, once it had been institutionalized, became functional and lasted until 1918.

Since Austria-Hungary was among the also-rans of World War I there was no authorization that could hold prevented the double monarchy from being dissolved by the masters of the war, Great Britain, France, and The United States. By the Treaty of Trianon ( 1920 ) Hungary was disconnected from Austria and established as an independent democracy. Those parts with non-Hungarian population that had formed portion of the Hungarian monarchy before 1918 were separated and ceded to neighbouring provinces ( e.g. the Vojvodina to Yugoslavia, Transylvania to Romania, Slovakia to Czechoslovakia, etc. ) . Consequently, extraterritorial Magyar minorities became scattered all around Hungary, doing new jobs of coexistence with cultural bulks.

During the intermediate period between the wars the political development was marked by strong chauvinistic tendencies. Expectations for a Restoration of the greater Hungary made Hungary make up one’s mind to side with Nazi Germany during World War II, an option that turned out to go black for Hungary ‘s political hereafter. The state experienced a political alteration from right-wing to leftist radicalism after the terminal of the war. The displacement to a Communist government was affected under Stalinist force per unit area by 1948. The Hungarians, though, were no easy quarry for Stalinist hegemony. The twelvemonth 1956 saw the rebellion of the citizens of Budapest which spread to other parts of Hungary. After hebdomads of street contending Soviet armored combat vehicles crushed the armed opposition and inhumed dreams of release from totalitarian regulation. And yet, the clasp of the Communist government in Hungary – after the events of 1956 – was ne’er every bit tight as in Czechoslovakia or in East Germany. The Magyar leading knew how to maneuver a class of moderate dissent by avoiding unfastened struggle. When the political clime favored change the death of communism was no dramatic event as in Czechoslovakia or Romania. On the 33rd day of remembrance of the Hungarian rebellion of 1956, on 23 October 1989, the Communist government was abolished. This symbolic disintegration of the Soviet-imposed order opened the way into true political independency, after 450 old ages of foreign regulation or backing.

Magyar is a Finno-Ugric linguistic communication and related to Finnish, Estonian and assorted minority linguistic communications in the European portion of Russia ( — – & gt ; Karelians, Komi ) . Together with Mansi and Khanty Hungarian forms the Ugric subdivision. From the point of view of geographical spread Hungarian is the westmost Finno-Ugric linguistic communication in Europe. Although Hungarian has been to a great extent influenced by the linguistic communications with which it has been in contact during more than one thousand old ages of its history in cardinal Europe its Finno-Ugric grammatical constructions have persisted to a great extent. The vocabulary has absorbed 1000s of lexical adoptions from Latin, German and French ; e.g. iskola ‘school ‘ & lt ; Latin schola, pucol ‘to clean ‘ & lt ; German putzen, bonbon ‘sweet ; confect ‘ & lt ; Gallic bonbon. Many of the Gallic loanwords were transferred via German ; e.g. cement ‘cement ‘ & lt ; German Zement & lt ; Gallic ciment/cement.

The genealogical association of Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric linguistic communications had been identified every bit early as the 17th century. The first plant of historical linguistics turn outing Finno-Ugric interconnectednesss originated in the 18th century. Janos Sajnovics, with his survey on Hungarian-Saamic comparings ( 1770 ) , and Samuel Gyarmathi, with his analysis of Hungarian-Samoyedic correspondences ( 1799 ) , laid the scientific basis for Finno-Ugric surveies. The findings of these plants were good received and furthered a consciousness, among the Hungarians, of lingual affinity with the Finns, Saami and other Finno-Ugrian peoples.

Latin was the first written linguistic communication that was on a regular basis used in Hungary, from the eleventh to the 15th century, as chancery linguistic communication and as medium for the erudite elite. Hungarian has been written in two different books. The oldest records of Hungarian, dating to the 9th century, are short letterings in a book which is called in Magyar rovasiras ( ‘carved book ‘ ) . The ways in which letters are carved resemble the Germanic Runes although there is no historical relation between them and the Magyar book. This authorship system besides resembles the book that was used by the Avars in Hungary with which it is attached. Ultimately, the “ Runic ” book of the Turkic people, sometimes referred to as “ Siberian Runes ” , originated in northern Mongolia. The Hungarians may good hold got acquainted with this book in contacts with the Volga Bolgars and the Onogurs. The Magyar Runic book was in usage during the early Middle Ages. It persisted in Transylvania ( among the Szeklers ) into the 12th century.

Magyar has been written, since the 12th century, utilizing the Latin alphabet. Magyar looks and names are found in mediaeval paperss but the first text written wholly in Hungarian, a funerary address ( “ Halotti Beszed ” ) , dates to around 1200. For centuries, the contents of Magyar texts was preponderantly spiritual. During the fifteenth and 16th century a series of histories originated ; among the most of import are the Ehrenfeld Codex ( c. 1440 ) , the Jokai Codex ( 1448 ) , the Vienna Codex ( c. 1450 ) and the Munich Codex ( 1466 ) . The reform motion of the Protestants furthered the usage of Hungarian for composing. The first interlingual rendition of the Bible into Hungarian was done by the Protestant reformist G. Karoli and appeared in 1590. Its influence, though, was marginalized by the publication of the Catholic version of a interlingual rendition of the Bible ( 1604 ) by P. Pazmany. The orthographic norms of modern Hungarian consolidated in the 17th century. Hungary ‘s rank in NATO ( since 1999 ) and in the European Union ( since 2004 ) has revitalized the century-old ties of the Hungarians with western Europe.

Harald Haarmann

Further Reading

Abondolo, Daniel. “ Magyar. ” In The Uralic Languages, erectile dysfunction. Daniel Abondolo, 428-456. London & As ; New York: Routledge, 1998.

Barta, Gabor et Al. History of Transylvania. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado , 1994.

Fenyvesi, Anna. “ Linguistic Minorities in Hungary. ” In Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, eds. Christina Bratt Paulston and Donald Peckham, 135-159. Clevedon, Philadelphia & A ; Toronto: Multilingual Matters, 1998.

Fenyvesi, Anna. ( ed. ) . Magyar Language Contact Outside Hungary: Surveies on Hungarian as a Minority Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005.

Kontra, Miklos. “ Hungary. ” In Contact Linguistics, vol. 2, explosive detection systems. Hans Goebl et al. , 1708-1723. Berlin & A ; New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1997.

Rona-Tas, Andras. Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. An Introduction to Early Magyar History. Budapest & A ; New York: Cardinal European University Press, 1999.

Sugar, Peter F. ( ed. ) . A History of Hungary. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.