The United States And Its Western European Allies History Essay

In response to the perceived rise menaces and the totalitarian nature of Stalin ‘s government which created a big ideological gulf between the US and the Soviet Union, the United States and its Western Alliess were justified in my belief, in their refusal to pacify the Soviet Union. Due to divergent political and ideological differences within their several socialist and capitalist systems, this enacted as a important barrier forestalling both world powers from making a common apprehension, harmoniousness and cooperation. For this ground, the act of calming, defined by British historian Paul Kennedy as being ‘the policy of settling international wrangles by acknowledging and fulfilling grudges through rational dialogue and via media, thereby avoiding the resort to an armed struggle which would be expensive, bloody and perchance unsafe ‘ , was non a suited agencies of forestalling Soviet enlargement in the post-war bipolar international system. Furthermore, detecting the hurts of the calming policy employed by France and Britain in WWII, whereby the two former world powers suffered a decline in their economic and military power before a revanchist Germany, the US realised that calming would be ruinous for its critical involvements and would be counterproductive. Hence, in declining to pacify Stalin, the policy of containment was executed in order to forestall Soviet enlargement and laterality piece at a minimum cost to the United States and her Alliess.

Originally proposed by Kennan in the ‘Long Telegram ‘ in 1946, the policy of containment denoted America ‘s military, political and economic agencies by which to defy and restrict Soviet expansionism. In his comparing of the USSR ‘s expansionist regulation as being ‘a fluid watercourse which moves invariably, wherever it is permitted to travel, toward a given end… it ‘s chief concern is to do certain that is has filled every nook and crevice available to it in the basin of universe power ‘ , Kennan suggests the aggression of Soviet political policy in that their willingness exploit every possible chance to project their influence on the domains of the universe. In effort to accomplish U.S. control over the planetary security environment, the aim of containment was to construct ‘an international order made up of independent Centres of power, in which states subject to Soviet force per unit area would hold both the agencies and the will to defy it themselves ‘ . This is reinforced in his statement ‘a political force committed fanatically to the belief that with the US there can be no lasting modus vivendi, that it is desirable and necessary that the internal harmoniousness of our society be disrupted, our traditional manner of life be destroyed, the international authorization of our province be broken, if Soviet power is to be unafraid ‘ . This statement by Kennan Acts of the Apostless to pronounce and warrant the United States refusal to pacify with the Soviet government. In his Memoirs, Kennan notes that ‘ … there were merely five parts of the world-the US, the UK, the Rhine Valley… , the Soviet Union and Japan- where the tendon of modern military strength could be produced in measure, I pointed out that merely one of these were under Communist control, and I defined the chief undertaking of containment, consequently, as one of seeing to it that none of the staying 1s fell under such control ‘ . In order to accomplish this aim, Gaddis indicates that several phases are needed, that is, the Restoration of the balance of power in countries threatened by Soviet expansionism and the decrease of Soviet influence beyond its boundary lines. These steps were enforced through assorted philosophies and international understandings.

Becoming progressively neurotic about Soviet infiltration, this policy is facilitated through the Truman philosophy which was used to counter the Soviet influence. In the perceptual experience of American policy shapers, the function of the Soviet Union could be slightly paralleled to Germany ‘s behavior antecedently in the interwar period. This perceptual experience of a hostile Soviet union that refused to let provinces to put in their ain system of authoritiess which were in any manner but compliant to the dictates of Moscow and its aspirations for Continental hegemony was viewed by the Western universe, in peculiarly the United States as endangering the peace of the universe and was met with cautiousness. Nevertheless, the Truman disposal merely felt a irresistible impulse to respond when the Soviet Union crossed the line distinguishing the domains of influence. This occurred between 1945-47 when in Iran where Great Britain proceeded to work the militias of crude oil found at that place. However, when the Persian authorities received a petition by the Soviet ‘s for entree to the oil, this was interpreted by the Western states as a co-ordinated attempt to obtain dominant control if the state and its resources. Arguably, although I believe that this is an overreaction to the Soviet petition, recognizing it as being a merchandise of this period of cautiousness, paranoia and opposition and with the aim of forestalling communist enlargement, this observation obtained by the United States and her Alliess do hold a justifiable relevancy.

The Truman Doctrine was enforced once more in Greece and Turkey following the power vacuity left in the Balkans and South West Asia, instilled by the autumn of Pax Brittanica. Viewed as being in a place of being filled by Soviet influence and domination, as indicated by the Communist motions in both states, this was responded to fleetly by Truman who instantly sent in American aid. In the context of the cold war, this early response was peculiarly of import as ‘the failure of the West to forestall a communist coup d’etat in Greece would non merely put the Russians on a peculiarly unsafe wing for the Turks, but strengthen the Soviet Union ‘s ability to cut off allied supplies and aid in the event of a war ‘ . As a justification for this action, Truman indicated that such ‘totalitarian ‘ governments marked a menace to international peace and national security of United States and her Western Alliess. However, there were resistance to the Truman Doctrine, in the belief that the US entirely could non incorporate Soviet dictatorship and keep the safety of the ‘free ‘ provinces.

As another US effort to forestall the enlargement of the Communist government, the Marshall Plan functioned to incorporate the turning Soviet influence in Europe, in peculiarly in France, Italy and Czechoslovakia where the Communist parties were turning in strength. It ensured the Reconstruction of Europe, taking to retrieve the political and economic system underlying Europe in order to oppose the Communist menaces infiltrating at that place and destabilize its balance of power with US aid. This policy required the economic cooperation of all the state states involved and was strongly supported by Kennan who perceived the chief menace to the United States as being Soviet hegemony instead than communism. However, this proposition of freedom in respects to goods, information services and people was rejected by Stalin as he regarded it as being antithetical to his ain political and economic mentality. In Stalin ‘s desire to beef up its place in Europe and the United States fright of Soviet Union domination in Europe, this was an appropriate effort to fit Europe with the agencies necessary to avoid Soviet influence and aggression in the part.

To guarantee farther the public assistance and security of the provinces, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed in April 1949 between Britain, France, the United States, Canada and several other western European states. As the first formal confederation entered into by the US, this represented a displacement from their one-sided policy and a austere involvement in European personal businesss. Keylor advocates that NATO was instigated by a common fright of Soviet aggression instead than by the sharing of common beliefs. This confederation go arounding around impressions of corporate security denoted that an onslaught against one was to be considered against them all, and would be met by with an appropriate force. Despite the pact ‘s nonsubjective to keep stableness and keep Soviet force per unit area, Kennan opposed the policy take a firm standing that it was unneeded. Other historiographers besides criticise this step as being initiated by an over-reaction to what was perceived as Soviet aggression, and merely served to intensify the international tensenesss and rift in US and USSR dealingss during the cold war period. However, holding observed the desperate effects of calming earlier in WWII, this response of containment and disincentive is justified when placed in its historical context which was defined by bipolarity, instability and strive for laterality. There is besides the affecting affair of conflicting involvements whereby, Stalin thought he had a right to protect Russia ‘s concerns in Eastern Europe.

Another policy bespeaking the United State ‘s refusal to pacify Stalin dictatorship is the top secret policy program NSC-98 which was demonstrative of a move from inactive to a more active containment. This policy was much more forceful with its primary aims inherently directed to defy farther enlargement of Soviet power and reenforce the ‘seeds of devastation within the Soviet system ‘ in order to oblige the Soviet Union to be dissuaded from its socialist government towards the political orientations of a few Western society. This philosophy besides called for promotions in American atomic capableness and the production of thermonuclear arms in order to support itself, if necessary, against the Soviet menace which was perceived by the West as holding the aim of being the individual dominant power. This policy can be seen as being a merchandise of hyperbole to the Soviet menace which alternatively resulted in the governing out of peaceable and diplomatic colonies. However, warranting this Paul Nitze provinces that Soviet behavior was declarative of an intended aggressive attempt to accomplish domination. Sing its historic context, despite its failings, this method of opposition taken by Truman was an appropriate response to the struggles of the epoch.

Under the Truman disposal, dramatic stairss have been implemented to defy and cut down the Soviet power projection. In Shapiro ‘s statement, ‘you do what is needed to halt the bully without going a bully, but you must make what is needed to halt the tough ‘ , he highlights Stalin ‘ Soviet Union as being the ‘bully ‘ and recapitulates the policy of containment as being grounded in impressions of disincentive and bar where Soviet actions entailed a subsequent reaction from the US. Hence, the United States and her Western Alliess took appropriate steps in order to forestall the lifting menace of the Soviet Union. Despite statements that these reactions were ‘exaggerated ‘ , when considered within their historic context of east-west competition and common perceptual experiences of hostile enterprises between assorted confederations, the United States refusal to ‘appease ‘ Stalin and his aims are a justifiable agencies of forestalling Soviet domination and the destabilization of the balance of power. Word Count: 1741

Keylor, W.R 2006, The Twentieth Century World and Beyond, 5th edn, Oxford University Press

Shapiro, I 2007, Containment, Princeton University Press

Pearson, R 2002, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, 2nd edn, Palgrave

McGhee, G 1990, The US- Turkish-NATO Middle East Connection: How the Truman Doctrine Contained the Soviets in the Middle East, St Martin ‘s Press, pp. G. 21

Gaddis, J.L 1997, Foreign Affairs, Council on Foreign Relations, pp. 838-887

Fakiolas, Efstathios T. 1998, Kennan ‘s Long Telegram and NSC-68: A Comparative Analysis, East European Quarterly, Vol. 31, no. 4