The Theory Of Solar Energy Engineering Essay

The theory of solar energy transition is a modern scientific discipline that came into being in 1970s. In order to provide to our of all time turning energy demands, assorted surveies have been undertaken in recent times to research agencies of developing efficient solar energy discoursing techniques. The sum of energy that comes on Earth from the Sun is of amazing quantum-in one second the Sun provides around 1017 Js of energy to Earth besides it is every bit surprising to cognize that the Sun provides every bit much energy to the Earth in one hr that humans need yearly. The rate at which the Earth receives solar energy from Sun is 1.2A A-A 105 terawatts whereas the production rate of energy on Earth by man-made techniques is simply 13TW. The quantum of solar energy though received by Earth is unprecedented but the same is non efficaciously used to provide the energy demands of the civilisation. The non-renewable beginnings of energy like fossil fuels are still used as a major beginning to fulfill the energy demands worldwide. Through the procedure of burning dodo fuels are turned into utile energy but they tend to bring forth assorted nursery gases and other pollutants doing certain jeopardies to the environment. Assorted facts about solar energy cited below makes it more appealing than any other energy beginning:

The untapped potency of the solar energy could be harnessed by transition of solar energy into electricity. Today assorted surveies on energy transition based on nanomaterials focus on such transition.

The Solar Cells by and large known as photovoltaic cells are used to change over sunshine into electricity straight which is known as the photovoltaic consequence. In 1839 a Gallic physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered the procedure of utilizing sunshine to bring forth an electric current in a solid stuff. But it took assorted surveies and research plants for more than a century to really understand the practical deductions of this procedure. Scientists finally learned that the photoelectric or photovoltaic consequence caused certain stuffs to change over light energy into electrical energy at the atomic level..Photovoltaic cells consists of two or more thin beds of semi-conducting stuffs. Silicon is the most normally used semi-conducting stuff used in photovoltaic cells. Now a yearss, Solar panels have proved their public-service corporation in both the residential solar power coevals every bit good as for public-service corporation scale power workss. When the surface of the cells faces the Sun, the negatrons absorb the solar energy in two different semiconducting materials which in bend creates the electric current.

When solar energy is reflected by the Sun on the PV cells, the full energy is non absorbed immediately. Certain sum of sunshine is absorbed and the remainder might be reflected or passed right through. The quantum of electricity generated depends upon the soaking up degree of the PV cells. The PV cells transforms the energy absorbed from the Sun into the negatrons of the atoms nowadays in the semiconducting material stuff of the cell. With this injection of fresh energy, the negatrons starts traveling in the atoms and go portion of the electrical flow, or current, in an electrical circuit.

There is broad assortment of the form and sizes of the PV cells runing from from smaller than a postage cast to several inches across. They are frequently connected together to organize PV faculties that may be up to several pess long and a few pess broad.

Faculties is a term used to mention to an array of photovoltaic cells that are grouped together for the intent of making an energy flow and they are capable of keeping about 40 cells. The faculties of the array make up the major portion of a PV system, which can besides include electrical connexions, mounting hardware, power-conditioning equipment, and batteries that shop solar energy for usage when the Sun is non reflecting.

In the procedure of bring forthing electricity for a edifice atleast 10 such faculties need to be mounted together, the figure of faculties need to be increased for bring forthing electricity for large buildings like power works. The 80 MW Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant in Canada, is the universe ‘s largest photovoltaic works.

Practical devices

Now a yearss assorted semiconducting materials are used in the fabrication procedure of solar cells. They are explained below.

aˆ? Crystalline Si cells They are the most common PV cells that are used for commercial intents. Crystalline Si cells are made of Si atoms that consists 14 negatrons, connected to one another to organize a crystal lattice. This lattice comprises the solid stuff that forms the photovoltaic ( PV ) cell ‘s semiconducting materials. To cut down the cost, these cells are now frequently made from multicrystalline stuff, instead than from the more expensive Si crystals.

Figure 1 construction of Si cell beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //

The faculties have long life-time ( 20 old ages or more ) and their best production efficiency is

nearing 18 % .

aˆ? Amorphous Si solar cells These solar cells arranged in the signifier of formless thin movies. They cost less than the crystalline Si cells but their efficiency is besides low.

aˆ? Cadmium telluride and Cu In diselenide

aˆ? Ga arsenide, indium phosphide or their derived functions are besides used to bring forth high efficiency solar cells which are typically used in specialized applications, for illustration, to power orbiters or in systems which operate under high-intensity concentrated sunshine.

Figure Different PV stuffs have different energy set spreads. Photons with energy equal to the set spread energy are absorbed to make free negatrons. Photons with less energy than the set spread energy base on balls through the stuff. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Facts about Solar Energy Collectors

This method is used to heat the edifices in winters. First of all solar panels are installed on the roof of the edifice. These panels along with heating up the edifice besides heats up the H2O pipes being carried in it throughout thereby maintaining the H2O heated up inside the building.The energy that we get from the Sun is used to heat H2O.

There are two chief parts of solar H2O heating systems: a solar aggregator and a storage armored combat vehicle. Storage aggregator is a level plated thin rectangular box confronting the Sun installed on the roof of the edifice. The solar energy heats up the absorber home base in it which so heats up the H2O running through tubings within the aggregator.

Facts about Solar Energy Concentrator

Solar energy can besides be converted into electricity indirectly through concentrated solar power ( CPS ) .Under this method, mirror constellations are used to change over the solar energy into electricity. At first the mirrors are equipped that reflect and concentrate sunshine onto receiving systems that collect solar energy and change over it to heat. This thermic energy can so be used to bring forth electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator. Assorted concentrating techniques are available which include the followers:

the parabolic trough

the concentrating additive Fresnels reflector

the stirling dish

the solar power tower

However the parabolic trough technique is the most normally used. Under this technique, The sunshine is concentrated by parabolically curved mirrors onto a receiving system pipe. This pipe runs along the interior of the curving surface. The working fluid in the pipes gets heated up and a conventional generator is used to bring forth electricity. The significance of this system lies in the fact that big country of sunshine is focused into a little beam by utilizing lenses and mirrors. During daytime, in order to track the Sun from E to west the troughs in the aggregator are aligned on a north-south axis.

Figure 2This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 Suns. This system can be used for big Fieldss connected to the public-service corporation grid, H coevals, or H2O pumping. Beginning: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464

The solar concentrators are typically based on either one axis trailing or 2 axis tracking systems. Systems with one axis tracking concentrate the sunshine onto an absorber tubing in the focal line of the concentrator, whereas two-axis tracked system focus the beams of the Sun onto an absorber at the focal point.A

The virtue of solar concentrators as a technique of solar transition is its capacity to govern out the effects of heat stagnancy. In conventional aggregator systems, in instance of a failure of a constituent if the extra heat is non removed a standstill occurs. In those instances certain immediate actions were required like enlargement of vass etc so that temperature do non transcend the acceptable bounds. Whereas a trailing system is used in the solar that make usage of safety control routines that defocus the aggregator to avoid transcending stagnancy temperatures. However, it is suggested to put in certain safety devices, such as flow index, in order to supervise the flow of heat transportation fluid through the absorber, and therefore the remotion of heat, before the aggregator is focused, in order to avoid overheating the system.

A CPS works could be installed in either of the undermentioned versions:

Linear concentrator system

Dish/engine system

Power tower systems

Thermal storage systems

Smaller CSP systems can be located straight where power is needed. For illustration, individual dish/engine systems can bring forth 3 to 25 kWs of power and are good suited for distributed applications. A individual CSP works can bring forth adequate power for approximately 90,000 places.

The 354 MW SEGS Concentrated solar power works, California is the largest solar power works in the universe.Other CSP ‘s include the Solnova Solar Power Station ( 150 MW ) and the Andasol solar power station ( 100 MW ) both in Spain.

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency

The ratio of the quantum of solar energy absorbed by the PV device and the sum of electrical power generated out of it depicts the transition efficiency of the photovoltaic ( PV ) cell, or solar cell. The cardinal challenge of assorted research undertakings is to device steps to heighten this transition efficiency.

Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency

Major ball of the solar energy that is absorbed by the PV cells is lost before the transition into electricity. But certain features of solar cell stuffs besides limit a cell ‘s efficiency to change over the sunshine it receives.

Wavelength of Light

Around 55 % of entire solar energy delivered by the Sun on the PV cells remain unutilized. The ground being the mismatch between the energy delivered and the bandgap of the stuff used in the PV cells. Bandgap is the minimal sum of energy needed to liberate an negatron from its bond, and this energy differs among semiconducting material stuffs. When the energy from the Sun is below this bandgap, no electricity is produced by PV cells. Light is composed of photons-or packages of energy-that scope in wavelength. When PV cells come under direct contact of sunlight some photons are either reflected or merely base on balls through the stuff but do non come in the cell. Out of the photons absorbed, some have adequate energy to bring forth heat, and some have adequate energy to divide negatrons from their atomic bonds to bring forth charge carriers-negative negatrons and positive holes.

The primary ground PV cells are non 100 % efficient is because they can non react to the full spectrum of sunshine. Photons with energy less than the stuff ‘s bandgap are non absorbed, which wastes about 25 % of incoming energy. The energy content of photons above the bandgap is wasted surplus-re-emitted as heat or light-and histories for an extra loss of about 30 % . Therefore, the inefficient interactions of sunshine with cell stuff waste about 55 % of the original energy.


In a solar cell negatrons and holes act as charge bearers. At times they both recombine suddenly before they make it into the electrical circuit and contribute to the cell ‘s current. In the procedure of direct recombination the light-generated negatrons and holes encounter each other on random footing. This proves as a drawback for certain stuffs. Besides, in the procedure of indirect recombination the charge bearers encounter issues like dross, defect in the crystal construction, or interface or surface that makes it easier for them to recombine. This besides leads to efficiency impairment of the stuff.

Natural Resistance

The efficiency of a cell is proportionally related to the natural opposition to electron flow in it. These losingss preponderantly occur in three topographic points: in the majority of the primary solar stuff, in the thin top bed typical of many devices, and at the interface between the cell and the electrical contacts taking to an external circuit.


The stuff belongingss of a solar cell predict that the low temperatures are best suited for efficient working of the cell. The efficiency of the stuff in a cell is reciprocally related to the operating temperatures which implies that when the operating temperature is high, the efficiency of the solar cell deteriorates. Much of the light energy reflecting on cells becomes heat, so it is good to either fit the cell stuff to the operation temperature or continually cool the cell.


Out of the entire solar energy delivered on the solar cells, simply 45 % is absorbed by the cells. The remainder of the energy is reflected off from the cell ‘s surface and is non at all put to any usage. For illustration, untreated Si reflects more than 30 % of incident visible radiation. A basic expression to maximise the efficiency of the cell is to minimise this contemplation thereby increasing the soaking up degree of the cells.

In order to maximise the soaking up of the solar energy by the cells assorted antireflection engineerings could be used explained below:

Coating: Most normally, a particular coating is applied to the top bed of the cell. A individual antireflective bed will efficaciously cut down contemplation merely at one wavelength. Better consequences, over a wider scope of wavelengths, are possible with multiple antireflective beds.

Texture: Another manner to cut down contemplation is to texture the top surface of the cell, which causes reflected light to strike a 2nd surface before it can get away, therefore increasing the chance of soaking up. If the forepart surface is textured into pyramid forms for antireflection, all incident visible radiation is dead set so that it strikes the polished-but otherwise untreated-back surface of the cell at an angle. This texturing causes light to be reflected back and Forth within the cell until it is wholly absorbed.

Electrical Resistance

Larger electrical contacts can minimise electrical opposition, but covering a cell with big, opaque metallic contacts would barricade excessively much incident visible radiation. Therefore, a trade off must be made between loss due to resistance and loss due to shadowing effects. Typically, top-surface contacts are designed as grids, with many thin, conductive fingers spread over the cell ‘s surface. However, it is hard to bring forth a grid that maintains good electrical contact with a cell while besides defying impairment caused by alterations in temperature or humidness. By and large, the back-surface contact of a cell is simpler, frequently being merely a bed of metal. Other designs for electrical contacts include puting everything on the cell ‘s back surface, or, as in some thin movies, lodging a thin bed of a transparent carry oning oxide across the full cell.

Determining Conversion Efficiency

In order to calculate the quantum of electrical energy a PV device could bring forth research workers use I-V curves. This curve reflects the public presentation of the PV device. I-V curve shows the Current-voltage ( I-V ) relationships which step the electrical features of PV devices. For the intent of obtaining the I-V curve, the solar cell is exposed to changeless degree of solar energy while restraints such as cell temperature, burden opposition are adjusted. In this procedure, the cell temperature is maintained changeless, opposition of the burden is varied and the current so generated is measured while maintaining the solar cell in uninterrupted light supply.

On an I-V secret plan, the perpendicular axis refers to current, and the horizontal axis refers to voltage. The existent I-V curve typically passes through two important points:

The short-circuit current ( Isc ) is the current produced when the positive and negative terminuss of the cell are short-circuited and the electromotive force between the terminuss is zero, which corresponds to a burden opposition of nothing.

The open-circuit electromotive force ( Voc ) is the electromotive force across the positive and negative terminuss under open-circuit conditions when the current is zero, which corresponds to a burden opposition of eternity.

Assorted combinations of electromotive forces and currents could look over the life clip of the cell. In order to find the highest efficiency point of the cell, the cell temperature is kept changeless and the burden opposition is varied from nothing ( a short circuit ) to eternity ( an unfastened circuit ) . At this point the cell delivers maximal power. As power is the merchandise of electromotive force times current so, the point picturing maximal power of the cell ( Pm ) , besides happens to be the point where the merchandise of current times electromotive force is a maximal. This point represents the maximal efficiency of the solar device at change overing sunshine into electricity

At the points of short-circuit current with no electromotive force and at open-circuit electromotive force with no current no energy is generated by the cells.



After the transition of the solar energy into electricity it becomes imperative to hold proper agencies to hive away it to hold uninterrupted supply of electricity even when the sunshine is non available. Broadly talking the solar electricity could be stored either through integrating with the grid of the public-service corporation company or supplying solar batteries to bank the electricity.

GRID Storage

This system of storage is used when electricity is being stored on a really big graduated table. The excess electricity generated in the extremum hours get stored in the grid which can be withdrawn whenever required.


When long power outages from the grid is predicted so battery bank is used to hive away the electricity produced from the solar energy. This manner of storage is every bit easy as hooking up the batteries to the transmittal grid and the extra solar power can so be stored in the batteries. This is one of the most efficient ways to hive away power, because rechargeable batteries can hive away the extra electricity for a longer continuance of clip. When the solar-electricity is produced, it is sent to the batteries where it gets converted into chemical energy and is stored in a liquid signifier. At the clip of recovering the electricity from the battery, an electric charge is produced to trip a chemical procedure to change over energy back in the signifier of negatrons. Assorted types of batteries are available to hive away solar-electric energy and are used in different application countries:

Vanadium oxidation-reduction flow battery

Under Vanadium oxidation-reduction flow battery electrical energy is stored in two armored combat vehicles of electrolytes, or fluids that conducts electricity. Such batteries could be used as storage backup for a clip span of 12 hours besides these batteries could be used in incorporating solar power in a residential vicinity or at several big industrial sites. At the clip of energy demand the liquid is pumped from one armored combat vehicle to another through a steady procedure after which the chemical energy from the electrolyte is transformed to electrical energy.

Besides, during peak periods this procedure gets reversed and the extra energy gets stored in the battery. The size of the armored combat vehicle and its capacity to keep the electrolyte influences the quantum of energy that could be stored in the battery.

Sodium-beta aluminum oxide membrane battery

Under the sodium-beta aluminum oxide membrane battery S and Na are peculiarly used which serves the intent of bear downing and dispatching the electricity in/from the battery. The battery ‘s nucleus is made up of aluminium oxide dwelling of Na ions. The battery is built in cannular design and has the capacity to hive away tonss of energy in a little infinite. This battery is best suited for powering electric vehicles because of its high energy denseness, rapid rate of charge and discharge and short, powerful explosions of energy.

However, as the battery operates at high temperatures it has been suggested to modify the form of the battery in order to repair the safety issues and besides to better the efficiency.

Lithium-ion battery

By and large Lithium-ion, or Li-ion batteries are used in family appliances and electric vehicles. These batteries are made up of different elements like Li, manganese and Co. These are best suited for transit applications because of their high energy and power capacity potency.The battery works when positively charged Li ions migrate through a liquid electrolyte, while negatrons flow through an external circuit, both traveling back and Forth from one side to the other. This motion creates and shops energy.

Lead-carbon battery

The Lead-carbon batteries are normally used as back-up generators and in cars. Assorted surveies have shown that the lifetime of the traditional lead-acid batteries can be improved by adding C in it. Besides, such lead-carbon batteries have high concentrated power which make them suited for beginning for solar power. In a normal lead-acid battery, sulphuric acid reacts with the lead anode and cathode to make lead sulphate in the procedure of discharge. The procedure reverses during charge. With clip the battery ‘s nucleus gets filled up with lead sulphate due to crystallisation. This procedure of crystallisation can be prevented by adding C to the battery thereby heightening the life of the battery.

The pick of utilizing a peculiar battery from the above explained few depends upon the nature of application and the budget of the undertaking.

A aggregation of affiliated 2- , 6- , or 12-volt batteries that supply power to the works in instance of outages or low production of electricity is known as a battery bank. In order to bring forth the current these batteries are wired together and a series is formed thereby bring forthing 12- , 24- , or 48-volt strings. These strings are so connected together in analogue to do up the full battery bank. The battery bank supplies DC power to an inverter, which produces AC power that can be used to run contraptions. Factors like inverter ‘s input, type of battery selected sum of energy storage required determines the size of the battery bank.

At the clip of installing of new battery, it is suggested to look into its life rhythm and the figure of deep discharges it will be able to supply in future. Besides the thickness of lead home bases need to be checked upon as the life of battery depends upon the thickness of the home bases.


The normal life of batteries is around 10-15 old ages irrespective of the sum of their use as the acid in the battery wears down the internal constituents of the battery. In order to maintain the battery working over its full life following patterns must be undertaken:

1. Deep discharging of batteries in perennial intervals must be avoided. The life of a battery is negatively correlated with the figure of times it is discharged i.e. the more a battery is discharged, the shorter its life-time. The other manner out to repair this job is by increasing the size of the battery bank.In order to back up deep discharge of batteries every twenty-four hours, the size of battery bank must be increased.

2. Batteries must be kept at rated temperatures. Battery life is rated for 70°-75° temperatures. Keeping batteries warmer than this significantly reduces their life. Passive solar is a great manner to heat a battery storage unit, but it must be good insulated. Keeping the batteries cooler than 70°-75° will non significantly widen their life but will cut down their capacity. Discharged batteries may stop dead and split, so keep an equal charge on the batteries in cold conditions.

3. Maintain the same charge in all the batteries. Although the full series of batteries may hold an overall charge of 24 Vs, some cells may hold more or less electromotive force than neighbouring batteries.

4. Inspection of batteries at regular intervals is besides required to maintain a path of escape ( buildup on the exterior of the battery ) , appropriate fluid degrees ( for flooded batteries ) , and equal electromotive force.


The solar electricity generated by the procedure of solar transition can be used in assorted applications. One illustration of utilizing such energy is in running the motors. When sunbeams falling on the solar panel are tapped and converted into electrical energy so direct current is produced. The dc electrical power is so used to run motors. The power could be obtained by the motor either straight from the solar panel or it could be indirectly powered by the solar panel through a battery.

When a parallel circuit is set up dwelling of a motor and a battery and a solar panel is installed through which the battery gets charged, dc electric energy is generated from the battery and the motor starts working.

In figure below panel a shows how motor works when District of Columbia electric energy is acquired straight from the solar panel and transferred to the motor through wires. Panel B of the figure shows the how the solar energy is tapped in the signifier of District of Columbia electric energy preserved in the battery. When the solar panel converts the energy from the Sun into District of Columbia electric energy, the same is transferred to the batteries through wires. Besides, a resistance and rectifying tube is installed in the circuit. The former controls the flow of electrical energy through the wires and the latter Acts of the Apostless like a security valve and proctors the motion of the electrical energy from the battery. It ensures that the electrical energy would non travel out of the battery to the solar panel in the absence of visible radiation.

Figure 3 panel a panel B beginning:

Figure 2 below demonstrate working of the motor when battery is incorporated in the circuit and the motor acquires the dc electrical energy from the battery inspite of acquiring it straight from the solar panels.

Figure 2 beginning:

The solar energy is converted into dc electrical energy when the first switch is powered away and the 2nd 1 is switched on besides the same is transferred to the battery through the wires. Besides, in order to run the motor, the 2nd switch is powered on and the first 1 is switched off by which the District of Columbia electric power so stored in the battery gets transferred to the motor.

The recent development in the application of solar panels is deploying the energy so accumulated through solar transition in running vehicles. The photovoltaic cells are used to transforms the solar energy into electrical power which run the vehicles. Although Sun is the major beginning of energy that makes these autos work, the other major constituents includes solar array, batteries, power trackers, motor, accountant. The function of each constituent in running the auto is explained below:

Solar Array and Power Trackers

The solar array is the basic equipment in solar autos, it absorbs the solar energy and generates electrical power. The weight of the solar array depends on the composing of the solar cells in the array. In order to acquire a lighter solar array single solar cells are preferred over prefabricated solar panels. A solar cell consists of a thin sheet of extremist pure monocrystalline Si and works on an mean 20 % efficiency degree which implies that out of the entire solar energy which is absorbed by the panel 20 % is converted into electricity. The quantum of cells to be used depends upon their size and the allowable solar country. The solar cells are grouped on the panel, wired across organizing a series split into assorted zones depending upon their Numberss. The advantages of organizing such zones is that in instance one zone fails, the motor would non breakdown as the staying zones on the panel would go on to bring forth the power. When sunlight hits the solar panels, photons ( or light atoms ) energize the negatrons inside the panel, and the negatrons start traveling from one bed of solar cells to another. This energetic motion between beds of solar cells generates the electrical current.

The power trackers monitors the energy generated by the solar arrays, it transforms the extra energy into the system electromotive force whereby it is stored in the batteries. The presence of power trackers in the auto eliminates the necessity of fiting the electromotive force of solar array with that of the system electromotive force as this undertaking is done by the power trackers.

In the absence of sunshine, the power trackers align the power to fit with the system electromotive force guaranting the efficient working of the system.


Batteries are the storage hub where all the power generated by the solar arrays is preserved and is used to run the motor. Assorted types of batteries are available including lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium batteries. Out of the above the lead-acid batteries are most preferable because of their broad handiness and low-priced scope. Besides, there is an option to take between the flooded-cell batteries or gel-cell batteries. The former are filled with liquid sulphuric acid and are widely used in automotive intents. Although they are bulky in weight as compared to the gel-cell batteries but the advantage they offer is that they do non transport the hazard of being blowing up in instance they are overcharged. The gel-cell are weighted less and are sealed batteries but their electromotive force demand to be continuously monitored at the clip of bear downing. The motor electromotive force is considered as cardinal factor while make up one’s minding the figure of batteries to be used. The batteries with higher amphours have high storage capacity.

Motor & A ; Controller

When the energy is stored in the batteries, the motor and motor accountant make it available to run the auto. The accountant supervises the sum of energy that flows to the motor to match to the accelerator and that energy is utilized by the motor to travel the wheels. By and large, the Motor accountants are fitted on the wheel of the auto and they are responsible in reassigning the DC power from the batteries or solar panels into AC electricity for the motor. By seting the frequence of the AC end product, the velocity of the motor is controlled.

Besides, one could utilize DC brush magnet motor or a brushless motor. The former tallies on an norm of 80-90 % efficiency and is cost effectual. The latter plants on an mean 94-99 % efficiency degree. It is advisable to utilize such motor and accountant set up that incorporates regenerative braking system, whereby there is a range of seting back the energy into the batteries in the event of driving the auto downhill.


The major issue under instrumentality lies in ciphering the precise estimation about the followers:

System electromotive force

Amp draw

Battery energy staying

clip staying until the battery is out of energy.

In order to acquire information about the above elements, an E-meter is put to utilize. It digitally displays the information about the figure of amp-hours staying in the battery. In add-on to it, a speed indicator could be used in this respect. In order to supervise the electromotive force of the battery a voltmeter could be installed for each battery. Depending upon the burden on the battery, the electromotive force of the battery will be depicted on the voltmeter.

Steering & A ; Suspension

In order to guarantee the safety and stableness of the auto, the guidance of the forepart wheels is suggested. Besides suspension is required in order to protect the solar array from jars and to guarantee a stable drive.

Brake systems

The mechanical brake systems are less preferable than disc brakes which are hydraulic lines and are easier to run to the wheels. However, when the interruption force per unit area is released the brake tablets do non endorse off from the brake rotors and exercise some retarding force on the system which can turn out unhealthy for the operation of the solar auto as a whole.

Tires & A ; Hubs

The distance going capacity of the solar auto depends upon the turn overing opposition of the tyres of the auto. Solar autos require high force per unit area thin tyres and they are mounted on specially made wheels and necessitate usage made hubs.

Body of the auto

In order to maximise the efficiency of the solar auto, following parametric quantities must be considered:

Weight: for the intent of doing the most of the power, support constituents used and offer protection to the residents it is advisable to keep the auto as much less bulky as possible.

Aerodynamic -it helps in minimising the loss of energy caused due to weave opposition and increases the efficiency

Surface country – a big level country is required for put ining the maximal figure of solar panels in the auto.


The undermentioned stairss incorporate the process of transition of a fuel based auto into a solar 1. The 6 solar panels are installed on garage roof, with batteries and inverter in garage.


The initial measure in change overing the fuel auto into solar is to take the fuel engine and other constituents like radiator, tailpipe, silencer, etc


In order to construct battery racks in the auto, angle and square tube are used. The batteries preserved in the rack at rear are sealed in fictile container with fan wash uping under vehicle during bear downing.


With the aid of a shaft coupling, electric motor is mounted to the arranger home base. In order to look into the alignment attempt to run the motor on a really slow velocity. In add-on, it is required to put in velocity accountant, throttle Box and contactor in the auto.

Measure 4: Main Wiring

For the intent of linking the batteries in series and from contactor to rush accountant to drive welding overseas telegrams are used. Throttle box is connected to overseas telegram from gas pedal and wired to rush accountant. Ignition switch controls chief contactor.

Measure 5: ADDITIONAL Wiring

A DC Converter is mounted and wired to 12 V auto battery which has the capacity to alter 72volts to 12volts ( to run headlamps etc ) .Also, a 120 V Battery courser is connected to chief battery bank, and mounted in dorsum of auto. Volt and ammeter mounted and wired.

Measure 6: Solar PANEL SET UP

Build saddle horses for solar panels from 1/2 ” conduit and 2 by 4. Wire 6 panels together inside amalgamate electrical box. Run big gage wire from box into garage.

Measure 7: Garage SET UP

The charge accountant transfers the power generated by the solar panels into the batteries. It besides keeps the batteries from soaking. On an mean 30 As of power is generated through the solar panels on a clear twenty-four hours.

A 1000 W inverter is connected to battery bank with big gage wire. Cars 120 V courser is connected to inverter.

The measure -by-step process explained above has proved really utile in carry oning pilot undertakings for the transition of fuel based auto into solar 1s.


In order to replace fossil fuels with the solar energy as a possible replacement of the beginning of energy, accent should be given in developing better transition techniques. The widespread possible solar energy is still untapped because of the ground of cost and transition capacity. The fossil fuels are concentrated on specific countries therefore utilizing them to fulfill the energy demands is cost effectual. Besides, the efficiency of the transition techniques lags far behind the minimal acceptable bounds. The best crystal Si solar cells are simply 18 % efficient. The staying solar cells based on other organic affairs like dye sensitisation of oxide semiconducting materials etc are maximal 10 % efficient. This is a great technological challenge that requires investing of larger fiscal and rational resources to happen advanced solutions.

Understanding and researching the practical deductions of the nanoscale phenomena has become imperative in order to develop cost effectual, high efficiency transition techniques.


The figure depicts the three coevalss of solar cells. First-generation cells are made up of the expensive Si wafers and do up 85 % of the current commercial market. Assorted organic affairs like formless Si, nanocrystalline Si, Cd telluride, or Cu In selenide are used in fabricating the 2nd coevals cells. The cost of such stuff is nevertheless lower than the first coevals cells but their efficiency is besides less. Third-generation cells depicts a dramatic addition in efficiency that maintains the cost advantage of second-generation stuffs. Their design may do usage of bearer generation, hot negatron extraction, multiple junctions, sunlight concentration, or new stuffs. Developing such cells have become the end of assorted research undertakings. The horizontal axis represents the cost of the solar faculty merely ; it must be about doubled to include the costs of packaging and climb. Dotted lines indicate the cost per W of peak power ( Wp ) .

Solar electricity costs 5-10 times more than the cost of bring forthing electricity from the fossil fuels and histories for fulfilling simply 0.015 % of the universe ‘s electricity demand.


Deployment: As a generic estimation the potency of solar energy exceeds

5 fold the current planetary energy ingestion. The aggregative electricity demand in US in 2002 was 418GW.This energy demand could hold been satisfied by covering

a land surface of 180km square with photovoltaics. The part of solar energy as a beginning of power in fulfilling the demand of energy worldwide is still minimum. Recent information shows that current electricity coevals from PVs is merely of the order of 2.6GW3 compared to 36.3GW for all renewable energies go forthing merely hydroelectric power.

The high capital cost per kilowatt installed as compared to fossil fuels and the intermittent nature of the energy beginning, makes the power generated from the solar energy as less appealing option of power coevals.

Cost of electricity: In order to cut down the cost of solar energy, it is suggested to replace the p-n junction photovoltaic devices with the organic-based photovoltaics. Besides there is a border to cut down the fabrication and installing cost if lightweight, flexible and low-priced plastic substrates are used. Certain surveies show that cost efficiency could be attained through fabrication graduated table. In add-on, Design and technological inventions could diminish the storage cost of the energy which include: roll-to-rollmanufacturing engineering, utilizing printable semiconducting materials, plastic substrates and polymer options etc.

Environmental facets: Solar energy is promoted as a sustainable energy supply engineering because of the renewable nature of solar radiation and the ability of solar energy transition systems to bring forth nursery gas-free electricity during their life-time.


Physicss today. ( 2007, March ) . Solar energy transition. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // bypassSSO=1

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Facts about Solar Energy Collectors

This method is used to heat the edifices in winters. First of all solar panels are installed on the roof of the edifice. These panels along with heating up the edifice besides heats up the H2O pipes being carried in it throughout thereby maintaining the H2O heated up inside the building.The energy that we get from the Sun is used to heat H2O.

The solar energy received from the Sun is converted into heat which in bend is used to heat a medium. The medium could take any signifier solid, liquid or air.

There are two chief parts of solar H2O heating systems: a solar aggregator and a storage armored combat vehicle. Storage aggregator is a level plated thin rectangular box confronting the Sun installed on the roof of the edifice. The solar energy heats up the absorber home base in it which so heats up the H2O running through tubings within the aggregator.

The cardinal constituent of the solar aggregator is the absorber consisting of assorted narrow strips. The heat transporting pipe is connected to such strip and the working fluid transportations heat through such pipe. By and large the absorbers are made of Cu or aluminium. Absorbers used in swimming pools are made up of plastics.

Figure FLAT PLATE COLLECTORS beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //

The surface of Absorbers are normally black colored as it carries high grade of light soaking up. Higher the measure of solar energy acquiring absorbed, lower would be the opportunities of radiations being reflected off. When the temperature of the absorber reaches to a degree higher than that of the ambient temperature, it gives off a great portion of the accrued solar energy in signifier of long-wave heat beams.

For the intent of supervising the heat emanation and to cut down the loss of energy due to such emanation, it is suggested to utilize surface coating. This coating enables the transition of a high proportion of the solar radiation into heat, at the same time cut downing the emanation of heat. The procedure of surfacing enhances the soaking up degree to upto 90 % . Such pigments could either be applied to the absorber automatically with a coppice or Galvanically with selective coatings with black chrome, black Ni, and aluminium oxide with Ni.

By and large a flat-plate aggregator consists of an absorber, a transparent screen, a frame, and insularity as depicted in the figure above. In order to supervise the short-wave visible radiation spectrum a crystalline screen in the signifier of an iron-poor solar safety glass is used.Also, such screen Acts of the Apostless as a shield in protecting the heat collected so far from being carried off by air current and zephyr. A frame made up of aluminium, galvanized steel or fiberglass-reinforced plastic is besides used to protect the absorber from inauspicious conditions conditions.

The dorsum and side walls of the absorber are insulated with polyurethane froth or mineral wool in order to command the heat loss in the procedure of conductivity.