Charlemagne, the boy of Pepin, was born in 742 A. D. He was king of the Franks and portion of the Carolingian line until 768. On Christmas Day of the twelvemonth 800 A.D. Charles was crowned by Pope Leo III as the Holy Roman Emperor and he remained emperor for 14 old ages. The enthronement took topographic point at the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome and since so Charlemagne was called emperor and Augustus[ 1 ]. Charlemagne ‘s enthronement marked the beginning of the creative activity of the Holy Roman Empire. Bryce argues that, apart from the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire, his enthronement marked besides the importance of the Middle Ages ; moreover supports that if the ceremonial had non taken topographic point “ the history of the universe would hold been different. ”[ 2 ]Pope Leo took the determination to coronate Charles because: a ) Charlemagne rescued him, B ) Roman Rebels could merely be encountered by an Emperor ; degree Celsius ) the throne of the imperium was empty and in the East the throne was encroached by Irene. Charlemagne, from his side, saw his enthronement as the lone solution given to the job of protecting the pontificate from the Eastern Empire. Furthermore, it was his chance to go equal in prominence with the East emperor.
There are several histories refering the background of the enthronement of Charlemagne. Traveling foremost, Einhard, was the Frankish tribunal bookman and adviser, every bit good as Charles ‘s friend. His history of the events was written after Charlemagne died. Harmonizing to Einhard, King Charles felt responsible to maintain “ the church of St. Peteraˆ¦ safe and protected ” every bit good as “ to reconstruct the Church ” after “ the dwellers of Rome had violently attacked Pope Leo, seting out his eyes and cutting off his lingua, and had forced him to fly to the King for aid. ”[ 3 ]Furthermore, Einhard supports that the male monarch was incognizant of the enthronement and that the events that took topographic point were arranged merely by the Pope. What Einhard in peculiarly says is that non merely had the Pope planned the enthronement all by himself, but besides that Charlemagne did non desired to be an Imperial Emperor. However, it should be taken into consideration that Einhard ‘s work is modeled upon lifes of other imperial authors, particularly Suetonius. Therefore, he may hold been seeking to show Charlemagne as the great individual who did hold the makings to be an Emperor but did non desire to be one. When a individual did non desire the power, but deserved it, he would take it anyhow. Bearing in head that Einhard wanted to be a Roman imperial author, his work and what he supports have to viewed with cautiousness and non taken into history as wholly accurate. In add-on, Einhard had a great regard for King Charles, so much, that it has perchance affected his authorship.
The 2nd history is the life of Pope Leo III ( Liber pontificalis ) that provides a different presentation of the enthronement in 800 A.D. This life argues that Pope Leo arranged the enthronement of Charles as an Imperial Emperor to honor him for “ the defence that he gave and the love that he bore for the holy Roman Church and her Vicaraˆ¦ ”[ 4 ]The job that has to make with this beginning is the point of position it presents: The events presented in the bibliography are in favor of Pope Leo and that is perchance because reverends involved with the apostolic tribunal were responsible of roll uping apostolic bibliographies.
The 3rd beginning is a cloistered history, named the “ Lorsch Annals ” , back uping that the enthronement was planned non merely by the Pope, but the holy male parents every bit good. In add-on, it is argued that there was an understanding between the Pope, the sanctum male parents and the people of Rome that Charlemagne should be crowned as Emperor.
Finally, the 3rd beginning is the history from the Frankish Royal Annals, written by people connected to the Frankish tribunal. In contrast with the other three beginnings, the Frankish Royal Annalss are concentrating on Charles and present Leo ‘s function as minimum. The beginning refers to how Charlemagne was admired and loved by all of the population and how much all wanted him to be an Imperial Emperor.
Harmonizing to the historiography of this period, there are three possibilities: the enthronement was desired and planned either by a ) Pope Leo entirely, B ) by Charlemagne entirely or degree Celsiuss ) by both Pope Leo and Charlemagne.
Pope Leo III was non that much wanted in the Church and from the start of his pontificate he had to meet several issues. In add-on his relationship with aristocracy was about awful. He decidedly needed protection – an emperor-provided protection. Inside Leo ‘s caput things were simple: the Frankish King Charles had to be crowned as Imperial Emperor in order to protect and reconstruct the Catholic Pope ‘s place and prestigiousness in Rome. Furthermore, the Pope proverb in Charles personality a strong truster of Christianity, who could protect and support Christian religion[ 5 ]. The Pope ‘s determination of gloating Charlemagne was besides influenced by the fact that Irene encroached the Eastern throne in 797. In add-on to that, Leo desired to derive freedom from the restraints of the Eastern Empire, and hence, freedom to accomplish his political ends. An emperor-provided protection in the West would perchance do the Church maintain its secular authorization. Most of Latin Christendom was outside imperial control and, besides, by the center of the 8th century, Rome and the lands of cardinal Italy that were controlled by the Roman Church were no longer portion of the Byzantine Empire.[ 6 ]Furthermore, the Lombard land seemed to be a menace for pontificate and the East seemed unable to protect it. Therefore, a different relationship was formed between the Carolingian swayers of the Franks and the pontificate. The Carolingians were needed for military grounds and to forestall the Byzantines from step ining in Italy. The enthronement initiated the procedure of release from the Byzantines. Thus, Leo ‘s demand for safety, in add-on to the personality of Charles, and Irene ‘s trespass of the throne, may hold made the Pope Crown Charles as the Imperial Emperor.
The “ Lorsch Annals ” give us a description of Charlemagne ‘s assembly of December 800. The treatment here is non the subsiding of the jobs of Pope Leo. It is treatment about the jobs in Rome and how the imperium should be restored. Therefore it can be said that Pope Leo “ hid ” himself behind the jobs of the Empire ‘s Restoration, when, in fact, it was himself he was seeking to protect. The “ Lorsh Annalss ” description is as follows: “ Since there was no longer an emperor in the land of the Greeks and they all were under the domination of a adult female, it seemed to Pope Leo and to all the male parents who sat in the assembly, every bit good as to the whole Christian people, that they should give the name of emperor to male monarch of the Franks, to Charles, who occupied Rome, where the Caesars had customarily resided, and besides Italy, Gaul, and Germany. Because Almighty God had consented to put these lands under his authorization, it seemed right, harmonizing to the desire of the whole Christian people, that Charles should besides bear the imperial rubric. ”[ 7 ]
Despite the fact that Charlemagne had imperial aims, the enthronement ‘s administration seems to hold been arranged chiefly by the Pope. Einhard supports that King Charles expressed unwillingness upon this determination of Leo. Charlemagne reacted negatively non because he did non desire the Imperial rubric, but because he believed that he should non be crowded as emperor by a humiliated Pope. It was more of a prestige issue. However, small uncertainty remains that he was non cognizant of the enthronement. Evidence can be found in Riche ‘s book, where a tribunal poet references King Charles as “ caput of the universe and acme of Europe, the new Augustus who reigns in a New Rome. ”[ 8 ]
The last thing to be mentioned is the tenseness between the West and the East caused by the enthronement. Einhard describes this tenseness: “ Once he ( Charlemagne ) had accepted the rubric, he endured with great forbearance the green-eyed monster of the alleged Roman Emperors, who were most incensed at what had happened. He overcame their ill will merely by the sheer strength of his personality, which was much more forceful than theirs. He was everlastingly directing couriers to them, and in his despatchs he called them his brothers. ”[ 9 ]Charlemagne ever tried to hold a balanced relationship with the East, since he believed in the equality between the former and the West. His efforts, nevertheless, had no response.
In decision, the three grounds mentioned for the enthronement of Charlemagne by Leo are all true in a manner. The pontificate was surely loath to lose its power to the East and hence saw Charlemagne as its defender. Therefore, the relationship that was formed between the Carolingians and the Pope marked the prostration of partnership between the East and the West Empire. Einhard describes the tenseness that the enthronement caused between the East and Charlemagne: “ Once he had accepted the rubric, he endured with great forbearance the green-eyed monster of the alleged Roman Emperors, who were most incensed at what had happened. He overcame their ill will merely by the sheer strength of his personality, which was much more forceful than theirs. He was everlastingly directing couriers to them, and in his despatchs he called them his brothers. ”[ 10 ]There is small uncertainty that Charlemagne did non look frontward to his enthronement and the Imperial rubric. He, nevertheless, tried to back up the thought of equality between the West and the East. The most important facet, though, of the enthronement of Charlemagne comes from the Restoration of the Roman Church. On the one manus the Restoration strengthened the relationship between Church and secular power in the West. On the other manus, it made worse the relationship between the East and West Empire. Monica Fleener[ 11 ]argues that the enthronement of Charlemagne in 800 A.D. marked the formation of Western Unity. She supports that this is because when Pope Leo sought aid from Charlemagne, in order to get by with the jobs he had in Italy, Charlemagne responded positively. In add-on, that respond, meant the separation of the West and the East, the Roman and the Byzantium Empire. And it was precisely the separation of the West and the North that led to the building of Europe. The enthronement of Charles therefore indicated the beginning of Europe.