The Rebellion Of Upper And Lower Canada History Essay

John George Lambton, Lord Durham, purposed a study after the Rebellion of Upper and Lower Canada that subsequently, one twelvemonth after his decease, led to the Act of Union in 1841. In his study Durham recommended, the brotherhood of Upper and Lower Canada, a responsible authorities ; govern by English citizens of Canada, to absorb the French-speaking Canadians and Colonial control of bing jobs. The intent of Act of Union was to unite Upper and Lower Canada under one authorities.

Saskatchewan and Alberta were a portion of Rupert ‘s Land, granted to Hudson Bay Company in 1670. In 1870, Dominion of Canada bought Rupert ‘s Land and North-Western Districts from Hudson Bay Company and called it Northwest Territories. In 1905, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Act was adopted by the authorities and 2 new states joined Dominion of Canada. Alberta was named after Queen Victoria ‘s 4th girl named Princess Louise CarolineA Alberta. Now yearss, Saskatchewan and Alberta are two of the three Canada ‘s Prairie Provinces.

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Dorion was a Gallic Canadian politician and was besides the leader of one of Canada East ‘s ( Quebec ) parties, Parti Rouge. He supported French-speaking Canadians. He was one of the critics against alliance in Canada East. He complained that there merely 4 out of 33 delegates were French-speaking. He besides complained that Canada East was being sold out since the new authorities was based on “ rep by dad ” and that they would be outnumbered in the assembly. But, at the terminal, he ended up non being able to convert the people that they should non fall in alliance.

Double Shuffle is a celebrated occurrence in Canadian history. It took topographic point in 1858. Double Shuffle was when the non-confidence ballot was applied to take George Brown from leading and seting John A. MacDonald on leading once more in 48 hours. George Brown merely had to vacate from the leader ship because the people said that they do non back up Brown in the authorities.

Anti-Confederationists were people who were against Confederation. There were a batch of them. Almost of the settlements had at least one politician or a celebrated individual who was against Confederation. In Canada East, A.A Dorion was the Anti-Condederationist, he complained about merely 4 out 33 delegates being French-speaking and besides, that Canada East was being sold out. In New Brunswick, there was non merely one Anti-Confederationist in peculiar ; there were a batch of them. In New Brunswick, they complained that Tilley was selling New Brunswickers to Canadian merely 80 cents each. In Nova Scotia, Joseph Howe complained that Tupper had sold out people of Nova Scotia 40 cents per individual. In Newfoundland, C.F. Bennett led the battle against Confederation ; he warned the citizens that the new authorities would likely set revenue enhancements on their fish, boat, and fishing tackle. Bennett besides said that goods from Canada would be so inexpensive, that Newfoundland merchandises would non sell and that immature people from the island would be expected to give up their life to protect the Canadian dirt. Some of the Anti-Confederationists ended up losing and some ended up winning.

Before Confederation, Quebec was known as Canada East. Canada East joined Confederation in 1867. In Canada East, the leader of Parti Rouge, A.A. Dorion, complained that merely 4 out of 33 delegates in Quebec Conference were French-speaking. He besides said that Canada East was being sold out since the new authorities was based on “ rep by dad ” and Canada East would be outnumbered in the assembly because of the low population. Cartier, the leader of Parti Bleu, came up with an thought that explained that French and English would be equal spouses in Confederration because they each would hold their ain state, which would do Torahs sing linguistic communication, faith and more. Cartier warned that if Canada East did non fall in Confederation, they might be taken over by United States. Dorion wanted referendum, but his petition was turned down by Cartier and the protagonists of Confederation. When it came clip to vote, 26 out of 48 members in the assembly voted for Confederation. And, that ‘s how Canada East became Quebec.

George Brown wanted “ rep by dad ” since Canada West had about 300 000 more people, so they thought they should hold more seats in the assembly. Canada East did non hold with Canada West because they knew that they would be outnumbered and besides because in 1841, when the Act of Union was created Canada East had more people than Canada West, but they did non acquire more seats in the assembly back so. This continued to maintain the system in Political Deadlock.

Reform Party is besides known as Clear Grits. It is one of Canada West ‘s political parties, led by George Brown. Reform Party wanted alteration and give more say to ordinary people in the authorities, because of that they had a great trade of support for rural people. They supported representation by population and free trade with United States.

Alexander Mackenzie was a politician, who was Scots and was born on 28 January, 1822. He served as 2nd premier curate of Canada from 1873-1878, after John A. MacDonald. He immigrated to Canada West or Ontario in 1842, worked as a rock Mason and established a edifice contractor in Sarnia. In 1858, he became the editor of local Liberal newspaper. Mackenzie was a protagonist of alliance. When Dominion of Canada was created, he was elected to the first House of Commons, in which he led the Liberal resistance. When in 1873, John A. MacDonald ‘s authorities fell, Mackenzie became Canada ‘s first Liberal premier curate. Mackenzie ‘s authorities had excessively much trouble with Canada ‘s economic of that clip. He besides failed to finish to the Pacific railroad. These grounds led to the loss of Broad authorities in 1878. Mackenzie resigned the leading of resistance in 1880, but retained his place in the Parliament until his decease on 17 April, 1892 in Toronto.

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William Alexander Henry was born on December 30th, 1816 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He was foremost elected from Antigonish, Nova Scotia in 1840 as a Broad member, and represented the part continuously until 1867. In 1856, he became Provincial secretary, but, the following twelvemonth he resigned over excise adult male of the Port of Halifax. He became a protagonist of Conservative Party and was elected as a member in 1859. However, because of some jobs, Liberal took control of the authorities, but when Conservative Party regained its power in 1863, Henry was appointed as canvasser general ( jurisprudence officer ) and so lawyer general ( main jurisprudence officer ) of Nova Scotia in 1864.

He showed a small involvement in the thought of brotherhood that led to Charlottetown Conference, but his sentiment changed after the meeting. When he returned to Nova Scotia he was truly positive that the British North American brotherhood would hold a batch of benefit on Nova Scotia. He took portion in the Quebec Conference and after when the Nova Scotia ‘s assembly approved of brotherhood, Henry travelled to London for the London Conference.

After the alliance, Henry ran in the Nova Scotia federal election of 1867 for the Antigonish place. But, he was defeated sing the fact that Antigonish was one of the anti-confederation parts. After being defeated, he returned to jurisprudence pattern in Halifax. He was elected the city manager of Halifax in 1870.

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A brotherhood of Irish American soldiers besides known as Fenians wanted invaded British North America. The Fenians wanted to occupy British North American settlements to turn out to Britian that they had a good ground forces and they are able to get the better of Britian and have control over Ireland. Canadians populating near the United States boundary line lived in fright. Because of the Fenian ‘s sudden onslaughts the Canadians were in fright that the Fenians might return back for an onslaught. A batch of Canadian soldiers and people died. In the terminal, the Fenians ended up lossing because the British ground forces showed up to protect British North American settlements.

William McDougall was born on January, 25, 1822. He joined jurisprudence pattern in 1847, in Toronto. It provided him with money that allowed him to get down a calling in news media. He started with agribusiness news media, so moved on to political news media in 1850 with a creative activity of North America

Sir John Franklin, a British Explorer, was the first European to make Yukon in 1820s. He was followed an agent of Hudson Bay ‘s Company in 1840s, who established garrisons and trading stations throughout the district. In 1869, Dominion of Canada bought Rupert ‘s land from Hudson Bay Company and called it Northwest Territories. In 1895, Canadian authorities begins set uping more lasting authorization and named Yukon one of the four new territories within Northwest Territories. Yukon ‘s population quickly grew and the authorities realized that they have to make something. Peoples populating in Yukon wanted more governmental representation. As a consequence, Canada passed the Yukon Act in 1898, which clearly said that separate district, which means that it has its ain provincial authorities, and has Dawson City as its capital. In 1953, Dawson City lost its position as territorial capital to Whitehorse.

Grand Trunk was an all-British path associating Canada West with Atlantic Ocean at Halifax. By 1860, the Grand Trunk had stretched Sarnia to far east on Rivire du Loup. It was one of the grounds for alliance because it cost a batch of money and by 1860 it was near to being belly-up. Many people thought the lone manner to complete the railroad was to unify all the settlements and portion the disbursal. Grand Trunk was one of the advantages people in all the settlements thought of, if they joined Confederation. Now a yearss, the Grand Trunk railroad is called CN ( Canadian National Railway ) .

One of the grounds some of the settlements wanted to fall in Confederation was because they had frozen-ice ports. Frozen-ice ports were a job because in the winter they did non hold transit to go to another settlement or trade since there was non any transit. But, if settlements had a railroad nexus attached to the chief railroad ( Grand Trunk ) or had Grand Trunk halt, so it would be truly easier for them to go or merchandise or if there was an onslaught in their portion of the settlement, than the soldiers from other settlements can come faster and assist them.

British North America: BNA ( short for ) British North America was considered districts and settlements owned by the British Empire. The thought for alliance began in British North America in 1864 to unify all the settlements and districts to do one state. British North America was the name of what we call now Canada.

Tilley Samuel Leonard, the Prime Minister of New Brunswick, announced an election after Quebec Conference. When the anti-confederationists and people found out that the subsidy was merely 80 cents per individual, the anti-confederationists said that Tilley was selling New Brunswickers 80 cents each to the Canadians and at this point the people were against alliance excessively. Some of the events that convinced people to fall in alliance were Fenian foraies, United States ended free trade with BNA settlements and altering in British attitude. In his address, Tilley talked to the New Brunswickers about the advantages of Canadian markets and railroad for New Brunswick. New Brunswick joined alliance in 1867.

United States is British North America ‘s ( Canada ‘s ) adjacent state. United States was one of the grounds of Confederation. It was a ground because United States ended free trade with BNA settlements, besides, the Fenians were assailing from the United States boundary line and in conclusion, the Northern State was endangering to take over because they thought BNA settlements supported Southern State in the American civil war.

Charlottetown Conference was from 1st September, 1864- 9th September, 1864. The Maritimes settlements held a conference in Charlottetown because they were worried about the Americans to discourse the amalgamation of the settlements. When Canada West and East heard about the conference, they packed their bags and headed to Charlottetown to convert the Maritime settlements to unify with Canada East and West. John A. Macdonald and George Brown were 2 of the people who went to the conference from Canada West and D’Arcy McGee and Alexander Galt were 2 of the people who went from Canada East. In the conference delegates from Canada East and West talked about the advantages of free trade between settlements and gave promises to construct railroads. At the terminal of the conference, the Maritime settlements agreed to run into at the Quebec Conference in October.

Parti Rouge was one of the political parties of Canada West ( Ontario, led by Antoine Aime Dorion. The party supported rights of French-speaking Canadians. They wanted more French-speaking people to hold more say in the authorities. Parti Rouge was against the power of Roman Catholic Church and they wanted independency from Britain.

Political dead end was when the dual shuffling set the phase and created struggle in the authorities of Canada West. The struggle was created because about all the measures that were tried to go through had even ballots against each other. Since, if the Reform Party ( Clear Grits ) wanted the measure to go through, so the Conservative Party would non desire the measure to go through.

A non-confidence ballot is when the Assembly says to the authorities that “ they no longer back up them in the authorities ” and if the ballot passes, the authorities must vacate for the leading. The non-confidence ballot was applied in Canada to acquire George Brown ( Reform Party ) out of leading and put John A. MacDonald ( Conservative Party ) back in leading.

The Canadian authorities decided to regulate Dominion of Canada by utilizing the Federal System. Federal System was divided into two classs ; Federal authorities ( cardinal authorities ) and Provincial authorities. Each state would hold their ain authorities that would be expected to supply their state ‘s people with public schooling, wellness attention and societal service, tribunals and many more things.

Irish-Americans soldier were people who were either born in America and had an Irish back land or immigrated to America and became soldiers. Irish-American soldiers were besides known as the Fenians, who planned to occupy British North America. They wanted to occupy British North America to turn out to Britain that they have a good ground forces and they are able to get the better of Britain and free Ireland from Britain control. The Irish-American soldiers were another ground for alliance.

Now, what we as the state of Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, A Manitoba, A Alberta, the Yukon TerritoryA andA Nunavut, used to be a large state called the Northwest Territories. Northwest Territories was a portion of Rupert ‘s Land and North-Western Territory owned by The Hudson Bay Company until 1870. Shortly after Canadian Confederation, the Hudson Bay Company had to give all their land to Canada. In 1870, the Rupert ‘s Land and North-Western Territory belonged to Dominion of Canada, but Canada changed its name and called it Northwest Territories. Throughout the old ages, Northwest Territories was divided into Saskatchewan, A Manitoba, A Alberta, the Yukon TerritoryA , Nunavut, and Northwest Territories.

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Nunavut was one time portion of the Northwest Territories. During the period of 1959-1963, people thought that the western half of Northwest Territories would develop more rapidly, as in finance and authorities, if separated from the eastern half. But, the thought was non supported from the eastern side and merely supported a small from the western side. All the jobs were solved throughout the old ages and eventually in the September of 1992, the Tungavik Federation of NunavutA and the federal negotiating squads signed the “ Nunavut Land Claims Agreement ” ( NLCA ) . On 1st April of 1999, the concluding understanding was made, signed and Nunavut officially became one of the state of Canada.

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Civil war is a war between parts in the same state. One of the civil was that subsequently became one of the grounds for Canadian Confederation was the American Civil War. The American Civil War was from 1861-1865 between the Northern and the Southern States. The Northern States thought that the British North American settlements were back uping the Southern State in the civil war. When in 1865, Northern State won the American Civil War ; they started to be after a retaliation on British North American settlements. So, the American Civil War became one of the grounds for Canadian Confederation.


A A A A A A Canadian authorities system had a House of Commons. House of Commons is besides known as Lower House. Peoples of Canada, electors from all states, elite Members of Parliament ( representatives ) for House of Commons. Every state acquire a figure of members they can elect from their state, for illustration, Quebec was guaranteed 65 members. Besides, Members of Parliament are elected for up to 5 old ages and they make and pass Torahs.

A A A A A A Taxes are another word for duties. Britain allowed wheat and flour from British North American settlements to come in their goods in Britain with low revenue enhancements, but United States had to pay much higher revenue enhancements. In 1846, Britain announced free trade which means that Britain allowed goods from any state to come in Britain market without revenue enhancements.

A A A A A A Halifax is a capital of Nova Scotia and it is an impressive centre. Halifax has a bastion ( really strong fortress overlooking the seaport and metropolis ) . The bastion in Halifax is a batch like the one in Quebec City ; it is strong and build really good, it is besides build really high, so if there was an onslaught, merely a small harm could be done to the bastion. Halifax besides has a seaport that ne’er freezes, that is why it is the chief station of the British Navy in West Atlantic.


Represented by Population continued to maintain the authorities system in Political dead end, until George Brown put his personal jobs from John A. MacDonald aside. George A Brown suggested that they should hold a Coalition authorities.

A A A Coalition authorities is the connection of different political parties into one authorities. The program for the first Coalition authorities failed, but the 2nd program was successful. The 2nd program was that Canada should divide into two states, Ontario and Quebec, besides, that each state would hold a provincial authorities. The 2nd program besides included that there would be a cardinal authorities, represented by population for affairs that affect both state. After all this, so they would let other settlements to unify with them ( Confederation ) .

In order for a trade among BNA settlements, there had to be a railroad. In, 1850, Unites States had 14 378 kilometers more railway track so BNA. At that clip, Canadian idea of constructing their ain railroad. Between 1850 and 1867, 3 570 kilometer of railroad path was added in.

The most of import railroad undertaking in BNA was the Grand Trunk. The Grand Trunk was an all-British railroad path associating Canada West with the Atlantic Ocean at Halifax. By, 1860, the Grand Trunk was 50 per centum completed. Since, it cost a batch of money, the Canadian authorities was non able to complete it and the lone manner to complete the railroad was to unify all the settlements and portion the disbursal. The Grand Trunk was necessary for trade, communicating and defence of British North America. Grand Trunk was besides one of the grounds for Confederation.

In 1864, Charles Tupper became the Prime Minister of Nova Scotia. Tupper was in favour of Confederation. When Tupper came back to Halifax from the Quebec Conference, he found some problem. Joseph Howe, who besides ran for Prime Minister of Nova Scotia in 1864, was stirring up a storm against Confederation. Joseph spoke passionately about the subsidy, he said that Tupper has sold out people of Nova Scotia to Canada merely 40 cents each. Tupper travelled throughout the settlement and tried to turn out Joseph Howe and the anti-confederationists incorrect.

At that clip, words reached Nova Scotia about the Fenian menace to New Brunswick and besides that the New Brunswickers had started to speak more earnestly about Confederation. Nova Scotia did finally hold to fall in Confederation in 1867 because they thought that there was a existent possibility that Nova Scotia would be invaded by Fenians excessively.

New foundland

Newfoundland did non sent representatives to the Charlottetown Conference, but they did direct 2 delegates to go to the Quebec Conference. One of the 2 delegates, F.B.T Carter, subsequently became the Prime Minister of Newfoundland in 1865. Carter was in favour of Confederation, but he was non able to convert the independent people of Newfoundland. Newfoundlanders were really proud of their independency and their ain system.

C.F Bennett was one of the anti-confederationists in Newfoundland. He warned the Newfoundlanders that the new authorities would set duties on their boats, fishes and more. He besides warned that the Canadian goods would be so inexpensive, that Newfoundland merchandises would non sell and that immature people from the island would be expected to give up their life for the Defense of Canada.

Newfoundland did non fall in the Confederation. On the dark of Confederation, anti-confederationists did a immense parade through the street of St. Johns. After 82 old ages, in 1949, Newfoundlanders eventually voted to fall in Dominion of Canada as the 10th state.

British Columbia

In the late 1860s, the new of British Columbia ( Vancouver Island and British Columbia ) was in fiscal problem. Peoples realized that in order to accomplish what they wanted, they have to be a portion of a larger state.

British Columbia had three picks, Choice one was that they could stay a British settlement, but many people said that the settlement was manner far off from Britain and they were excessively weak on their ain. The 2nd pick was that they could fall in United States, but when the ballot was taken in 1869, merely 104 out of 10 000 people wanted to fall in with United States. Their last pick was that they could fall in Canadian Confederation, in Canada ; they would still be portion of Britain, have their ain provincial authorities and choice representatives for Parliament of Ottawa.

On 10 May, 1870, 3 delegates from British Columbia met with John A. MacDonald in Ottawa. The delegates told MacDonald that they were interested in fall ining the Canadian Confederation. British Columbia asked for responsible authorities, they wanted Canada to take attention of all their heavy debts, particularly 1s that have to make with Caribou route and Canada would construct a route through the mountains to associate British Columbia to the East. And, on 20 July, 1871, British Columbia eventually joined Dominion of Canada.


Louis Riel formed a commission called National Committee of the Metis ; the commission would make up one’s mind how to protect Metis land. The commission hears that John A. MacDonald has appointed a lieutenant-governor ( individual who set up a authorities for the territory/province ) for Northwest Territories- William McDougall. The Metis besides hears that McDougall is conveying rifles and ammos.

When McDougall arrives at the boundary line, he founds that the route to Fort Garry has been blocked by the Metis. McDougall goes to the closest settlement for a stay. Riel and Metis coup d’etat Fort Garry, where they find a batch of nutrient and ammo. From this place, they can easy command the whole settlement.

When MacDonald hears about what Metis are making, he sends a courier to happen what the people of Red River want. The Red River does non belong to Canada at that clip. The Metis make up Bills of Rights and direct it to Ottawa. One of the major petitions in the Metis ‘ Bills of Rights was that they should be allowed to come in Canadian Confederation as a state.

Ottawa and Riel ‘s Probationary authorities worked out an understanding called the Manitoba Act and on 15 July, 1870, Manitoba enters Confederation as the 5th state of Canada.

Northwest terriotories

John A. MacDonald was worried that Canada and Britain would lose the West to the United States, so he wrote a letter.The colonists in Red River wrote a missive to London about the manner Hudson ‘s Bay Company was governing their land and said that they would prefer to be portion of Dominion of Canada.

Canadian delegates went to England to see if Hudson ‘s Bay Company would sell its land to Canada, in the beginning, Hudson ‘s Bay Company did non hold, but eventually Hudson ‘s Bay Company and Canada decided on the monetary value of 300 000 lbs and were allowed to maintain 1/20th of the land. The whole part was transferred to Dominion of Canada on 1st December, 1869 and named the land Northwest Territories.


In 1857, a batch of struggle was created in the authorities because of the choosing of the capital. Since 1841, Assembly had met at different topographic points like Kingston, Quebec City, Montreal and Toronto. They decided that it was eventually clip to hold a lasting capital. Since, the Assembly could non hold on one settlement for state, they decided to go forth the determination to Queen Victoria.

When the Queen announced that her pick for capital was Ottawa, the other metropoliss did non like it ; they said Ottawa was nil more than a “ sub-Arctic timber small town ” . The Queen chose Ottawa because it was far off from United States, it had good H2O transit paths and it was right on the boundary line of Canada East and West

Edward Palmer was born in Charlottetown, PEI on September 1, 1809. A He became member of Prince Edward Island Assembly in 1835 and rapidly became the taking conservativists. Before fall ining the Assembly he worked as land agent, attorney, politician and justice. He was frequently known as title-holder of position quo because he was against responsible authorities, against fall ining Confederation and many other things. He was called the title-holder of position quo besides because he wanted everything to remain the same and nil to of all time alter. Palmer took portion on both Charlottetown and Quebec Conference, where he showed that he was strongly against alliance.

He still remained against Confederation, even after 1864 ; alternatively he favored a trade trade between Prince Edward Island and United States. in 1872, he changed parties and became a member of Liberal, a authorities of Robert Haythorne. In 1873, Robert Haythorne authorities was forced to fall in Canada because of the railroad debts. After Prince Edward Island joined alliance, Palmer became a Queens County justice and subsequently became main justness of the same tribunal.

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Before Confederation Ontario was known as Canada West. In Canada West, the politicians spent over a month to make up one’s mind whether they should fall in Confederation or non. The most effectual address was given by George Brown from the Reform Party. Brown gave 6 grounds why Canada West should fall in Confederation. Those grounds were:

The 5 British North American settlements would go 1 powerful state.

It would be easier for all British North American settlements to merchandise with each other and supply a market for over 4 million people.

Canada would go 3rd largest state in the universe by land mass.

It would besides promote other people to come to Canada.

It would better other markets for Canada West ‘s goods, intending that their goods would hold a bigger market.

All settlements would assist each other if there was a war against the Fenians or the American Northern States.

The Canada West listened to George Brown and John A. MacDonald and when the ballot was taken, 91 out of 124 people agreed to fall in Confederation. Canada West joined Confederation in 1867 and was renamed Ontario.

Thomas D’Arcy McGee was on April 13, 1825 in Carlingford, Ireland. He was a journalist, poet and a politician. He was besides a protagonist of Confederation. McGee came to North America in 1842, where he joined a Catholic newspaper called Boston Pilot. At that clip, McGee supported America and Ireland. He returned back to Ireland in 1845, where he got involved in the Young Ireland motion. When the Young Ireland motion failed, he was forced to fly back to United States. In 1857, he moved to Montreal.

When he came to Canada, his sentiment changed and he did non supported America and Ireland any more. In Canada, he became the editor of New Era, where he talked about the hereafter of Canada. McGee was elected Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1857. He attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conference with George Brown, John A. MacDonald and many other delegates, where he delivered 2 addresss.

By 1866, McGee ‘s political calling started to melt and he was non invited to the London Conference. But, alternatively, he was elected for House of Commons in 1867. He thought of vacating from political relations, but before he could vacate, he was killed on April 7th, 1868. Some people say that the Fenians killed McGee, but no one really cognize the truth.