We speak English but do we cognize where it comes from? I did n’t cognize until I started to analyze on this topic and I learned where it comes from and how it has developed.
A A A The history of English begins a small after A.D. 600. The ascendants of the linguistic communication were rolling in the woods of northern Europe. Their linguistic communication was a portion of Germanic subdivision of Indo-germanic Family.
A A A The people speaking this linguistic communication spread to the northern seashore of Europe in the clip of Roman Empire. Among this people the folks called Angels, Saxons, Jutes which is called Anglo-saxons come to England. The first Latin consequence was in that period. Latin affected the linguistic communication with the merchandisers going the folk. Some of the words taken from Latin are ; boilers, vino, cheese, butter, cheap.
A A A Besides in the fourteenth century Rome Empire weakened because Goths attacked to Mediterranean states of Roman Empire and Anglo-Saxons attacked to empire. On the other manus the Celtic folks in Scotland and Wales developed. At the endA in 410 the last Roman emperorA A leftA the island to Celtic and Anglo-Saxons. Celtic and Anglo-Saxons fought for 100 old ages and Anglo-saxons killed all the Celtics. In 550 Anglo -Saxons established England. During Roma Empire Latin was n’t the native linguistic communication of the land because people in the state were speaking Celtic.
A A A When Anglo-Saxons became Christian in 597 they learned Latin. Harmonizing to the effects to EnglishA A , the history of the linguistic communication divided in to three ; Old English ( 7th century-1100 ) , Middle English ( 1100-1450/1500 ) , Modern English ( 1500-now ) . In some books Modern English is divided in to two Early modern ( 1500-1700 ) , Late Modern ( 1700-now ) .
A A A When England was establishedA there were several kingdomsA A and the most advanced one was Nurthumbria. It was this period that the best of the Old English literature was written, including the heroic poem poemA Beowulf.
A A A In the 8th centuryA A Nurthumbrian power declined, West Saxons became the taking power. The most celebrated male monarch of the West Saxons was Alfred the Great. He founded and established schools, translated or caused to be translated many books from Latin in to English.
A A A After many old ages of hit-and-runA foraies between the European lands, the Norseman landed in the twelvemonth of 866 and subsequently the east seashore of the island was Norseman ‘s. Norse linguistic communication affected the English well. Norse was n’t so different from English and English people could understand Norseman. There were considerable interchanges and word adoptions ( sky, give, jurisprudence, egg, criminal, leg, ugly, talk ) . Besides borrowed pronouns like they, their, them. It is supposed besides that the Norseman influenced the sound construction and the grammar of English.
A A A Old English had some sound which we do n’t cognize hold now. In grammar, Old English was much more extremely inflected that Middle English because there were instance terminations for nouns, more individual and figure terminations of words and aA more complicated pronoun systems, assorted terminations for adjectives. In vocabulary Old English is quiet different from Middle English. Most of the Old English words are native English which were n’t borrowed from other linguistic communications. On the other manus Old English contains borrowed words coming from Norse and Latin.
A A A Between 1100-1200 many of import alterations took topographic point in the construction of English and Old English becameA Middle English. The political event which affected the disposal system and linguistic communication was the Norman Conquest. In 1066 they crossed the Channel and they became the maestro of England. For the following several following old ages, England was ruled by the male monarchs whose native linguistic communication was Gallic. On the other manus French could n’t go the national languageA because it became the linguistic communication of the tribunal, aristocracy, polite society, literature. But it did n’t replaceA as the linguistic communication of the people. English continued to be the national linguistic communication but it changed excessively much after the conquering.
A A A The sound system & A ; grammar wasn’tA A so effected but vocabulary was effected much. There were word related with goverment: parliment, revenue enhancement, goverment, stateliness ; A churchA word: faith, curate, discourse ; A words for nutrient: veau, beef, mouton, Prunus persica, lemon, pick, biscuit ; A colourss: A blue, vermilion, scarlet ; A A householdA words: drape, chair, lamp, towel, cover ; A play words: A dance, cheat, music, leisure, conversation ; A literary words: A narrative love affair, poet, literary ; A learned words: A survey, logic grammar, noun, sawbones, anatomy, tummy ; A ordinary words for all kinds: A nice, 2nd, really, age, pail, concluding, gentel, mistake, flower, count, certain, move, surprise, field. ( Clark, V.P. & A ; Eschholz, P.A. & A ; Rose, A.F. ; 1994 ; 622 )
A A A Middle English was still a Germanic linguistic communication but it is different from Old English in many ways. Grammar and the sound system changed a good trade. Peoples started to relyA A more on word order and construction words to show their significance instead than the usage of instance system. “ This can be called as a simplification but it is non precisely. Languages do n’t go simpler, they simply exchange one sort of complexness for another ” ( ( Clark, V.P. & A ; Eschholz, P.A. & A ; Rose, A.F. ; 1994 ; 622 )
A A For us Middle English is simpler that Old English because it is closer to Modern English.
EARLY MODERN ENGLISH
A A A Between 1400-1600 English underwent a twosome of sound alterations. One alteration was the riddance of a vowel sound in certain unstressed places at the terminal of the words. The alteration was of import because it effected 1000s of words and gave a different facet to the whole linguistic communication.
A A A The other alteration is what is called the Great Vowel Shift. This was a systematic shifting of half a twelve vowels and diphthongs in stressed syllables. For illustration the wordA nameA had in Middle English a vowel something like that in the modern wordA male parent ; … etc. The displacement effected all the words in which these vowels sounds occurred. These two alterations produced the basic differencesA A between Middle English and Modern English. But there are several other developments that effected the linguistic communication. One was the innovation of printing. It was introduced to England by William Caxton in 1475. After this books became cheaper and cheaper, more people learned to read and compose and progress in communicating.
A A A The period of Early Modern English was besides a period of English Renaissance, which means the development of the people. New thoughts increased. English linguistic communication had grownA A as a consequence of borrowing words from Gallic, Latin, Greek.
A A A The greatest author of the Early Modern English period is Shakespeare and the best known book is the King Jones version of theA BIBLE.A
A A A In order to set up the languageA A they develop a lexicon. The first English Dictionary was published in 1603. Another merchandise of the 18th centuryA A was the innovation of English Grammar. As English is replaced with Latin as the linguistic communication of scholarship, it was felt to command the linguistic communication.
A A A The period where English developed most in the Modern English. In that period the people talking that linguistic communication increased excessively much. Now, English is the greatest languageA A of theA A universe spoken natively and as a 2nd linguistic communication. What will go on in the hereafter? It ‘ll go on to turn, may be it will be the cosmopolitan linguistic communication.