The methodology used in data gathering

This subdivision of the research describes the research methodological analysis conducted in order to garner a ample and diverse aggregation of informations. The information aggregation methods or techniques are stated and appraised and the justification for the adopted technique is given. This chapter follows a hierarchal rule and will travel through the phases of choosing the appropriate method to reply the research inquiry. In Dissertation Research and Writing for Construction Students, Naoum ( 2008 ) states that there are two chief types of research methods, qualitative and quantitative. Naoum adds to this by explicating that depending on the purpose of the survey and the information available will finally impact the determination to what research method is chosen.

Quantitative Data

Quantitative research methods are nonsubjective in nature. In wide footings this method involves numerical analysis ( Polit-Ohara 2004 ) for illustration monetary value history within existent estate market studies. Harmonizing to Naoum ( 2008 ) quantitative research is used ?when you want to happen facts about a construct, a inquiry or an attribute… when you want to roll up factual grounds and analyze the relationship between these facts in order to prove a peculiar theory or hypothesis? . A restriction of quantitative research is the possibility of undependable or biased informations.

Qualitative informations is non numerical and tends to maneuver towards emotions, beliefs and feels about a peculiar capable country and is hence really subjective. Qualitative research collects positions and sentiments of experts who specialize or have an active function in the industry ( Polit-Ohara 2004 ) . With the research method qualitative informations normally is obtained from questionnaires, interviews, instance surveies and concentrate groups.

Assorted Methods attack

The two traditions ( quantitative and qualitative ) appear rather different… most research does non suit clearly into one class. The best frequently combines characteristics of each. ( King, Keohane and Verba 1994 cited in ?Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and thesiss – Robert Murray Thomas. Tashakkori and Creswell ( 2007 ) specify a assorted method attack as ?research in which the research worker collects and analyses informations, integrates the findings, and draws illations utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods in a individual survey or programme of inquiry.? The benefit of a the assorted method aaproach is that the informations produced by the different method can be complementary ( Denscombe, 2007 ) .

Method Chosen

A assorted methods attack will be used in this thesis and will let the research worker to obtain information from qualitative and quantitative methods within both primary and secondary beginnings of information therefore trusting to accomplish the benefits of both quantitative and qualitative informations. Due to this ?young? new market there is a comparative deficit of quantitative and qualitative information and therefore by utilizing the assorted methods attack will let the research worker to get a wider scope of information on which to establish a decision on. It besides executable to utilize this method because of the little size of the market and the comparatively little figure of cardinal histrions and the construction of industry, the economic system and authorities in Oman with strategic and policy determinations being taken by senior concern and governmental elites of both Omani subjects and deport employees. The probe will seek to happen out what those in the industry think, feel and believe about the impact of the policy on the residential existent estate market in Oman and this information will be collected through qualitative agencies. However there is a subjective construct of the impact of the policy and for this ground quantitative information ( secondary beginning ) will be used to assist lend to the analysis. Quantitative information will be obtained from existent estate market reports more specifically from Cluttons, Hamptons and Savills. Although these studies will assist let the research worker to quantify the affect the policy has had on monetary values, the studies may be biased or inaccurate hence the usage of three company studies. By utilizing a combination of methods the research worker can work the strengths of a peculiar method without go forthing him/herself vulnerable to the unfavorable judgment in connexion with that methods failing ( Denscombe, 2007 ) . The following phase will be to measure and make up one’s mind what attack should be undertaken.

Primary and Secondary Beginnings

There are two beginnings of information primary and secondary. These are described below. The two are non reciprocally sole and can be used in concurrence with each other depending on the nature of the research.

Primary Beginnings

Primary informations aggregation is necessary when the information can non be found through secondary beginnings. Primary informations creates original research. There are three different methods within fieldwork – instance survey attack, study attack and the job work outing attack.

Case survey attack

Case surveies are used when the research worker uses in depth analysis of a individual, administration or a peculiar undertaking to back up his/her statement ( Naoum 2008 ) . The decision of such an attack will non be generalized as it focuses on one peculiar facet nevertheless this does non intend to state that the method is slightly flawed as it provides a really in depth analysis of a similar undertaking or job if such exists.

Survey attack

Surveies such as questionnaires and interviews are used to garner information from a big figure of participants within a certain clip. The informations collected can so be analysed and generalized to give an accurate ?picture? of the state of affairs. Harmonizing to Naoum ( 2008 ) there are two types of studies, analytical and descriptive. Analytic studies aim to set up a relationship between one property and another ( cause and consequence relationship. ) for illustration in the instance of this thesis the relationship between policy alteration and existent estate monetary values. On the other manus, the descriptive studies aim to ?answer such inquiries as: How? Where? When? ( Naoum 2008 ) . In a descriptive study, the figure of participants that respond to a peculiar topic with certain attitudes/opinions are counted. This information is subsequently analysed to exemplify tendencies.

Problem Solving Approach

In this attack besides know as the action research attack the research worker reviews the current state of affairs, identifies the job, plays an active function in implementing alterations and so evaluates the impact of these alterations. This type of research tends to be done by practicians or pupils such as portion clip pupils who are working within the industry and have identified a job and want to suggest alterations to better the state of affairs ( Naoum )

Method Chosen

A chief unfavorable judgment related to the usage of instance surveies is in relation to the credibleness of generalizations ( Denscombe, 2007 ) and utilizing residential touristry to advance economic development can change between different states given their specific state of affairss in footings of aims or current economic state of affairs hence a instance survey attack would be hard to generalize from one state to another. The research probe is non seeking to find and happen a solution to a job therefore the probe and the research worker is non in a state of affairs to play an active function in implementing alterations at that place this research will follow a study attack as the appropriate research scheme. There are assorted methods within the study attack and therefore a information aggregation technique ( s ) will hold to be selected.

Primary Data Collection Techniques

Data or information can be collected by observation which involves watching people or by inquiring people through the usage of interviews or questionnaires ( Robson 1996 ) . The method chosen finally depends on what the research aims to accomplish and what the research worker thinks is the most suited manner to make it.

Harmonizing to Robson ( 1996 ) simple regulations of pollex are available for choosing informations aggregation methods. The regulations include:

To happen out what people think. Use direct observation

To happen out what they do in private usage interviews or questionnaires

To happen out what they think, feel, believe usage interviews or questionnaires.

This research aims to happen out what those involved in the existent estate industry think, feel and believe about the impact of policy alteration in Oman. Consequently this research will utilize the undermentioned primary informations aggregation techniques of interviews and questionnaires to set up the grounds behind and the impact of the policy alteration in Oman.

Questionnaires

A questionnaire is the most widely used informations aggregation technique ( Naoum 2008 ) when carry oning studies. Questionnaires have several advantages, they are inexpensive, cut down prejudice mistake and let for greater namelessness ( Robson 1996 ) . Postal questionnaires have the advantage of covering a broad geographic country and can supply a mass of information. However questionnaires are usually closed ended inquiries and hence do non supply flexibleness. One cardinal disadvantage to questionnaires is the low response rate with statistics proposing an mean response rate of 26 % for all studies. Even within the responses there is no manner to look into the dependability or cogency of the replies and will non needfully gave an accurate cross subdivision of the population. Due to technological progresss a new bomber type of questionnaires has been established ; internet studies. The cyberspace studies provide a faster and cheaper option to postal studies ( Dillman, 2007 cited in Denscombe, 2007 ) . Using the cyberspace the study can be administered through ;

An electronic mail – the inquiries are sent as portion of the electronic mail

A questionnaire sent in the signifier of an fond regard

A web based questionnaire

As with any questionnaire the response rate for cyberspace questionnaires is influenced by the ocular entreaty and the easiness with which it can be answered and returned ( Denscombe, 2007 ) . Internet studies can be seen to be more hard than postal studies in footings of happening the mark populations email references nevertheless this can be done by utilizing ready made lists such as a concerns list of employees email references.

Harmonizing to Sheatsley ( questionnaire contraction and points composing 1983 ) good designed questionnaires should obtain complete and accurate information that helps run into the aims and purposes of the research within the bounds of clip and resources. A questionnaire needs to be sharp and concise which asks inquiries important to the research ( Denscombe 2007 ) . A cardinal facet to questionnaires is the associated instructions, diction and the response picks ( Rea and Parker, 1997 Designing and carry oning study research ) . Robson ( 1996 ) outlines a checklist to assist avoid jobs in inquiry diction ( see below ) and finally accomplish more information to which to organize decisions on.

Interviews

Interviews are another method of obtaining primary informations these will affect a series of in depth face to confront interviews. An interview can be described as a ?face to confront interpersonal state of affairs in which an interviewer asks a respondent questions? ( Naoum 2008 ) . There are three signifiers of interviews ; structured, semi structured and unstructured. The diction of the inquiries will finally specify the construction of the interview.

Structured Interviews

The inquiries in structured interviews are predetermined, worded in the same format to all participants and presented in the same order. The inquiries within this interview technique tend to be close-ended nevertheless open-ended inquiries can be included. A structured format does non hold the flexibleness and would be harder to garner extra information nevertheless it does guarantee consistence. Structured interviews make it easier to measure and compare the different reply objectively as replies obtained are standardized.

Semi Structured Interviews

Similarly to structured, in this method the interviewer has a figure of preset inquiries which will be asked to all participants. However the interviewer does non hold to follow the exact inquiry construction as in structured interviews and can go from these inquiries if other relevant issues or information. Semi structured interviews are flexible and adaptative as the interviewer and interviewee has the freedom to accommodate and react to the flow of the treatment as it goes on while keeping and discoursing the subject of the undertaking in item. This allows the interviewee to obtain as much information as possible about the specific issues related to the capable country ( Naoum 2008 ) . With semi structured interviews the research worker must be cognizant of both interviewer and interviewee prejudice and therefore the dependability of the information. Another restriction of semi structured interviews is the possibility of the interviewee/interviewer traveling off subject during the interview.

Unstructured Interviews

This method tends to be used at the beginning of a research topic and act as explorative research to happen out more about the peculiar subject. As this method uses unfastened ended inquiries and there is no construction in footings of format and diction of the inquiries so the interviewer will necessitate to hold a clear apprehension of his/her research lineation in order to develop relevant inquiries as the interview goes on. The informations obtained from this method will be hard to analyze and compare as each interview will be different ( Naoum 2008 ) .

Method Chosen

Based on Robson?s ( 1996 ) position that in order to look into what those in the industry think, feel and believe about ( in Omans instance ) the impact of the policy on the residential existent estate market in Oman interviews or questionnaires. Although questionnaires are inexpensive and let the research worker to garner tonss of information, there are disadvantages which can associate more specifically to this research subject. As the existent estate industry in Oman is comparatively little and hence the figure of people involved in the industry is smaller, it may be more hard to find who to direct questionnaires to. The employment civilization tends to be based on a contract footing which means sometimes employees more specifically expatriate employees will be on 2, 3, 4 twelvemonth contracts and so travel someplace so it is hence hard to direct questionnaires to people who have n’t been involved in the industry long plenty or at the right clip to speak about the effects of the policy alteration. Another restriction is the general low response rate to questionnaires and particularly this may be amplified as the questionnaires will be sent overseas. Despite the aforesaid disadvantages, questionnaires will be used to assist quantify some of qualitative information. Due to the limited postal service in Oman, a web based cyberspace questionnaire will be designed on surveymonkey.com. A chief advantage of questionnaires is aiming a big sample population nevertheless this research would profit from more specific information and this will be obtained through interviews. The information gained from questionnaires will be used as a addendum to the information collected through interviews more specifically semi structured interviews. As mentioned above the existent estate industry is little in Oman and by utilizing the interview technique it allowed me to carefully choose the participants who could supply me with the most sum of information and from different facets of the industry such as the bureau, public sector and developers. The chief restriction of interviews relates to the research subject itself and comes in the signifier of cost, more specifically the cost of flights acquiring to Oman which finally reduces the opportunities of making follow up interviews and necessarily puts force per unit area to acquire all the necessary information whilst visiting. To battle this, the research worker will utilize webs of contacts to put up interviews in progress. This will besides assist cut down the opportunities that participants were out of the state. All participants that took portion in the interviews allowed me to take their electronic mail reference for any farther inquiries. Phone interviews were considered in order to cut down the restrictions of face to confront interviews nevertheless the concern cultural in Arab universe prefers face to confront contact. There are besides associated costs with making phone interviews albeit they are lower. With face to confront interviews and particularly utilizing semi structured interviews it is more advantageous to see the participant ‘s reaction and makes it easier to develop a line of oppugning. In order to bring forth valuable information and information, the beginning ( s ) or the trying method will hold to be selected.

Sampling Methods

It is of import to both research worker and the thesis to clearly specify and clear up the mark population. There are many types of trying methods ; the most outstanding are detailed below. There are advantages and disadvantages to all nevertheless the pick will finally depend on the aims and purposes of the research. There are two sorts of trying ; chance ( where the chance of the choice of each respondent is known ) and non chance ( where it is n’t known ) ( Robson 1996 ) .

Probability Sampling Methods

The mark population chosen in chance sampling is based on the thought that the research worker believes that these will be a representative cross subdivision of the whole population being studied ( Denscombe, 2007 ) . For this ground it is sometimes referred to as representative sampling. Whilst chance samples allow the research worker to ?generalise from sample to population such generalizations are themselves probabilistic? ( Robson, 1996 ) .

Simple Random Sampling

In this method of trying persons are indiscriminately selected from a list of the ?population? . This gives every individual person a opportunity of being selected. The usage of random trying assumes that if there is a big figure of the mark population selected truly at random so the ensuing sample will be a representative cross subdivision ( Denscombe 2007 ) . Simple random trying warrants a sample free from prejudice, but is frequently impractical.

Systematic Sampling

Systematic sampling is a discrepancy of random trying. In this method, the research worker randomly picks the first topic from the population list. Then the research worker will choose each ?n?th? topic from the list ( this is referred to as the sample interval. This is more precise than simple random trying as equally spreads over the population list nevertheless if the population has a specific agreement so it may non give an accurate representation

Stratified Sampling

The population list is divided into groups and so participants are selected by utilizing a simple random trying method from each peculiar group. Stratification will about surely give a representative sample of the population nevertheless this method can be really clip devouring as the classs ( population groups ) have to be identified.

Non Probability Sampling

Non chance sampling is conducted without cognizing whether those included in the sample are representative of the overall population. With this method it may be ?possible to state something reasonable about the population from non chance samples but non on the same sort of statistical grounds? ( Robson, 1996 ) . The footing for choosing non chance sampling is varied but Denscombe outlines 3 chief grounds:

The research worker feels it is non executable to include a sufficiently big figure of illustrations in the survey

The research worker does non hold sufficient information about the population to set about chance trying

It may be hard to reach a sample selected through conventional chance trying techniques

Within non chance sampling, how and why people get selected becomes an of import factor and a defining feature of this method in comparing to chance sampling is that the pick of people to be included in the sample is non a random choice.

Purposive Sampling

In this method, the mark population is ?hand picked? for the research as the research worker knows something about the people and deliberately selects people on the footing they are more likely to bring forth the most valuable informations. Denscombe illustrates this by inquiring the rhetorical inquiry ; ?Given what I already know about the research subject, who or what is likely to supply the best information? ?

Snowball Sampling

In sweet sand verbena sampling ( besides known as concatenation referral sampling ) participants or sources with who contact has already been made use their societal webs to mention the research worker to other people who could potentially lend farther information on the topic. This procedure continues until a mark sample size has been reached or until no new information can be obtained. Although this method does non give representative samples, it is peculiarly utile when seeking for specific information or more significantly specific people that due to their expertness or function within capable can lend valuable information. This method is compatible with the purposive sampling method and allows the advantages of both to be undertaken.

Convenience Sampling

This method involves taking the nearest and most convenient people to move as respondents ( Robson, 1996 ) . Denscombe makes an interesting point by proposing an component of convenience is likely to be in most research due to limited clip and money. Harmonizing to Robson this is one of the most widely used and least satisfactory methods of sampling.

Method Chosen

The aforesaid chance methods involve random trying which due to the specific nature of this research subject these methods would non be relevant to obtain the information needed to analyze and organize a strong decision. Therefore a non chance method will be used. Using convenience sampling may ensue in a deficiency of information, more specifically valuable information. The sweet sand verbena trying method will be used in this thesis with the purposive sampling method being used to choose the first participants of the research. Although there may be a greater hazard of prejudices due to subjectivity the information collected through the interviews and questionnaires will be observed in concurrence with the quantitative informations.

Secondary Beginnings of Datas

Secondary informations is described as ?data collected utilizing the desk survey approach… and are obtained from other ( already published ) sources? ( Naoum 2008 ) . In footings of clip restraints and cost secondary beginnings are a more preferable option. Descriptive paperss such as the old chapters literature reappraisal ( compiled by the usage of books and assorted publications ) are the chief type of secondary beginnings of informations. The literature reappraisal allowed the research worker to analyze the theory behind and the function of authorities intercession and place assorted aspects/problems which could be investigated further during the interviews. Statistical quantitative informations through existent estate market studies will besides be collected this can supply historic comparative informations and therefore assisting to make a complete image of the existent estate market from the clip before the debut of the Royal Decree through to the present twenty-four hours values of existent estate in Oman. It is of import to retrieve that some facets of the market studies may be biased or turn out inaccurate. The failings nevertheless can include that some information may non be available or sufficient.