The Material And Process Requirements For Airframe Engineering Essay

First of all, I would wish to present this assignment by giving some indicant as to the airframe interior decorator ‘s duty in the entire field of the aeronautical industry, encompassing design, industry and operation and later to sketch the mode in which the characteristic belongingss of the stuffs selected which able to lend to the fulfilment of the interior decorator ‘s duty.

Based on my research, the word of “ interior decorator ‘s duty ” can be explained in the undermentioned footings: “ the interior decorator ‘s duty covers the whole procedure from construct to the issue of elaborate instructions for production and his involvement continues throughout the designed life to the merchandise in service. ” Although this definition of a interior decorator ‘s duty was specifically agreed in the context of an question into the mechanical technology industry, few would challenge that it every bit applies to any subdivision of technology design. However, in today ‘s environment in the aeronautical field, it could good be somewhat amended to give acknowledgment to the fact that the existent life in service is be givening to increase significantly comparative to the nominal life envisaged at the design phase.

There are many aircraft in service today which are more than 20 old ages old and operators of commercial aircraft are looking for service lives of up to 30 old ages in the hereafter. It is non suggested that these lives have been achieved, or will be expected to be achieved, without replacing of some parts, perchance more than one time, during relevant period. However, the chief airframe is expected to last for such periods. Therefore, the continuance of the period over which the interior decorator ‘s involvement is expected to be maintained. The ability to accomplish these lives is really much influenced by the features of the stuff chosen for the airframe construction.

Besides that, consideration of these is as vital a portion of the design procedure as is consideration of the geometrical constellation. For economic considerations, of class, it plays a important portion in the go oning demand for longer lives. It is going progressively hard for new designs to demo major chance of economic advantage over the already established design.

Following, structural developments utilizing already established stuffs have tended to asymptote in footings of structural weight. Structural weight is a major parametric quantity in the operation economic sciences of an aircraft. If the airframe structural interior decorator is to do his part to an progress in the operating economic sciences, he can merely make so through the coming of new stuff offering the chance of improved structural efficiency and dependability.

Therefore, selected a proper and suited stuff for an airframe demand to be cognizant based on the basic demand of airframe every bit good.

Before I go in item about the stuff and procedure demand for an airframe, I would wish to discourse about the basic demand for an airframe.

Safety Requirement

Harmonizing to Dr. James from British Aircraft Corporation Limited, Commercial Aircraft Division, Weybridge Surrey, he has talk about the safety criterions for commercial aircraft are defined in the signifier of general demand, such as the British Civil Airworthiness Requirements in the U.K. or the Federal Aviation Requirements in the U.S.A. or as typically, the instance with military aircraft, in the aircraft specification itself. These will specify the burden conditions which the aircraft construction must be designed to defy in order to execute its specified maps. These will, in portion, be in footings of conditions straight under the control of the pilot and in portion, determined by the operating environment.

These demands will be such that under moderately foreseeable conditions, non merely will the aircraft construction and the indispensable systems remain integral but besides its winging features will non be adversely affected. Two conditions are usually defined, one a bound of cogent evidence burden status necessitating that the tonss be sustained without distortion of the construction such that its continued airworthiness is in uncertainty, and the other and ultimate burden status necessitating that the strength of the construction be such that prostration or critical rupture of the construction shall non happen before such tonss have been sustained for at least a few seconds.

The relation between these two conditions is usually such that the ultimate burden is 1.5 times limit burden or in the instance of military aircraft, sometimes 1.33 times proof burden. The two inactive strength conditions therefore defined are expected to be met throughout the operational life of the aircraft. It is necessary, hence, to guarantee that the stuff used is such that the strength conditions can be satisfied, non merely with the freshly constructed aircraft but throughout the long service life during which it will be subjected to the environmental conditions typical of aircraft operations.

Therefore, different facet must be take consideration in order to take the stuff that able to accomplish the safety demands. Furthermore, in discoursing the demands for airframe stuffs, it will be convenient to discourse the basic mechanical belongingss which traditionally have been regarded as supplying a step of the comparative structural efficiencies of stuffs and so to discourse the impact of operational and environmental effects.

Basic Mechanical Properties of an Airframe — -Strength and Stiffness

The normal footing of measuring the comparative efficiencies of stuffs from the structural strength point of position is in footings of the ratio denseness. For constituents loaded in tenseness and robust constituents loaded in shear or compaction force will be the ultimate tensile strength of the stuff if ultimate design strength is the standard.

Figure A

Figure A has show an airframe topographic points high demands on its stuffs frequently in complex burden instances such as shear emphasis, impact, high local tonss, flexing and others which has stat in the figure. If the bound or cogent evidence design strength is the standard so the force will be relevant cogent evidence or countervail output strength. For less robust constituents loaded in shear or compaction, instability may be the cause of prostration. The tangent modulus of snap, which for failure at emphasiss below the elastic bound but for failures at emphasiss above the elastic bound, will be a map of the emphasis at failure.

The critical value of the emphasis in these instances is non merely a map of the tangent modulus but is besides a map of the geometry of the constituent. From the stuffs point of position, the efficiency parametric quantities indicate that the basic demands are for high output and ultimate tensile strengths, high modulus of snap and low denseness. This statement of demands is so a cliche. In the context of airframe building, its truth has been recognized from the earliest yearss.

They are the factors which extended experience has taught us must frequently take precedency over simple structural efficiency, as measured in footings of basic mechanical belongingss, if the demands for safety, dependability, and economic operation over a long service life are to be realized. They reflect the response of stuffs to their service environment and highlight the demand for the interior decorator to guarantee that the design is such as to provide for the possible jobs, either straight in the geometric item of the design, or indirectly by supplying for equal preventive methods.

Service Problem

For service jobs, which have until really late detracted from the attractive forces of the high structural efficiency potency of aluminium metals for airframe application in old, have arisen chiefly from three causes, which may frequently hold occurred in combination. There are fatigues, notch sensitiveness and emphasis corrosion and I will discussed it individually as below:


The basic cause of weariness is excessively good known to necessitate farther remark. Suffice it to state that, except when standing idle, the airframe is continuously exposed to fluctuating tonss and hence to a weariness inducement environment.

The effect is that in major parts of an airframe where weariness considerations predominate, there is no advantage to be gained by the usage of the high strength metal. The emphasis restrictions imposed by weariness considerations are such that the ultimate strength potency of these metals is non reached under normal ultimate design considerations. It is sometimes argued that there is still merit in holding the extra inactive strength potency.

However, this potency has frequently to be overridden by considerations of the likely behaviour of the construction in which a weariness cleft has developed. This will be determined by the notch sensitiveness and break stamina of the stuff.

Notch Sensitivity and Fracture Toughness

The term notch sensitiveness is used to depict the impairment in the behaviour under emphasis of a stuff in the presence of a emphasis raiser, as compared with its behaviour in the absence of a emphasis raiser. Premature failures have occurred under inactive emphasis conditions due to the presence of what, in general technology footings, might be regarded as superficial imperfectnesss.

Such sensitiveness to imperfectnesss is evidently unwanted. The impairment, be it in inactive strength of weariness endurance, will be dependent on the acuteness of the notch and it most instances on its orientation relation to the local way of grain flow.

In order to compare to notch sensitiveness of stuffs, it is evidently necessary that the serrate tensile strength be established on the footing of a standard notch. An associated feature of stuffs is that which determines the rate of growing of clefts at emphasis below the critical degree, viz. its break stamina.

Besides that, the modern aircraft construction is designed to guarantee that the hazard of prostration of the construction due to failure of a individual structural component is highly distant. Structures designed on such rules are called “ fail-safe ” constructions. It is recognized that it is non ever possible to observe defects, particularly fatigue clefts, when they occur. It is extremely desirable, hence that the stuffs used have the feature of stamina.

Therefore, the stuffs choice for the airframe is a really of import subdivisions that interior decorator should take more consideration on it carefully with different premise to do certain it able to bring forth a greater airframe and cut down the cost at the same clip.

Stress Corrosion

Stress corrosion failures have, possibly been the most hard of the stuff related failure manners that the airframe interior decorator has to postulate with in the last few decennaries. Every airframe maker is able to cite illustrations of failures which have occurred, non merely really early in the service life of an aircraft but sometimes earlier entry into service every bit good.

Occasionally, failures have occurred on parts in shop before assembly to constituents. Such failures have been established as being due to emphasize corrosion. The failure has been due to the presence of a sustained tensile emphasis in the constituent while it is exposed to a caustic environment. The most distressing facet of such failures has been that the extent of corrosion nowadays, as determined by normal methods of appraisal, has been negligible.

The sustained emphasis may originate from one or more of three causes, heat intervention slaking emphasiss, machining emphasiss or assembly emphasiss. Rarely does it originate from the normal service emphasis on the chief airframe. It must be accepted in the context of airframe industry and aircraft operation, that all environments are caustic and that a sustained emphasis, hence, means a stress corrosion jeopardy if the stuff is susceptible.

It must besides be accepted that it is non possible to plan and buid a construction to such closely controlled dimensions as to wholly extinguish all assembly emphasis. Stress corrosion potency is hence, ineluctable and the demand exists for non-susceptible metals. Material makers have made great advancement in this field excessively. Initially decreased susceptibleness was achieved by modified heat intervention processs which carried with them impairment of the basic mechanical belongingss.

More late, progresss have been made in metal developments which have efficaciously restored the basic mechanical belongingss while keeping good emphasis corrosion opposition. This has been achieved by a combination of alterations in the balance of the major alloying elements and the debut of new secondary alloying elements.

Based on the service job which occurs when utilizing aluminum alloy as stuff of airframe in old, I would wish to state that this service job able to be solve by utilizing other more suited stuffs and it will be discuss material choice subdivision.

Creep and Temperature Effect

The demand for a long life at high temperature has resulted in really considerable attempt being devoted to set uping the response of the stuff to protract exposure to high temperature for the airframe. Several facets have to be considered in relation to go on structural unity. The impairment of mechanical belongingss of stuffs with rise in temperature has been known for many old ages chiefly as a consequence of the development work carried out in support of engine applications.

By the manner, the particular attempt has been devoted to analyzing the interaction between weirdo and fatigue behaviour in old when utilizing aluminum alloy as stuff of airframe. It has been shown that the consequence of the combination is inauspicious on both counts. Another phenomenon which has been revealed is that under certain conditions subsurface creep distortions can give rise to the development of subsurface weariness cleft induction and extension.

2.0 Material Choice

Based on the research about the airframe, I would wish to take Titanium Alloys as the stuff of airframe. Titanium is attractive to the airframe industry due to its mechanical belongingss and certain behaviour which able to carry through the demand of an airframe.

2.1 Introduction of Titanium Alloys

Titanium has been recognized as an component ( Symbol Ti ; atomic figure 22 ; and atomic weight 47.9 ) for at least 200 old ages. However, commercial production of Ti did non get down until the 1950 ‘s. At that clip, Ti was recognized for its strategic importance as a alone lightweight, high strength alloyed structurally efficient metal for critical, high-performance aircraft, such as jet engine and airframe constituents.

The world-wide production of this originally alien, “ Space Age ” metal and its metals have since grown to more than 50 million lbs yearly. Increased metal sponge and factory merchandise production capacity and efficiency, improved fabrication engineerings, a immensely expanded market base and demand have dramatically lowered the monetary value of Ti merchandises.

Today, Ti metals are common, readily available engineered metals that compete straight with chromium steel and forte steels, Cu metals, Nis based metals and complexs.

As the 9th most abundant component in the Earth ‘s Crust and 4th most abundant structural metal, the current world-wide supply of feedstock ore for bring forthing Ti metal is virtually limitless. Significant fresh worldwide sponge, runing and treating capacity for Ti can suit continued growing into new, high-volume applications. In add-on to its attractive high strength to- denseness features for aerospace usage, Ti ‘s exceeding corrosion opposition derived from its protective oxide movie has motivated extended application in saltwater, Marine, seawater and aggressive industrial chemical service over the past 50 old ages.

Today, Ti and its metals are extensively used for aerospace, industrial and consumer applications. In add-on to aircraft engines and airframes, Ti is besides used in the undermentioned applications: missiles ; ballistic capsule ; chemical and petrochemical production ; hydrocarbon production and processing ; power coevals ; desalinization ; atomic waste storage ; pollution control ; ore leaching and metal recovery ; offshore, marine deep sea applications, and Navy ship constituents ; armour home base applications ; anodes, automotive constituents, nutrient and pharmaceutical processing ; diversion and athleticss equipment ; medical implants and surgical devices ; every bit good as many other countries.

2.2 Reason Selecting Titanium Alloys as Material of Airframe

The chief ground of choosing Ti alloys as stuff of airframe is because of its attractive mechanical belongingss. Titanium and its alloys exhibit a alone combination of mechanical and physical belongingss and corrosion opposition which have made them desirable for critical, demanding aerospace, industrial, chemical and energy industry service. The primary properties of these metals listed in Table 1, Ti ‘s elevated strength-to-density represents the traditional primary inducement for choice and design into aerospace engines and airframe constructions and constituents.

Table 1: Primary Properties of Titanium Alloys

Elevated Strength-to-Density Ratio ( high structural efficiency )

Low Density ( approximately half the weight of steel, Ni and Cu metals )

Exceeding Corrosion Resistance ( superior opposition to chlorides saltwater and rancid and oxidising acidic media )

Excellent Elevated Temperature Properties ( up to 600a-¦C ( 1100a-¦F ) )

Its exceeding corrosion/erosion opposition provides the premier motive for chemical procedure, Marine and industrial usage. Figure 1 reveals the superior structural efficiency of high strength Ti alloys compared to structural steels and aluminium metals, particularly as service temperature addition.

Figure 1

Titanium alloys besides offer attractive elevated temperature belongingss for application in hot gas turbine and car engine constituents, where more creep resistant metals can be selected for temperature every bit high as 600a-¦C ( 1100a-¦F ) as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

The household of Ti alloys offers a broad spectrum of strength and combinations of strength and break stamina as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3

This permits optimized metal choice which can be tailored for a critical constituent based on whether it is controlled by strength and S-N weariness, or stamina and cleft growing in service.

Titanium alloys besides exhibit first-class S-N weariness strength and life in air, which remains comparatively unaffected by saltwater ( Figure 4 ) and other environments. Most titanium metals can be processed to supply high break stamina with minimum environmental debasement if required.

Figure 4

Figure 5

In fact, the lower strength Ti metal are by and large immune to emphasize corrosion snap and corrosion-fatigue in aqueous chloride media. For pressure-critical constituents and vass for industrial applications, Ti metals are qualified under legion design codifications and offer attractive design allowable up to 315a-¦C ( 600a-¦F ) as shown in Figure 5.

2.3 Corrosion and Erosion Resistance

Titanium alloys exhibit exceeding opposition to a huge scope of chemical environments and conditions provided by a thin, unseeable but highly protective surface oxide movie. This movie, which is chiefly TiO2, is extremely retentive, adherent and chemically stable, and can spontaneously and outright uncover itself if mechanical damaged if the least hints of O or H2O ( wet are present in the environment.

This metal protection extends from mildly cut downing to badly oxidising and from extremely acidic to reasonably alkalic environmental conditions ; even at high temperatures. Titanium is particularly known for its elevated opposition to localized onslaught and emphasis corrosion in aqueous chlorides and other halides and moisture halogens, highly-oxidizing, acidic solutions where most steels, chromium steel steels, Cu and Ni based metals can see terrible onslaught.

Titanium metals are besides recognized for their superior opposition to eroding, erosion-corrosion, cavitations, and encroachment in fluxing, disruptive fluids. This exceeding wrought metal corrosion and eroding opposition can be expected in matching elements, heat affected zones and castings for most Ti metal, since the same protective oxide surface movie is formed.

The utile opposition of Ti metal is limited in strong, extremely cut downing acerb media, such as reasonably or extremely concentrated solutions of HCl, HBr, H2SO4, and H3PO4, and in HF solutions at all concentrations, peculiarly as temperature additions. However, the presence of common background or polluting oxidising species, even in concentrations every bit low as 20-100 ppm, can frequently keep or dramatically widen the utile public presentation bounds of Ti in dilute-to-moderate strength cut downing acerb media.

Where enhanced opposition to thin cut downing acids or cranny corrosion in hot chloride solutions is required, Ti metals incorporating minor degrees of Pd, Ru, Ni or higher Mo should be considered. Some illustrations of these more corrosion-resistant Ti alloys include ASTM GRADES 7, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28, and 29. These minor metal add-ons besides inhibit susceptibleness to emphasize corrosion checking in high strength metals exposed to hot, sweet or rancid seawaters.

Therefore, Ti metals by and large offer utile opposition to significantly larger scopes of chemical environments and temperature compared to steel, unstained steels and aluminum- , copper- and nickel-based metals. Table 3 ( page 14 ) provides an overview of a myriad of chemical environments where Ti metals have been successfully utilized in the chemical procedure and energy industries.

Therefore, Ti metal is more suited stuffs that can be applied in airframe due to its attractive corrosion and eroding opposition which is much better than aluminium metals or others stuffs.

2.4 Others Attractive Properties of Titanium Alloys

Table 2: Other Attractive Properties of Titanium Alloys

Exceeding eroding and erosion-corrosion opposition

High weariness strength in air and chloride environments

High break stamina in air and chloride environments

Low modulus of snap

Low thermic enlargement coefficient

High thaw point

Basically nonmagnetic

High intrinsic daze opposition

High ballistic resistance-to-density ratio

Nontoxic, non-allergenic and to the full biocompatible

Very short radioactive half life

Excellent cryogenic belongingss

Titanium ‘s comparatively low denseness, which is 56 % of steel and half that of Ni and Cu metals, means twice every bit much metal volume per weight and much more attractive factory merchandise costs when viewed against other metal on a dimensional footing. Together with higher strength, this evidently translates into much lighter or smaller constituents for both inactive and dynamic constructions ( aerospace engines and airframes, movable military equipment ) , and lower emphasis for lighter rotating and reciprocating constituents. Reduced component weight and hang-off tonss achieved with Ti metals are besides cardinal for hydrocarbon production cannular strings and dynamic offshore risers and Navy ship and submergible constructions.

Titanium alloys exhibit a low modulus of snap which is approximately half that of steels and nickel metal. This increased snap ( flexibleness ) means decreased bending and cyclic emphasiss in deflection-controlled applications, doing it ideal for springs, bellows, organic structure implants, dental fixtures, dynamic offshore risers, bore pipe and assorted athleticss equipment.

Furthermore, Ti ‘s built-in no responsiveness ( atoxic, non-allergenic and to the full biocompatible ) with the organic structure and tissue has driven its broad usage in organic structure implants, prosthetic devices and jewellery. Therefore, this state of affairs able to protect the airframe from chemical reaction when it contact with air, rain H2O and environmental temperature.

Steming from the alone combination of high strength, low modulus and low denseness, Ti metals are per se more immune to floor and detonation harm than most other technology stuffs. These alloys possess coefficients of thermic enlargement which are significantly less than those of aluminium, ferric, nickel and Cu metal. This low coefficient of expansion allows for improved interface compatibility with ceramic and glass stuffs and minimizes warp age and fatigue effects during thermic cycling.

Titanium is basically nonmagnetic ( really somewhat paramagnetic ) and its ideal where electromagnetic intervention must be minimized. When irradiated, Ti and its isotopes exhibit highly short radioactive half-lives, and will non stay “ hot ” for more than several hours. Its instead high runing point is responsible for its good opposition to ignition and combustion in air, while its built-in ballistic opposition reduces susceptibleness to thaw and dining during ballistic impact, doing it a pick lightweight armour stuff for airframe. Alpha and alpha-beta Ti alloys possess really low ductile-to-brittle passage temperatures and have, hence been attractive stuffs for cryogenic vass, airframe and constituents.

2.5 Heat Transfer Characteristic

Titanium has been a really attractive and good established heat transportation stuff in shell or tubing, home base or frame, and other types of heat money changers for procedure fluid warming or chilling, particularly in seawater ice chests. Exchanger heat transportation efficiency can be optimized because of the undermentioned good properties of Ti:

Exceeding opposition to corrosion and fluid eroding

An highly thin, conductive oxide surface movie

A difficult, smooth, difficult-to-adhere to come up

A surface that promotes condensation

Reasonably good thermal conduction

Good strength

Although unalloyed Ti possesses an built-in thermic conduction below that of Cu or aluminium, its conduction is still about 10-20 % higher than typical chromium steel steel metals. With its good strength and ability to to the full defy corrosion and eroding from fluxing, disruptive fluids, Ti walls can be thinned down dramatically to minimise heat transportation opposition and cut downing the cost at the same clip.

Titanium ‘s smooth non-corroding, hard-to-adhere to surfaces maintains high cleanliness factors over clip. This surface promotes drop-wise condensation from aqueous bluess, thereby heightening condensation rates in ice chest or capacitors compared to other metals as indicated in Figure 6.

Figure 6

The ability to plan and run with high procedure or chilling H2O side flow rates and turbulency farther enhances overall heat transportation efficiency.

All of these properties permit Ti heat money changer size, stuff demands and overall initial life rhythm costs to be reduced doing Ti heat money changers more efficient and cost-efficient than those designed with other common technology metals.

Harmonizing to Dr. Roger Digby, CEng FIMMM, Head of M & A ; P Integration, New Product Airbus, November 2007, he has comes out the information as below which is rather similar with the information that has been presented by Dr. James at the beginning of this assignment.

Dr. Roger Digby has stat that Titanium Alloys has high strength to burden ratio which able to lend some weight economy and used for extremely laden construction in geometrically constrained countries ( flying root and set downing gear bay ) .

Furthermore, the built-in opposition to corrosion and compatibility with complexs able to take demand for surfacing and simplifies the design of the airframe every bit good. Furthermore, the belongings stableness at elevated temperatures able to replace Aluminum in high temperature country such as APU bay of the airframe.

Based on research information by Dr. Roger Digby, the complexs use over clip can be expressed by diagram above and I realized that the consequence of the research is titanium have replacing aluminium construction in airframe.

Diagram above is the rule Titanium application on A380. Based on the diagram, we able to see that Ti metal is an of import stuff in airframe industrial and due to its attractive mechanical belongingss, it has been chosen for the stuff of airframe.

Even thought the monetary value of the Ti might be more expensive if comparison with others material such as aluminium metals, but when we comparing at the mechanical belongingss between Ti metals and others stuffs, I found out that Ti metal is still the most suited stuff for airframe.

Besides that, utilizing titanium metal able to cut down the care cost or service class if comparison to other stuff such as aluminium metal that confronting service jobs that has been discuss in service jobs subdivision ( page 4 ) .

3.0 Fabrication procedure of Titanium Alloys for Airframe

Before I goes in item about the fiction procedure or processes about Ti metals, I would wish to discourse about the basic Ti metallurgy.

3.1 Basic Titanium Metallurgy

Titanium factory produces that available in both commercially pure and metal classs can be grouped into three classs harmonizing to the prevailing stage or stages in their microstructure, there are alpha, alpha-beta, and beta.

Although each of these three general metal types requires specific and different factory processing methodological analysiss, each offers a alone suite of belongingss which may be advantageous for a given application. In pure Ti, the alpha stage can be characterized by a hexangular stopping point packed crystalline construction which is stable from room temperature to about 882A°C ( 1620A°F ) . The beta stage in pure Ti has a body-centered three-dimensional construction and is stable from about 882A°C ( 1620A°F ) to the runing point of about 1688A°C ( 3040A°F ) .

3.2 Machining Titanium

Titanium can be economically machined on a everyday production footing if store processs are set up allow for the physical features common to the metal. The factors which must be given consideration are non complex, but they are critical to successfully machining Ti.

The different classs of Ti such as commercially pure and assorted metals do non hold indistinguishable machining characteristic, any more than all steels, or all aluminium classs have indistinguishable features. As illustration, chromium steel steel has low thermic conduction of Ti inhibits dissipation of heat within the work piece itself, therefore necessitating proper application of coolants.

Good tool life and successful machining of Ti metals can be assured if the undermentioned guidelines are observed:

Maintain crisp tools to minimise heat buildup and galling

Use stiff apparatus between tool and workpiece to counter workpiece flection

Use a generous measure of cutting fluids to maximise heat remotion

Use lower film editing velocities

Maintain high provender rates

Avoid breaks in provender ( positive provender )

Regularly take turnings from machines

For the machining Ti subdivision, it can be divided into different machinery manner. They are as below:


Commercially pure and alloyed Ti can be turned with small trouble. Carbide tools should be used wherever possible for turning and tiring since they offer higher production rates and longer tool life.

Where high velocity steels are used, the ace high velocities are recommended. Tool warp should be avoided and a heavy and changeless watercourse of cutting fluid applied at the cutting surface. Live centres must be used since Ti will prehend on the dead centre.


The milling of Ti is more hard operation than that of turning. The cutter Millss merely portion of each revolution and french friess tend to adhere to the dentition during that part of the revolution that each tooth does non cut. On the following contact, when the bit is knocked off, the tooth may be damaged.

This job can be alleviated to a great extent by using ascent milling, alternatively of conventional milling. In this type of milling, the cutter is in contact with the thinnest part of the bit as it leaves the cut, minimising bit “ welding ”

For slab milling, the work should travel in the same way as the cutting dentitions and for face milling, the dentitions should emerge from the cut in the same way as the work is fed.

In milling Ti, when the film editing border fails, it is normally because of come offing. Therefore, the consequences with carbide tools are frequently less satisfactory than with high velocity steel. The addition in cutting velocities of 20-30 % which is possible with carbide tools compared with high velocity steel tools does non ever counterbalance for the extra tool grinding costs.

Consequently, it is advisable to seek both high velocity steel and carbide tools to find the better of the two for each milling occupation. The usage of a water-base coolant is recommended every bit good.


Successful boring is accomplished by utilizing crisp drills of proper geometry and by keeping maximal boring force to guarantee uninterrupted cutting. It is of import to avoid holding the drill sit the Ti surface since the attendant work indurating makes it hard to restore the cut.

Another of import factor in boring Ti is the length of the unsupported subdivision of the drill. This part of the drill should be no longer than necessary to bore the needed deepness of hole and still let the french friess to flux unhindered through the flutes and out of the hole. This permits application of maximal edged force per unit area, every bit good as rapid drill remotion to clear french friess and bore re-engagement without breakage. An equal supply of cutting fluid to the cutting zone is besides of import.

High velocity steel drills are satisfactory for lower hardness metals and for commercially pure Ti but carbide drills are best for most Ti metals and for deep holes boring.


Titanium is successfully ground by choosing the proper combination of crunching fluid, scratchy wheel, and wheel velocities. Both aluminium oxide and Si carbide wheels are used. Considerably lower wheel velocities than in conventional grinding of steels are recommended. Feeds should be light and peculiar attending paid to the coolant.

A water-sodium nitrite coolant mixture gives good consequences with aluminum oxide wheels. Silicon carbide wheels operate best with sulfochorinated oils, but these can show a fire jeopardy, and it is of import to deluge the work when utilizing these oilbase coolants.


For the others method that can be applied in machining Ti including tapping, sawing, H2O jet, electric discharge machining and chem. milling every bit good. All this method is utile and of import in the advancement of Ti metal fiction procedure.

3.3 Forming Titanium

Titanium and its metals can be cold and hot formed on standard equipment utilizing techniques similar to those of unstained steels. However, Ti possesses certain alone features that affect formability, and these must be considered when set abouting Ti organizing operations.

The room temperature ductileness of Ti and its metal is by and large less than that of the common structural metals including chromium steel steels. This necessitates more generous crook radii and less allowance for stretch formability when cold forming.

Titanium has a comparatively low modulus of snap, about half that of chromium steel steel. This consequences in greater spring back during forming and requires compensation either during flexing or in post crook intervention.

Titanium in contact with itself or other metals exhibits a greater inclination to chafe than does unstained steel. Therefore, skiding contact with tooling surfaces during organizing calls for the usage of lubricators. Effective lubricators by and large include lubricating oil, heavy oil or waxy types, which may incorporate black lead or molly disulfide additives for cold forming and solid movie lubricators or glassy coatings for higher temperature forming.

The followers is basic information on organizing Ti. A great trade of published information exists on Ti forming patterns in the common commercial forming procedures.

Surface Preparation

Before Ti sheet is formed, it should be clean and free of surface defect such as dents, abrasions or crunching Markss. All scratches deeper than the coating produced by 180-grid emery should be removed by sanding. To forestall border snap, burred and crisp borders should be radius. Surface oxides can take to checking during cold forming and should be removed by mechanical or chemical methods.

Home plate merchandises should be free of gross emphasis raisers, really unsmooth, irregular surface coatings, and seeable oxide graduated table and brickle alpha instance ( diffused-in O beds ) to accomplish sensible cold or warm formability. Experience has shown that pickled home base frequently exhibits enhanced formability compared to plate with as-grit blame or as land surface coatings.

Cold Versus Hot Forming

Commercially pure Ti, the ductile, low-alloy alpha and unpaged beta Ti alloys can be cold formed within certain bounds. The sum of cold forming either in bending or stretching is a map of the tensile elongation of the stuff.

Heating Ti increases its formability, reduces spring back and permits maximal distortion with minimal tempering between organizing operation. Heated organizing dies or beaming warmers are on occasion used for low temperature organizing while electric furnaces with air ambiances are the most suited for heating to higher temperature. Gas fired furnaces are acceptable if flame encroachment is avoided and the ambiance is somewhat oxidising.

Any hot forming or tempering of Ti merchandises in air at temperature above about 590-620a-¦C produces a seeable surface oxide graduated table and diffused-in O bed ( alpha instance ) that may necessitate remotion on fatigue- and fracture critical constituents. Oxide scale remotion can be achieved automatically or by chemical descale intervention.

Stress Relief and Hot Sizing

Cold forming and unbending operations produce residuary emphasiss in Ti that sometimes necessitate remotion for ground of dimensional stableness and Restoration of belongingss.

Stress relieving can besides function as an intermediate heat intervention between phases of cold forming. The temperatures employed lie below the tempering ranges for Ti metals. They by and large fall within 482-649a-¦C with times runing from 30 to 60 proceedingss depending on the workpiece constellation and grade of emphasis alleviation desired.

Hot size is frequently used for rectifying spring back and inaccuracies in form and dimensions of preformed parts. The portion is appropriately fixture such that controlled force per unit area is applied to certain countries of the portion during warming. This fixture unit is placed in a furnace and heated at temperatures and times sufficient to do the metal to crawl until it conforms to the coveted form. Creep forming is used in a assortment of ways with Ti, frequently in concurrence with compaction organizing utilizing het dies.

Typical Forming Operation

Following are description of several typical organizing operations performed on Ti. They are representative of operations in which bending and stretching of Ti occur. The forming can be done cold, warm or hot. The pick is governed by a figure of factors among which are workpiece subdivision thickness, the intended grade of bending or stretching, the velocity of forming ( metal strain rate ) , and alloy merchandise type.

Brake Forming

In this operation, bending is employed to organize angles, z-sections, channels and round cross subdivisions including pipe. The tooling consists of unwarmed dies or heated female and male dies.

Stretch Forming

Stretch forming has been used on Ti sheet chiefly to organize contoured angles, hat subdivisions, Z-sections and channels, and to organize teguments to particular contours. This type of forming is accomplished by gripping the sheet space in knurled jaws, lading it until fictile distortion begins, and so wrapping the portion around a male dice. Stretch forming can be done cold utilizing cheap tooling or, more frequently it is done warm by utilizing heated tooling and preheating the sheet space by the tooling.

Spining and Shear Forming

These cold, warm or hot procedures shape titanium sheet or home base metal into seamless hollow parts utilizing force per unit area on a revolving workpiece. Spining produces merely minor thickness alterations in the sheet, where as shear-forming involves important fictile distortion and wall cutting.

Other Forming Procedures

Titanium alloy sheet and home base merchandises are frequently formed cold, warm or hot in gravitation cock and pneumatic bead cock imperativenesss affecting progressive distortion with perennial blows in matched dies. Drop cock forming is best suited to the less high strain rate sensitive alpha and leaner alpha-beta Ti metals. Hot closed-die and even isothermal imperativeness forging is normally used to bring forth near-net form constituents from Ti metals.

Trapped-rubber forming of Ti sheet in cold or warm ( 540a-¦C soap ) pressing operation can be less expensive than that utilizing conventional coupling “ difficult dice ” tooling. Even explosive forming has been successfully employed to organize complex Ti metal airframe constituent.

The lower strength, more malleable Ti metals can be roll-formed cold as sheet strip to bring forth long lengths of form merchandises, including welded tube and pipe. Welded or seamless tube can be dead set cold on conventional spindle tubing benders. Seam-welded unalloyed Ti piping can besides be dead set cold or warm on standard equipment using internal spindles to minimise buckling, whereas higher strength metal seamless piping can be successfully dead set in stairss via hot initiation bending.

3.4 Welding Procedure

Commercially pure Ti and most Ti metals are readily welded by a figure of welding procedures being used today. The most common method of fall ining Ti is the gas wolfram discharge ( GTAW ) procedure and, secondarily, the gas metal-arc ( GMAW ) procedure. Others include electron beam and more late laser welding every bit good as solid province procedures such as clash welding and diffusion bonding. Titanium and its metals besides can be joined by opposition welding and by brazing.

The techniques for welding Ti resemble those employed with nickel metals and chromium steel steels. To accomplish sound dyer’s rockets with Ti, primary accent is placed on surface cleanliness and the right usage of inert gas shielding. Molten Ti reacts readily with O, N and H and exposure to these elements in air or in surface contaminations during welding can adversely impact Ti dyer’s rocket metal belongingss. As a effect, certain welding procedures such as shielded metal discharge, flux cored discharges and submerged discharges are unsuitable for welding Ti.

In add-on, Ti can non be welded to most other metals because of formation of embrittling metallic compounds that lead to weld snap.

3.4.1 Welding Environment

While chamber or glove box welding of Ti is still in usage today, the huge bulk of welding is done in air utilizing inert gas shielding. Argon is the preferable shielding gas although argon He mixtures on occasion are used if more heat and greater dyer’s rocket incursion are desired. Conventional welding power supplies are used both for gas wolfram discharge and for gas metal discharge welding. Tungsten arc welding is done utilizing DC consecutive mutual opposition ( DCSP ) while contrary mutual opposition ( DCRP ) is used with the metallic discharge.

3.4.2 Inert Gas Shielding

An indispensable demand for successfully arc welding Ti is proper gas shielding. Care must be taken to guarantee that inert ambiance protection is maintained until the dyer’s rocket metal temperature cools below 426A°C ( 800A°F ) . This is accomplished by keeping three separate gas watercourses during welding.

The first or primary shield gas watercourse issues from the torch and shields the molten puddle and next surfaces. The secondary or draging gas shield protects the coagulated dyer’s rocket metal and heat-affected zone during chilling. The 3rd or backup shield protects the weld bottom during welding and chilling. Assorted techniques are used to supply these tracking and backup shields and one illustration of a typical torch draging shield building is shown below. The backup shield can take many signifiers.

One commonly used for consecutive seam dyer’s rockets is a Cu endorsing saloon with gas ports functioning as a heat sink and screening gas beginning. Complex workpiece constellations and certain store and field fortunes call for some resourcefulness in making the agency for backup shielding. This frequently takes the signifier of plastic or aluminium foil enclosures or “ collapsible shelters ” taped to the rear of the dyer’s rocket and flooded with inert gas.

3.4.3 Weld Join Preparation

Titanium weld joint designs are similar to those for other metals, and the border readying is normally done by machining or crunching. Before welding, it is indispensable that the dyer’s rocket articulation surfaces are free of any taint and that they remain clean during the full welding operation. The same demands use to welding wire used as filler metal. Contaminants such as oil, lubricating oil and fingerprints should be removed with detergent cleaners or non-chlorinated dissolvers. Light surface oxides can be removed by acid pickling while heavier oxides may necessitate grit blasting followed by pickling.

3.4.4 Weld Quality Evaluation

A good step of dyer’s rocket quality is weld colour. Bright Ag dyer’s rockets are an indicant that the dyer’s rocket shielding is satisfactory and those proper dyer’s rockets interpose temperatures have been observed. Any weld stain should be cause for halting the welding operation and rectifying the job. Light straw-coloured dyer’s rocket stain can be removed by wire brushing with a clean chromium steel steel coppice, and the welding can be continued. Dark bluish oxide or white powdery oxide on the dyer’s rocket is an indicant of a earnestly lacking purging.

The welding should be stopped, the cause determined and the oxide covered dyer’s rocket should be wholly removed and re-welded. For the finished dyer’s rocket, non-destructive scrutiny by liquid penetrate, skiagraphy and/or ultrasound are usually employed in conformity with a suited welding specification. At the beginning of welding it is advisable to measure weld quality by mechanical testing. This frequently takes the signifier of weld crook testing, sometimes accompanied by tensile trials.

3.4.5 Resistance Welding

Topographic point and seam welding processs for Ti are similar to those used for other metals. The inert-gas shielding required in arc welding is by and large non required here. Satisfactory dyer’s rockets are possible with a figure of combinations of current, weld clip and electrode force. A good regulation to follow is to get down with the welding conditions that have been established for similar thicknesses of chromium steel steels and adjust the current, clip or force as needed. As with discharge welding, the surfaces to be joined must be clean. Before get downing a production tally of topographic point or seam welding, weld quality should be evaluated by tenseness shear testing of the first dyer’s rockets.

3.5 Cost Factor of Titanium Alloys

The monetary value of Ti metal merchandises consequences from a figure of factors:

Debasing class. ( Some classs with Pd debasing constituent can significantly increase the monetary value of the metal.

The pureness of the class. ( the more pure the higher the cost )

The trial and review demands

The procured measures. ( the more ordered the lower the specific cost )

The geometry. ( Rolling or hammering affects monetary values per volume or weight )

Demand ( high defence demand for aerospace industry can ensue higher metal monetary values )

Local economic system ( Metal handiness )

Based on my research, the monetary value of Ti was approximately 13000 to 43000/tonne in twelvemonth 2000 but following by 8950/tonne in twelvemonth 2002. In twelvemonth 2005, the monetary value of Ti has varied between 6000 and 9000/ metric ton which keep diminishing if comparison with old. This state of affairs occurs because the needed of Ti metal has been increasing and hence the volume of industry has been increasing every bit good, hence, the monetary value able to be reduced to carry through the demand.

4.0 Decision

As decision, Ti metal is a really good and celebrated stuff in this century due to its attractive mechanical belongingss and high engineering that able to be applied in the fiction procedure. Therefore, Ti metal is the most suited stuff which can be used for the airframe industrial.