In the latest Living Planet Report building and route edifice was noted as being one of the largest drivers of biodiversity loss due to human activities ( WWF, 2008 ) . As planetary concern about society ‘s impact on the environment rises, the force per unit area on administrations to work to a higher environmental criterion is increasing. With the of all time turning consciousness and significance of environmental impact the successful execution of an effectual Environmental Management System ( EMS ) is going more of import that of all time earlier.
Purpose/ Rationale ( Background to topic )
The principle for this thesis is that by successfully implementing an EMS administrations can better their environmental public presentation and hence aid cut down the negative effects human activity has on the environment. Integrating an EMS will non assist pull off the environment straight but alternatively dressed ores on put ining environmental ends into mundane processs with the purpose of cut downing an administrations negative impacts ( Sheldon, Yoxon, 2006, page 2 ) . Developing a civilization of attention through environmental preparation, consciousness and communicating may help administrations in bettering their environmental public presentation.
BS EN ISO 14001 provides counsel for organisations “ concerned with accomplishing and showing sound environmental public presentation ” to develop systems to pull off their environmental duties. Developing an environmental policy without enfranchisement to criterions with the purpose of stand foring an EMS is possible ( Hyde and Reeve, 2006 ) . However, conformity to criterions provides a figure of benefits. For an administration to run into the demands of an ISO based EMS it must besides integrate “ preparation, consciousness and competency ” . As BS EN ISO 14001 provinces any individual who ‘s responsibilities may do important environmental harm must be able to conform to the preparation consciousness and competency demands as stated in the EMS. Almost all functions within the building industry will impact on the environment in one manner or another for illustration physical during the building stage or indirectly during the design procedure. Therefore it is critical that each member of an administration regardless of place or function must be cognizant and take duty for environmental direction. In bend this will besides relieve some of the force per unit areas placed upon specialized environmental sections leting them to work more expeditiously. Puting duty across all squad members in this mode can be achieved through preparation, consciousness and communicating strategies that are relevant to the day-to-day patterns of the administration.
Through implementing consciousness based EMS ‘s that are compliant with certified criterions administrations may be able to develop a civilization of attention for environmental consciousness and commit to bettering their environmental public presentation.
As stated in the authoritiess Strategy for sustainable building, 2008, page 1,
“ It is clear that we can non run into our declared environmental marks without dramatically cut downing the environmental impact of edifices and substructure building ; we have to alter the manner we design and build ”
The purpose of this thesis is to research the spread between EMS theory and pattern in building and develop schemes for bridging the spread utilizing preparation, consciousness and communicating strategies.
What constitutes an EMS? i.e. EMAS, ISO14000 etc.
Determine the troubles that are faced when implementing an EMS in the building industry.
Investigate the altering relationships between hierarchal degrees and environmental consciousness and how this relationship can impact an administrations environmental public presentation.
Identify the normally used schemes for implementing the preparation, consciousness and competency elements of an EMS in building undertakings.
Develop a typical preparation strategy that could be used to implement a successful EMS in a site based environment.
Brief description of the methodological analysis used in the survey.
Explanation of and debut to the construction of the survey.
Chapter 2 – Environmental Management Systems?
Importance of Environmental Management.
Over the past few old ages both public and corporate attending has been drawn towards the negative impacts that humanity is holding on the planet.
What is an EMS?
Environmental Management Systems are used by administrations to supervise and command any negative impacts that they may hold on the environment. As with most direction systems the chief aim of an EMS is to let relevant information to be conveyed efficaciously through an administration. As Sheldon and Yoxon ( 2006 ) place this allows countries of concern to be assessed with the relevant information in topographic point before the issue can decline. An EMS will normally contains the organizational construction, duties, patterns, processs, procedures and resources for finding and implementing environmental policy ( Netherwood, 1996 ) . Through developing an EMS administrations will be able to place the most important impacts that are relevant to the company. This will in bend allow resources and processs to be focused and prioritised on the issues with the highest demand.
The Defra place statement on EMS province that to lend to improved environmental public presentation, a good EMS should:
Be implemented at a strategic degree and integrated into corporate programs, and policies.
Top-level committedness is required so that senior direction understand their function in guaranting the success of an EMS.
Identify the administration ‘s impacts on the environment and set clear aims and marks to better their direction of these facets every bit good as the administration ‘s overall environmental public presentation.
Be designed to present and pull off conformity with environmental Torahs and ordinance on an on-going footing, and will rapidly incite disciplinary and preventive action in instances of legal con-compliance.
Deliver good resource direction and fiscal benefits.
Incorporate assured public presentation prosodies that demonstrate the above and that can be communicated in a crystalline mode in one-year studies.
What are the differences between ISO14001, EMAS, etc. ?
Administrations that implement standardised EMS ‘s are faced with the determination of which criterions to attest their EMS under. Presently the two most normally used criterions are the European Eco-management and Audit Scheme ( EMAS ) and the worldwide ISO 14001 series. Although EMAS was the first EMS to be developed and in 1993 was released a twelvemonth before ISO 14001, as portion of the ISO household of criterions ISO 14001 is now the most recognized and normally enforced system. Further to a recent amendment to EMAS, conformity to ISO 14001 is now required to go certified with EMAS. In add-on to ISO14001 conformity companies must besides carry through extra responsibilities to go to the full commissioned members of EMAS. One of the chief differences between ISO14001 and EMAS is that to derive EMAS accreditation an administration must print it environmental statement. In printing the statement this will open the administrations environmental patterns to farther examination in peculiar from members of the populace, imperativeness and other stakeholders. These external force per unit areas may hold the consequence of increasing the companies desire to follow with their outlined environmental practise. An ISO system nevertheless does non put this responsibility on administrations and is alternatively a system used to heighten environmental public presentation and guarantee legal conformity utilizing internal direction focal point ( Freimann and Walther, 2002 ) .
Why implement EMAS?
EMAS is a voluntary strategy, therefore the inquiry why would companies take to take part in the strategy must be asked. R. Starkey as edited by Welford ( 1998 ) notes that although full administrations can be in conformity with ISO 14001, merely sites where industrial activities are taking topographic point can be certified by EMAS.
How does the administration of a company impact their EMS ‘s?
Environmental Law and duties
EMS jurisprudence developed out of EIA jurisprudence? ? ? ?
A common ground for implementing an EMS is due to troubles in keeping environmental due diligence within the parametric quantities of the jurisprudence ( Sheldon, Yoxdon, 2006 ) . During the debut of EMSs they were chiefly centred around maintaining administrations working patterns within environmental statute law and legal conformity ( Watson and Emery, 2007 ) . Although the focal point of EMS may now be towards aˆ¦ it sill remains and of import to place relevant statute law and maintain this at the bosom of the system. Defra ‘s place statement states that a good EMS should be “ designed to present and pull off conformity with environmental Torahs and ordinance on an on-going footing, and will rapidly incite disciplinary and preventive action in instances of legal con-compliance ” .
It effects over eight different elements of ISO 14001 and even further in EMAS as companies can be “ de-registered ” for any breach relevant regulative demands ( Sheldon, Yoxdon, 2006, pg 78 ) .
Typically, environmental legislative acts set up a regulative construction consisting of a system of licenses and licenses ( frequently described as “ control and bid ” , or “ the right to foul ” ) ( Yarnell, 1993 ) .
Execution and operation
Based on the ISO 14001 theoretical account for execution.
Challenges in Implementing EMS
Often hapless and uneffective direction systems can be blamed for the ruin of some administrations environmental patterns. Having an uneffective EMS can frequently take to incurred costs, extra remedial work and harm to the companies repute ( Welford, 1998 ) . Many challenges are faced by administration looking to put in execution of an EMS, most normally these include:
Figure 1 – ( Kirkland and Thompson, 1999 )
However ignorance can non be used as a defense mechanism for non-compliance and can frequently be nearer attributed to carelessness. If this is the instance non-compliance can ensue in mulcts and in some instance may ensue in strong beliefs for company managers ( Welford, 1998 ) . Some administrations may besides happen that the initial spending for implementing a new EMS produces no immediate benefits. Often directors can merely see these costs and can be unsighted towards the possible cost benefits of EMS debut such as avoiding legal costs and mulcts, remedial work, nest eggs in waste disposal and energy usage and besides the benefits that come with an overall improved public image. However the long term environmental benefits and improved concern procedures must be the chief focal point when presenting a new EMS.
Training consciousness and competency
A common obstruction in EMS execution is a deficiency of battle from staff this can frequently be attributed to a deficiency of cognition or apprehension of the impacts their work on the environment. One method of get the better ofing these troubles and successfully developing a theoretical EMS into a practical direction system is through the usage of consciousness preparation.
As stated in ISO 14001:
“ The organisation shall guarantee that any individual ( s ) acting undertakings for it or on its behalf that have the possible to do a important environmental impact ( s ) identified by the organisation is ( are ) competent on the footing of appropriate instruction, preparation or experience, and shall retain associated records. ”
Through environmental awareness preparation employees must be made cognizant of the undermentioned elements:
The importance of following with the environmental policy and processs and the demands of the EMS.
The existent or possible impacts of their work and how bettering their personal public presentation can profit the environment.
Their functions and duties in run intoing the demands of the EMS, and
The possible effects of non-conformance with processs. ( ISO 14001 )
How make you mensurate competency?
Technical competency is one of the factors in mensurating consciousness and competency. This component ensures that employees have a sound proficient cognition and have the relevant accomplishments to set about their responsibilities without doing negative impacts on the environment.
What are the usual or recommended methods of preparation?
Yarnell ( 1999 ) identifies that EMS preparation can be split into three different types of preparation these are as follows:
Senior direction instruction.
How cognizant do squad members need to be?
Chapter 3 – Methodology
Qualitative/ quantitative benefits of each
Justification of chosen method
Guidelines for subdivision:
What type of research was used?
Why was this attack chosen?
What type of informations was gained by the research?
Who was involved and how were participants selected?
What equipment/ instruments were used?
Where and when did the probe take topographic point?
How was the probe conducted and why was it done this manner?
How was data collected, analysed and presented?
Phase 1 – Literature research
This survey will reexamine the relevant literature on the affair of Environmental direction systems in peculiar looking at execution, care, consciousness, preparation and communicating. Initial research indicates that there is varied scope of literature available to reexamine. This includes legislative publications, text editions, and diaries such as “ Using a communication-mapping theoretical account for environmental direction ( CMEM ) to better environmental public presentation in undertaking development procedures ” ( Tam, Shen, Yau, Tam, 2007 ) .
Research commence seeking in Athens, INFORMAWORLD, Engineering and Technology, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Management Plans Demystified, Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems
Phase 2 – Case Study and Exploratory Questionnaires
The inquiries shall center around the countries mentioned in the aims supra. To have the highest possible degree of response, a multi-choice format will be used and the figure of inquiries will be limited to about 20 – 30. Open inquiries will non be used as they can bring forth a broad assortment of replies depending on the respondent ‘s reading of the inquiry. Furthermore, with potentially varied and drawn-out responses, the analyses of the consequences can be well more hard.
Phase 3 – Writing up
This phase involves composing up the content of the thesis and should cover the chapters proposed below.