The Ib Economics Internal Assessment Economics Essay

Two macroeconomic aims that a authorities would wish to accomplish are: a low and stable rate of rising prices and a low degree of unemployment. Unemployment is defined as the people of working age who are without work, available for work and actively seeking employment harmonizing to ILO, while rising prices is defined as a relentless addition in the mean monetary value degree in the economic system. Phillips curve suggests that there is a tradeoff between those two macroeconomic jobs. This means that the addition in the unemployment rate from 10.6 in December 2011 to 10.7 in January 2012 in the Euro Zone should do a autumn in the unemployment rate, harmonizing to Alban Williams Philips ‘ theory. The Euro Zone is an economic and pecuniary brotherhood of 17 European Union member provinces that have adopted the euro as their common currency and exclusive legal stamp.[ 2 ]

Taking a deeper expression at Phillips ‘ theory, it is implied that there is an inversely relative relationship between the rising prices and unemployment rate. A conjectural Phillips Curve is demonstrated below.

Inflation Rate %

Unemployment Rate %





It is observed that as rising prices falls from 6 % to 2 % unemployment additions from 3 % to 5 % . This tradeoff can be used by authoritiess to cut down either unemployment or rising prices but at the cost of leting the other rate to increase. This fact can besides be explained by an aggregative demand/aggregate supply analysis.


Aggregate monetary value degree

Real Output ( Y )

If the economic system is ab initio in equilibrium at with a Price degree of and the authorities feels there is excessively much unsought unemployment, so it might utilize Keynesian demand direction constabularies to increase the aggregative demand, from to. That is a displacement to the right of the aggregative demand. If such a policy is implemented so the existent end product will increase from to and therefore it is assumed that houses start using more workers to run into increased aggregative demand. Unemployment falls but the monetary value degree has increased from to. This means higher rising prices. Therefore, this theory agrees with the Phillips curve hypothesis, since decreased unemployment is achieved by higher rising prices.





Inflation Rate %

Unemployment Rate %











In the Euro Zone, nevertheless the rise in unemployment led to an addition in rising prices excessively. If rising prices brings about a negative growing and unemployment remains steadily high, so this will do the phenomenon known as stagflation. However, “ the economic lag is non holding rather the downward influence that we anticipated ” and there is no tradeoff. Something different takes topographic point here that may be explored by the usage of the Long-run Phillips curve.

It may be argued that the Euro Zone is in a long-term equilibrium on a ( A ) and the lone unemployment that it faces is its natural rate of unemployment. Peoples expect the rising prices rate to stay at 2.6 % ( per centum ) so they may negociate wage additions taking advantage of the trade brotherhood power that they might posses. If nevertheless, the authorities wants to cut down unemployment so it will follow expansionary demand-side policies, increasing authorities disbursement. This later, would do an addition in rising prices from 2 % to 2.6 % . In the short-term, unemployment might be reduced since employers are attracted by what they think are higher rewards. However, workers have suffered from money semblance as their existent rewards have non risen. When they realize that, they leave their occupations and hence, unemployment returns to its old degree. However, rising prices remains at 2.6 % and the economic system will be on new short-term Phillips curve ( C ) . Peoples may once more anticipate the rising prices to stay at this degree and may get down negociating additions in their rewards. If the authorities intervenes once more with demand-side policies to cut down the current degree of unemployment this will ensue in higher rising prices. So rising prices moves from 2.6 % to 2.7 % and the economic system moves to another short-term Phillips curve ( E ) . So rising prices seems to lift because of authorities intercession.

These facts show that if authoritiess do non utilize expansionary policies rising prices will non speed up at the natural rate of unemployment. However, in the Euro Zone the idle rate in the 17 euro states is calculated as an norm of the unemployment rate of all member states. This means that “ drooping economic systems like Italy and Greece were responsible for much of the addition. ” The natural rate of unemployment is presumptively high in these economic systems and authorities intercession plenty to speed up rising prices. A possible rise in the unemployment rate in any of these flagging economic systems has an consequence on Euro Zone ‘s idle rate and that may be a ground why unemployment rose by 0.1 % more, making 10.7 % .