Limnology is an interdisciplinary field of survey that has been around since the sixteenth century, nevertheless, as a distinguishable field of scientific discipline, has existed less than 60 old ages. The word ‘Limnology ‘ in Grecian agencies ‘lake cognition ‘ and is defined as the survey of inland Waterss with mention to the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other properties to inland Waterss ( running and standing Waterss, both fresh or saline, natural or man-made ) ( Wikipedia definition, 2010 ) , therefore the multidisciplinary position. Limnology is basically a man-made scientific discipline composed of elements some of which extend beyond the bounds of biological science as normally conceived.
Beginnings of cognition refering fresh H2O life, like those of marine life, originate in the distant yesteryear, perchance before the yearss of Aristole ( 384-322 B.C ) . These early beginnings, frequently unusual mixtures of fact and illusion, have no scientific value ( Welch, 1952 ) . As clip went on and adult males cognition of his milieus easy increased, certain unusual fresh H2O phenomena were observed and recorded in simple manner, frequently with increasing truth. However, aside from the historical involvement involved, no important parts of a purely limnological nature were made for at least 19 hundred old ages after the clip of Aristole, although, certain facts about the home grounds of fishes, exigencies of aquatic insects, aquatic workss, and so on, easy discernible occurrences had been described.
The survey around limnology has attracted many scientists, normally ecologists merely for grounds of aesthetic entreaty of being by a lake. Since the early surveies of lakes and other H2O organic structures, one of the chief points of survey was biological facet of what was found in the lakes and happening relationships between animate beings and their environment with respect to the population and community degree of organisation and their experimental testing. In add-on to being intellectually exciting, limnology is of great practical importance in that the limited supply of fresh H2O must be shared by an of all time turning human population, therefore going capable to pollution, abuse, and depletion.
While Peter Erasmus Muller is sometimes credited with puting the foundation of limnological research with his plankton finds in fresh H2O, and while it appears that Anton Fritsch began lacustrine probes in the Bohemian Forest every bit early as 1871, it remained for F. A. Forel ( 1841-1912 ) , a professor at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, to recognize the existent biological chance in lake probes and, by his work, to go the laminitis of modern limnology.
Limnology foremost came to be in 1901 through the publication of the first of all time text on the topic which led to global acknowledgment. Before this clip since 1650, the patterned advance and development of limnology was instead slow and steady, nevertheless the work that was done was influential and set a platform for other scientists to construct on methodological analysis and application. Such an influential figure emerged as one, Anton van Leeuwenhoek ( 1632-1723 ) , a Dutch shopkeeper and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. He is normally known as “ the male parent of microbiology ” , and considered to be the first microbiologist ( Wikipedia 2010 ) . He created his ain microscopes and was the first individual to detect individual celled beings. In 1674 he foremost described filiform green alga ( Spirogyra ) from a Dutch lake and an early acknowledgment of seasonal differences in algal populations every bit good as descriptions of rotifers. Limnology easy progressed further and in 1787, Clark was the first to find deepnesss of some English lakes which for its clip was a immense stepping rock for lake scientific discipline. In 1865, development of the Secchi disc used for mensurating H2O transparence in oceans and lakes was created by Professor Pietro Angelo Secchi, priest/scientist on the SS Immacolata Concezione, a steam corvet of -the apostolic navy traveling in the Adriatic Sea ( Kalff 2002 ) . A major tendency in the surveies around this clip was found to be more of an ecological nature ( surveies revolved around ecology ) , as expressed in the 1867 distribution and ecology of crustaceous zooplankton in Danish lakes by E. Muller, nevertheless, these surveies had non been recognised by the wider community and limnology was still left in the shadows.
It was the attempts of Francois Alphonse Forel ( 1841-1912 ) and his early surveies on Lac Leman ( Lake of Geneva ) which would acquire universe broad acknowledgment and response and saw this signifier of scientific discipline accelerate and alteration throughout the old ages, lasting two universe wars, depressions, revolutions, and many other societal, political, and economical happenings that shaped and defined a period in history. In 1869 appeared his “ Instruction a l’etude de la fauna profonde du Lac Leman ” ; in 1892-1879, “ Materiaux pour waiter a l’etude de la fauna profonde du Leman ” ; in 1892-1904 he published his monumental and epochal work “ Le Leman. Monographie limnologique ” , in three volumes, which was non merely the first comprehensive limnological treatise but which besides opened up a whole new field of biological research. In 1885 appeared his “ La fauna profonde diethylstilbestrols lacs Switzerlands ” for which he was awarded a award. Then in 1901, he published the “ Handbuch der Seenkunde. Allgemeine Limnologie, ” a book which is the first general presentation of limnology from the modern point of view. It could even be said to be the first text edition foe the survey of limnology.
The integrative nature of limnology was stressed even before Forel coined the term limnology. In a prescient article published in 1887, Stephen Forbes described lakes as ”microcosms, ” or small universes ( CGER 1996 ) . Although the term “ ecosystem ” was non introduced for another half century ( Tansley, 1935 ) , Forbes defined an attack that presaged this construct. He proposed that lake surveies should concentrate on many of the procedures that today define the field of ecosystem ecology: mineral cycling, production and decomposition of organic affair, nutrient web interactions and their impacts on the construction of biological communities, and the effects of physical conditions on biological communities. Forbes viewed these subjects as indispensable to understanding lakes as operation, integrated systems. Shortly after the publication of the first limnology text in 1901, came another survey in 1904 ( following open uping work in 1897 ) delivered another facet to this signifier of scientific discipline, hydrology. Hydrology had been practised before, but was non of cardinal focal point and surveies conducted were basic rules of watercourse influxs ( B. Varenius 1650 ) , H2O balance in finding lake size, salt, and sediment keeping ( J. P. Jackson, GB ) , and the similar. Description of internal moving ridges or thermocline seiches in Loch Ness was carried out by E. E. Watson following work by Lord Kelvin ( GB ) . Then in 1908 the constitution of the first limnological diary, Internationale review der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, embracing limnology and hydrology was created. Besides a systematic effort to utilize a constituent of the biology ( diatoms ) as indexs of ( watercourse ) H2O quality was done by R. Kolkwitz and M. Marsson ( DE ) .
The period in history believed to be the accelerator for such a strong resurgence and explosive development was due to the suspension produced by World War 1, and saw a new coevals of limnologists eager to retrieve lost impulse. Limnology developed quickly between the two World Wars, largely in Europe, North America and Japan, because of its accent on cardinal research, the more applied constituents of limnology ( piscaries, waste-water biological science hydrology ) went their ain manner. One of the cardinal grounds for the acceleration of limnology can be put merely to the sheer figure of practicians, intending there was a batch of relevant work traveling on around the universe, such that, by the terminal of this period at least some of the limnologists had figured out, what by todays criterions is considered cardinal limnology. Most of the work done around this clip was on appraisals of the input and end product of stuffs in lakes, measured primary production, and recognized that alterations in the alimentary supply brought about alterations in the biology and affected the geo chemical science of Fe ( Kalff, 2002 ) .
Limnology continued to develop as a field of survey and spread out its geographic base during the first half of the 20th century. Limnologists of the 1920s and 1930s founded many field Stationss, used them to roll up a wealth of information on single lakes, and synthesized this information at the regional graduated table. As adept during these decennaries, limnology was basically an experimental scientific discipline: cognition gained was mostly from sample aggregation and analysis of the ensuing informations instead than from controlled experiments ( CGER 1996 ) . August Thienemann ( 1882-1960 ) and Einar C. L. Naumann ( 1891-1934 ) were two outstanding immature scientists, ecologists of better description, from Europe. Naumann divided lakes on the footing of their implied food content, and in the procedure acknowledged them to be unfastened systems linked to their catchments or drainage basins through the supply of foods from the land. He came up with the usage of glass slides to analyze the attaching beings in nature in 1915 which was a immense success.
Thienemann was considered a really good scientist ( ecologist ) and was the major participant in the development of research non merely on single insects ( autecology ) but besides on functional groupings ( manufacturers, consumers, and reducing agents ) which, every bit early as 1914, laid the foundations for subsequently research on energy flow in aquatic systems ( Vollenwieder and Kerekes 1980 ) and anticipated the ecosystem construct ( Rhode 1979 ) . Between 1910 and 1914, he was involved with surveies on the volcanic Eifel Maar lakes in Germany, which provided the footing for his organisation of lakes in footings of bottom-dwelling invertebrate communities and their relationships to chemical conditions, in peculiar the O content, of bottom Waterss of lakes.
A. Thienemann and E Naumann were among the most extremely regarded limnologists who led a 30 twelvemonth attempt, mostly between the two World Wars, to sort lakes, they besides aided the development of limnology through the constitution of the International Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology in 1922, an administration with strong educational plans and communicating webs associating professional limnologists. Limnologists in the United States were organized as the Committee on Aquaculture in 1925 and as the Limnological Society of America in 1936. It joined with oceanographers to go the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography in 1948 ; its diary, Limnology and Oceanography, one of the prime research periodicals on lake limnology in the universe, was launched in 1955.
Birge and Juday are normally included among the laminitiss of limnology ( Wetzle 1996 ) . Their part to the survey of progressive limnology began the foundation of cognition among the physical, chemical, and biological features of lakes.
Fig 1. Edward Birge and Chancey Juday with plankton trap on Lake Mendota in Madison, Wisconsin, circa 1917. Beginning: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Visual and Sound Archives.
Edward A. Birge ( 1851-1950 ) and Chancey Juday ( 1871-1944 ) were two scientists analyzing out of the University of Wisconsin studied many different types of lakes that differed in morphometry and size and in geologically changing basins and were by and large doubting about the possibility of building new informations points from the comparatively few non-humic lakes and some of those lakes were accessible to Thienemann and co-workers in northern Germany. By look intoing many of these lakes, they were able to separate between what they called autophytic lakes and allotrophic lakes, among others ( Kalff 2002 ) . They besides recognised differences between lakes without watercourse influxs or surface escapes ( seepage lakes ) , which receive most of their H2O and foods straight from the ambiance or from groundwater, and lakes with a larger catchment country able to nurture in and outflowing watercourses ( drainage lakes ) that in-turn provide much of the H2O and foods arising from land. Birge and Juday were considered in front of their clip by the fact that they were able to acknowledge the being of both internally autochthonous and externally allochthonous derived C beginnings underpinning lake nutrient ironss. Word picture of lake types along environmental gradients was enormously honoring for Birge and Juday, nevertheless, the descriptive stage ended chiefly because of the rise to high quality after World War 2 of G. E. Hutchinson ( US ) .
G. Evelyn Hutchinson ( 1903-1991 ) dominated limnology exciting a great trade of research between 1945 and 1980 about, among other subject, understanding the behavior of whole ecosystems through piecing work on biological constituents ( species ) and their interactions with each other and their environment, the anchor of the field of ecology. He was a innovator in the development of advanced experimental techniques ( CGER 1996 ) , utilizing radioisotopes of P in lakes every bit early as the 1940s and bio-assaies of alimentary effects on phytoplankton population kineticss every bit early as 1941.
The station – war period heralded an unprecedented rapid growing of limnology get downing in the mid to late 1950s. Its growing was fuelled in the western universe by increased support, the gap of new universities and research centres, and the development of much better analytical ( electronic ) and trying equipment that was the consequence of proficient progresss made during the war.
In the period from 1960 – 1980, there were major alterations in the manner limnological research was carried out ( Kalff 2002 ) . Until this clip, all undertakings done had been related and research about entirely by individual scientists entirely, sometimes assisted by one or more graduate pupils or a technician. During the decennaries of 1960 and 1980 and aided by funding from the International Biological Programme multidisciplinary squads were established in economically strong states. This now meant that limnologists could reply bigger inquiries, were able to turn up, detect and enter informations of non merely full lake systems, but of virtually any organic structure of H2O from the biological science to the morphometry.
The 1960s and 1970s saw the beginning of research support shifts off from cardinal or basic research, where way and inquiries are chosen by the scientist. These yearss research is conducted through authorities, hence concentrating on of import issues or possibly jobs which took a big part of the support off from the ‘basic ‘ research antecedently conducted.
During the past few decennaries, limnological research has led to impressive conceptual and practical progresss on all types of inland aquatic ecosystems ( CGER 1996 ) . Within the past 15 old ages, three new North American societies have formed, each ensuing from the spread outing activities in a peculiar facet of limnology and its related aquatic scientific disciplines:
-The North American Benthological Society ( NABS ) 1974.
-The North American Lake Management Society ( NALMS ) 1980.
-The Society of Wetland Scientists ( SWS ) 1980.
These yearss North America and Europe, peculiarly north America is where limnology has become more frequent, such that, classs for limnology are provided at many research institutes across these states, and alumnus preparation in limnology is offered at many of these establishments, even though merely a few universities have distinguishable grades or plans called limnology.
Limnology has grown and evolved over the old ages into a multidisciplinary manner of scientific discipline practiced throughout the universe and attractive to immature scientists and recreational scientists likewise. The limnological timeline has seen certain periods in history form and influence different scientific discipline techniques and created a myriad of methodological analysiss, thoughts, and attacks to using cognition to the field of limnology. Many people played a portion in the success and rapid development of this trade name of scientific discipline that has helped people understand our milieus with how they work and why, and besides acknowledge what can be found in these water-based environments and how they are of import in certain kineticss through the functions they play. Limnology continues to develop from strength to strength and originate a degree of involvement throughout the universe that will guarantee its popularity. An illustration of this is the international limnology society, Societas Internationalis Limnologiae ( SIL ) , known in English as the International Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology, that was founded in Germany under the charitable indorsement and guidence of Thienemann and Naumann. Limnologists in the United States were organized as the Committee on Aquaculture in 1925 and as the Limnological Society of America in 1936. From a get downing base of 221 members in 1936, the American society grew to include 4,000 scientists today.
The rapid development of applied limnology, get downing in the sixtiess and 1970s, continues to lend much to cardinal limnology, but has of course stimulated much healthy statement about the true ends of scientific discipline.
Limnology: inland H2O ecosystems / Jacob Klaff. 2002.
Limnology. Paul S. Welch, Professor of Zoology, University of Michigan. Second Edition, 1952.
Fresh H2O Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology ( 1996 ) . Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources ( CGER ) .
Training of Aquatic Ecosystem Scientists. Robert G. Wetzel, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama.
Ecosystems and human wellbeing: A Framework for Assessment. Arthur Tansley 1935.
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hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonie_van_Leeuwenhoek. August 23 2010.