The USSR was the first socialist province in the universe and in order to construct an unprecedented society like this, unprecedented methods were used. One of them was the effort to make a new type of individual, the New Soviet Man. Created by the ideologues of the Communist Party it was supposed to be an original of a individual with certain features that would emerge among all Soviet citizens irrespective of their differences.
Josef Stalin was intrigued by this thought and he understood that if his undertaking of overhauling the state was to be a success, non merely socio economic alterations had to be initiated but besides alterations in the construction of people ‘s heads[ 1 ]. This essay examines the educational system that Stalin put in topographic point and in what ways it achieved the creative activity of a new type of people. Children ‘s heads were pure, hence easier to model and this makes them a primary mark group.
Answering this inquiry will be achieved by exhaustively analyzing the educational system and the state-provided excess curricular activities so as to grok the grade of the influence of the State and what consequence this had on the immature heads. Additionally, beginnings such as letters to governments by Soviet pupils or school stuff taught at the clip, will be studied in order to understand the system and the responses of those who had experienced it first manus.
The decision that was reached is that the educational system by going extremely politicized and circulating Socialist values, contributed to the “ production ” of immature people who acquired most of the New Citizen traits and wholeheartedly believed that Soviet power was the optimal signifier of regulation.
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Stalin is considered to be the adult male who transformed the USSR from a state cursed by its retardation to a ace power regarded and feared all over the universe. His chief purpose was to quickly industrialise the state and his methods were so intense that many historiographers call it a “ revolution from above ” as it was initiated and co ordinated by the Communist leading.
Culture was one of the many Fieldss that were undergoing alterations. From 1928 to 1931 a Cultural Revolution took topographic point[ 2 ]. It involved assailing the “ former people[ 3 ]“ , the businessperson specializers and the rich peasants-kulaks. Besides a vision of a bright socialist hereafter started being formulated. Peoples themselves were forcing for a new, genuinely proletarian society with proletarian values merely[ 4 ]. But if a new society was to be created, new people must populate it excessively and here comes the thought of the New Soviet Man.
Many Soviet leaders found this thought appealing. The adult male though that genuinely occupied himself with it was Stalin who in 1929 emerged as the incontestable leader of the USSR and embarked upon a journey of socialist building. Here building has a double significance. The first 1 is actual like building mills or whole metropoliss -Magnitogorsk- and the 2nd one is in the sense of “ building ” the right citizens to populate in the new state. But how would he make a new strain of worlds? One of the most of import “ tools ” that he used was instruction but here arises the inquiry: in what ways did primary and secondary instruction and young person organisations during the Stalinist old ages of 1929 to 1941[ 5 ], produce the New Soviet Citizen?
If we want to look back on this period and understand whether the government was so supported by people who lived by the ideals of communism and were willing retainers of the province or were merely terrified into entry, we have to look at their childhoods and see what and how they were taught because the most important old ages of our life are the childhood 1s as by no opportunity are they called formative.
This essay will analyse in what ways instruction -which became a major socialising force- from the twelvemonth of 1929 until 1941 contributed to the transmutation of kids into true Communists. Additionally we will analyze certain school topics like history and literature while besides looking at the province intervention with the free clip of the students. This was done with the aid of organisations like the October Kids, the Pioneers and the Physical Culture partisans ‘ motion. All this will be looked at in an effort to see how much instruction influenced immature people and whether they grew up to be a coevals of New Soviet Citizens.
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Who is the “ Socialist Superman ” ?
The new Soviet world could non be constructed by people stained with the unwanted traits of the past such as superstitious notion, corruptness or insubordination[ 6 ]. Therefore they had to be complete merchandises of their clip as the yesteryear was associated with Tsarism and the businessperson who were shades of the past and in the head of a true Communist had merely negative intensions. He had to handle everything communal as private belongings made no sense, he could non cleaving to tradition but merely embrace the bright Soviet hereafter that he was destined to build[ 7 ]. His demands and desires merged with the societal responsibility, as the end of his life was to function Communism and do life better for the hereafter coevalss[ 8 ]. Towards this mark he had to work all his life driven by his category consciousness. After his decease nil would be left, so there was no significance in God and merely the material side of life exists. He was non Ukrainian or Georgian. He was Soviet and lived in a state characterized by the brotherhood of international peoples[ 9 ].
All these traits were common for both sexes as the New Woman was functioning aboard the New Man. She was a full clip worker and socialism brought her equality as she could come in professions that were traditionally regarded as adult male ‘s professions ( like being a tractor driver )[ 10 ]. But “ every bit good as being an equal builder of communism adult females had to be female parents, particularly with the Civil War and subsequently the Purges and the Second World War, claiming huge Numberss of male lives. This was a societal responsibility they were persuaded to encompass with a prohibition on abortions from 1936 ”[ 11 ]. For the new Soviet Woman there was no spread between personal and corporate life. As a Magnitogorsk newspaper wrote in 1936: “ for us it seems that even such intimate inquiries as household and the birth of kids are transformed from personal to social issues ”[ 12 ].
The Great Retreat: “ stabilizing ” instruction
In 1931, when Stalin had already consolidated his absolute power, he delivered a address in which he rehabilitated the tsarist educated clerisy as in his sentiment the ” theorizing of Communist intellectuals had proved to be bootless ”[ 13 ]. This address meant the official terminal of the Cultural Revolution[ 14 ]whose impulse had already exhausted itself as people felt the demand to happen anchors- the most of import 1s became household, work and subject
Stability was indispensable in instruction as good and in the 1930s ‘ this field was undergoing singular alterations. A edict in 1931 made 4 old ages the sum of minimal compulsory schooling in the rural countries and 7 old ages in urban 1s[ 15 ]. Education was ever free, provided by the province and schools were co-ed[ 16 ].
In general, a rejoinder to traditional values had taken topographic point. Discipline was steadfastly installed and a stiff plan of scrutiny and marker, something banned under Lenin, was rhenium introduced[ 17 ]. Importance was shifted onto a strong cognition of topics such as mathematics or literature and the manner these were taught was laid down by the authorities. This was necessary as merely a good structured, obligatory and cosmopolitan school system had the true potency of organizing societal control and modeling immature heads.
The Russian linguistic communication as such, has two different words for instruction: obrazovanie -which means the preparation and the direction that we receive at school or any other acquisition intuition – and vospitanie, moral instruction[ 18 ]. This differentiation is really of import, as we need to understand that the Soviet government smartly balanced between these two. One the one manus, literacy was significantly bettering[ 19 ], as schools became an indispensable portion of the life of each and every kid. On the other manus, both schools and province establishments were dedicated to vospitanie in the sense that they had as mission to raise a new and superior strain of human existences and to accomplish this they had to instill in their topics the spirit of Communism.
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One of the most of import school topics in any state is ever history. In 1934 a edict that obligated pupils to larn of import historical day of the months and events came out and new text editions were issued. In them the old ages 1917-1937 were presented as “ the coda of embattled Russia ‘s long March through history from low beginnings in the 10th century to greatness and universe leading under Lenin-Stalin ”[ 20 ]. This representation reflects the way of the New Man as he besides had low beginnings but merely like his state, could mount to the top and achieve illustriousness.
Besides, from 1938 and onwards kids were taught from the History of the All Union Communist Party that became the chief history book. It was personally edited by Stalin and can non be called history but merely its reinterpretation in his favour[ 21 ]. Stalin wholly wiped out his yesteryear where he was “ Comrade Card – Index ”[ 22 ]and replaced it with the yesteryear of a adult male who was Lenin ‘s closest friend and associate. By making so he transferred to himself a great trade of the regard, trueness and public adulation associated with Lenin. Children from a immature age learned about the glorious yesteryear of Stalin, he and Lenin were the lone true Revolutionaries for them.
Even though the New Soviet Man was a-religious, he was allowed to retain his spiritual feelings but he had to direct them elsewhere[ 23 ]. This means that the kids wholeheartedly believed in their leader, the Party and the Communist political orientation. Like true Soviets they worshipped Stalin as if he was God and so became his loyal subjects- an indispensable trait of the New Man.
Another “ tool ” for making the New Soviet Man was literature[ 24 ], which was an effort to step in with the free clip of the kids by supplying them with Soviet approved juvenile literature. One of the most popular books was How Steel was Tempered by Nikolai Ostrovsky. The chief hero of the book, Pavel Korchagin, was a projection of the New Man. He was a male child that suffered a batch of adversities in his childhood old ages, but no affair how difficult things were he was ever ready to give himself for the involvements of his companions and the Revolution! During his last old ages a blind and paralysed Pavel wrote that the Bolsheviks taught him that there are no fortresses that they can non take. His popularity was huge and took cult proportions: every kid wanted to be an illustration of such moral virtuousness and hence strived to be the New Man.
Physical instruction was another manner in which instruction contributed to the creative activity of the New Citizen. It was seen in the context of physical vospitanie that would present capable builders of Communism and tied in with the military demands of the state. The New Citizen had to be ready to protect the Motherland and so his organic structure had to “ work ” for him. Compulsory categories of physical instruction in schools improved wellness and strength while besides developing staying power, continuity and endurance. All this would ensue in high public presentation during industrial work or at war. So as to advance mass physical civilization the authorities organized athleticss parades and festivals[ 25 ]that reflected the thought of the collective. Besides, a province initiated preparation plan, the GTO[ 26 ], was created in 1931. It engaged in loyal instruction and was launched in all educational organisations[ 27 ].
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Moral Education Outside Of School
The authorities regulated the clip kids spent out of school with political orientation organisations that continued with the indoctrination of Socialist values in the after school hours.
The first organisation that they would inscribe in was the October Kids[ 28 ]. It accepted members from the early age of seven and engagement was obligatory. Still despite the absolute entirety, it was an anticipated award for the kids as the startup ceremonial was a school jubilation during which they would have a formal ruby ruddy pin, which depicted immature Lenin, to have on[ 29 ]. The October Kids were organized in groups of five[ 30 ]and were looked after by an older pupil who preformed good in school and demonstrated a responsible behaviour[ 31 ]. Besides, they were introduced to a set of bid to populate by:
“ We are active kidsaˆ‰-aˆ‰we are Octobrists!
You, October, do n’t bury -communism is at that place yet. aˆ?We are brave kidsaˆ‰-aˆ‰we are Octobrists!
We are populating our life like our heroesaˆ‰-aˆ‰full of visible radiation!
aˆ?We are persevering kidsaˆ‰-aˆ‰we are Octobrists!
Merely those who like to work acquire successful in this universe.
aˆ?We are true kidsaˆ‰-aˆ‰we are Octobrists!
Never shall bewray a friendaˆ‰-aˆ‰that ‘s the point we defend.
aˆ?We are happy kidsaˆ‰-aˆ‰we are Octobrists!
Our vocals, our laughs and dances are to portion in equal stances ”[ 32 ]
All of these regulations were formulated in such a manner that would foster their nationalism and do them true Communists. All the stanzas promote them to obtain the traits of the New Man. For illustration: “ we are persevering childs ” , “ we are true childs ” and “ Never shall bewray a friend ” . Of class this does non look like serious Party tenet but its significance must non be undervalued. It was uttered by kids from the age of 7 and it truly made them place with all the traits from the set of regulations above. Therefore step-by-step they were going New Soviet Peoples without even recognizing it. Besides, the consequence was enhanced as in each meeting they were introduced to vocals and narratives that would foster their nationalism. Their most celebrated vocal was called “ the March of the October Kids ” or “ Small Star ” :
“ With a joyous vocal the childs March,
Of this difficult working state the Octobrists!
With us in any of our waies are ever the ruddy small star and the ruddy flag!
Our expansive male parents our state in the war defended
And our male parents the new land conquered
Our vocal calls us!
With us in any of our waies are ever the ruddy small star and the ruddy flag! ”[ 33 ]
Again merely like the set of regulations antecedently examined, this vocal emphasizes difficult working, nationalism[ 34 ]and plume about their state and their ascendants who did so much in order to support and afterwards set up it. The chief end nevertheless, of this organisation was the creative activity and the care of the Pioneer Cult.
The Pioneers[ 35 ]was the following ideological rite of transition that was joined by kids aged from nine to fourteen. In theory, to go a Pioneer 1 had to be a persevering October Kid, a good pupil and act decently in and out of school[ 36 ]. In pattern, about all of the October Kids made it to the following degree. The semblance that merely the worthy 1s were accepted was a smart ideological move as it drove kids towards so going “ worthy ” . The most of import portion of the startup procedure[ 37 ]was the vow, which every Pioneer had to cognize by bosom:
“ I am ( full name ) come ining the squad of the Soviet Union Pioneer Organization, in forepart of all my companions, I solemnly declare: to love and to protect my state, live as the great Lenin advised, as the Communist party ushers and as the Pioneer Laws require ” .[ 38 ]
The Soviet state placed immense importance on the Pioneers and all the members had to cognize by bosom and unrecorded by a set of Torahs[ 39 ].
Even though expressed in a simple, comprehendible for kids linguistic communication these regulations are the set of the basic regulations of Communist morality and ethic behaviour. Pioneers were taught to populate by these regulations and hence lead “ a communist manner of unrecorded ” , a life appropriate for the New Man. Last but non least, the Pioneers were given function theoretical accounts. Not surprisingly these ever were “ good ” Soviet citizens, precursors of the people they had to go. The most celebrated illustration is Pavlik Morozov[ 40 ], a male child who during a test denounced both kulaks but besides his male parent for he had sold false paperss to them. As a penalty he was killed by the villagers in the forests who subsequently received the decease penalty[ 41 ]. Pavlik was an incarnation of the New Child as above all he was a member of the collective ; he would be portion of his household but merely if it was in melody with the Soviet regime. “ In rejecting his household, Pavlik was turning towards the group of which he was basically a member. During Stalinism, it was towards the Father of the group that he turned to, towards Stalin. The invariably presented influence of this illustration must non be underestimated for it had bit by bit placed the whole society under Stalin ‘s parental authorization ”[ 42 ].
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Effectss of Education
In order to understand more about the Soviet educational system we need to look at certain beginnings from the clip.
The first 1[ 43 ]is a salutatory missive to Kalinin[ 44 ]from Octobrists and Pioneers of a Health- Improvement School. The intent of the missive was to inform Kalinin about the advancement of the school and thank him for everything he does. This beginning is valuable as it was reprinted from an original manuscript and written by kids who are depicting the state of affairs of the clip. Still, we can ne’er cognize whether it was written with the abetment of grownups or no- this should be taken into consideration when measuring the image that it draws. However, we see that schools had become socializing forces. They prepared for Party Congresses – ” we want to describe to you about how our school has besides prepared for the VKP ( B ) Congress ”[ 45 ]– and made the pupils take pledges for surveies and subject. Bing a good pupil was to a great extent promoted so as the kid would go a smart person, able to lend to his state ‘s development, and besides know subject that is indispensable for a worker. All this indicates that from a immature age they were developing the New Man traits. They were willing retainers of the State: they “ do community work ”[ 46 ], “ are assisting the Chuvash Kolhoz Banner of Revolution ”[ 47 ]and “ are fixing for the spring sowing run ”[ 48 ]. They were studious, obedient and “ ever prepared in the battle for the worker ‘s cause ”[ 49 ]. They were “ the happiest kids of the Soviet Union! ”[ 50 ].
The 2nd beginning[ 51 ]is once more a missive merely a less joyous one as it denounces a kulak. It is really utile because it is a existent denouncement that shows us how childs thought at the clip. Apparently, the kids that write it are true Soviets. They are argus-eyed and can state a “ really harmful parasite ”[ 52 ]when they see one. They find announcements like “ celebrate Easter- it is bestowed by God ” or “ hang Stalin ”[ 53 ]absurdnesss and adequate grounds to label person as enemy of the people. They are really loyal as they attack the kulak by rending his announcements and carry through their responsibility to the State that is to maintain path of everybody. It is apparent that kids ‘s organisations[ 54 ]were politicized and they were massively bring forthing obedient members who would non go forth their station but carry through their sacred responsibility to the State.
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So in what ways did primary and secondary instruction and young person organisations produce the New Soviet Citizen during the Stalinist old ages of 1929 – 1941? From all the above analysis, it evident that the ways were legion and that their part was of great importance.
First of all the position of instruction changed. It became really of import as it guaranteed better occupations and wages in the hereafter. Besides traveling to schools was obligatory and no kid could get away it. This means that all the kids were ideologically indoctrinated on a day-to-day footing about all twenty-four hours long. The glory of Uncle Jo, their fatherland, its heroes and Communism had become as lasting in their lives as kasha[ 55 ]. With the absence of foreign art from about all the major museums, the stiff censoring of international intelligence and with perfectly no experience, either first or 2nd manus, of life beyond the USSR made the ordinary Soviet citizens believe that their state was the centre of the universe. Like true New Men they believed that the Soviet Union was the best state, a state that acted as a positive force against exploitatory Capitalism.
The coevals of 1929- 1941 since the clip they were nappies, were taught to be true, sturdy, loyal to their state and wholeheartedly believe in the Party ‘s concern about the ordinary people[ 56 ]. And they did. A member of this coevals subsequently, while sing the Moscow metro wrote: “ Glory to our Party, ageless glorification to wise Stalin! In every action carried by the Party is apparent the concern for the low Soviet adult male! ”[ 57 ]That coevals was so a coevals of New Soviet Men and Women, a coevals that thanked Stalin for their happy childhoods with no intimation of sarcasm as he educated them and made them worth of being called Citizens of the Soviet Union.
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The Pioneer Commandments:
The Pioneer is loyal to his fatherland, the Party and Communism
The Pioneer is fixing to go a member of the Komsomol[ 58 ]
The Pioneer looks up to the heroes of work and war
The Pioneer respects the memory of all the fallen heroes and is ever ready to protect his state
The Pioneer is the best in school, athleticss and work
The Pioneer is an honest and loyal companion, ever standing up for the truth
The Pioneer is the companion and leader of the October Kids
The Pioneer is a friend of another Pioneer and of the kids of the working category all over the universe.
Translated from the web site:
The Encyclopedia of our Childlhood, “ ?Y???????µNˆN????°N? ???»N?N‚???°- the Pioneer Vow. ” Accessed December 16, 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.76-82.ru/school_pioneer/293.html.