The global financial crisis started to impact the UK financial environment


The planetary fiscal crisis started to impact the UK fiscal environment in the center of 2007 and into 2008 ( Shah, 2010 ) . The impact was, nevertheless, non felt by the UK entirely. Around the universe, big fiscal establishments collapsed – including Lehnman Brothers, the 4th largest US investing bank ( BBC News, 2008a ) – or bailed-out by their authoritiess or other concerns ( including RBS which was bailed-out by the UK authorities in melody of ?20bn ( BBC News, 2008b ) . Consequently, stock markets fell and authoritiess of state, including affluent states, had to develop deliverance bundles for their fiscal systems ( Shah, 2010 ) .

During the extremum of the fiscal crisis, new loans to big borrowers fell by 47 % ( Ivashina and Scharfstein, 2008 ) . New imparting for investing such as capital outgo and working capital besides fell by 14 % . After the prostration of Lehman Brother, short-run loaning by Bankss was limited to many concerns in the UK and Europe – and around the universe ( Ivashina and Scharfstein, 2008 ) . This resulted in a amalgamation and coup d’etat chances in the UK and Europe – and around the universe.

One of the most noteworthy amalgamations to hold taken topographic point in the UK market place in the last two was the amalgamation between Lloyds TSB and Halifax Bank of Scotland ( HBOS ) – making a the largest banking establishment in the UK. HBOS, the biggest mortgage loaner at the clip, saw the value of its portions suffer losingss after the prostration of Lehman Brothers ( The Independent, 2008 ) . This prompted HBOS to accept a coup d’etat command from Lloyds TSB.


Coup d’etat ( or acquisition ) refers to the purchase of commanding interest of one or more companies by another ( Hirshleifer and Titman, 1990 ) . In “ Amalgamations ” , the connection companies come together to organize one company – normally the names of the two companies are joined together to organize the name of the ensuing company ( Kar, 2009 ) .

M & A ; A normally consequences as a ground to make synergism, variegation and strategic growing grounds. There are several types of efficiency additions which may come out of a amalgamation and acquisition trade. The most efficiency mentioned is increased cost efficiency ( Amihud and Miller, 1998, p.61 ) . Amalgamations normally come about as there is a belief that important degrees of redundant operating costs could be removed by fall ining operations or activities.

Acquisition besides provides a manner to come in new market at comparatively low cost or cut down competition. However, deriving revenue enhancement advantage is non a important ground considered by stockholders in an M & A ; A trade ( Auerbach and Reishus, 1988 ) .

The funding of amalgamations tend to differ from that of coup d’etats – this besides enables them to be differentiated ( Global Oneness, 2010 ) . In amalgamations, normally a stock barter is used – here, stockholders of the mark company receive the same sum of portions from the ensuing merged company. However, an acquisition can merely be done when the geting company either buys the portions or assets of the company it has targeted ( Global Oneness, 2010 ) . Financing of acquisition trades are normally done with debt borrowed from Bankss – termed leveraged buyout ( Taylor, 1988 ) .

Chapter Two


In September 2008, Lloyds TSB announced it had reached an understanding to get HBOS – under the footings of the acquisition, stockholders of HBOS will have 0.83 Lloyds TSB portions for every 1 HBOS portion. The offer valued HBOS at ?12.2 billion based on Lloyds TSB portion monetary value at stopping point on 17 September 2008 of 279.75 pence ( P ) ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008a ) . This meant that Lloyds TSB was paying 232.2p for every HBOS portion. HBOS portion traded at 140p before the proclamation, hence Lloyds TSB were prepared at the clip to pay a 65 % premium over the market monetary value for HBOS portion monetary value. The monetary value was still seen as a deal as HBOS was valued to be deserving ?70bn in 2007 ( Market Oracle, 2008 ) .

Reasons for Acquisition

The Boards of both Lloyds TSB and HBOS believed that the acquisition would hold significant benefits for clients and stockholders. From Lloyds TSB ‘s position, the acquisition would rush up their strategic purpose of being the UK ‘s taking fiscal service company by concentrating on turning sustainable net incomes watercourses, based on deep client relationships ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008a ) . Another ground for the acquisition was that Lloyds TSB believed by uniting the two companies, they would be better positioned to function clients in the hard economic markets and increase loaning for both UK mortgages and little and average endeavors ( SMEs ) ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008a ) . Horizontal integrating of both Lloyds TSB and HBOS besides meant that the new formed company will profit from a wider scope of merchandises. Lloyds TSB estimated that cost synergisms from the acquisition to be in the surplus of ?1bn per twelvemonth by 2011 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008a ) . There are possible synergisms to be realised from the acquisition, a survey by Sudarsanam ( 2003 ) found that stockholders of the geting company – Lloyds TSB in this instance – on norm suffer either important wealth losingss. The best that they achieve is breakeven from the acquisition. This is non ever true but in the HBOS acquisition, bing stockholders are yet to do any significant additions from the trade.

Investing Decision: Puting a monetary value – possible hazards and additions

However, due to uncertainness in the UK fiscal market, in October 2008, Lloyds TSB was required by the UK authorities to raise more capital – taking to the command for HBOS being revised. Under the new footings, HBOS stockholder would have 0.605 Lloyds TSB portions for every 1 HBOS portion. In add-on, ?11.5bn and ?5.5bn of new capital would be raised by HBOS and Lloyds TSB severally ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008b ) . HM Treasury, stand foring the UK authorities investing arm, subscribed to 2.6bn new Lloyds TSB ordinary portions at 173.3 pence per portion – amounting to ?4.5bn in equity capital. HM Treasury besides purchased ?1.0bn of Lloyds TSB penchant portion at 12 % one-year voucher – ensuing in the ?5.5bn new capital required by Lloyds TSB. The ?8.5bn required from HBOS resulted in the issue of 7.8bn new Lloyds TSB ordinary portions, which was purchased by HM Treasury.

HBOS raised capital doing up of ?8.5bn in equity and ?3bn in penchant portions. ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2008b ) . The picking order theory ( Myers, 1984 ) assumes that a company will utilize its maintained net incomes ( cheapest signifier of capital ) in front of borrowing ( more expensive signifier of capital ) . This was apparent in the HBOS coup d’etat where capital from the UK authorities was split into ordinary and penchant portions in a ratio of 4.5:1 ( for Lloyds TSB ) and 8.5:3 ( for HBOS ) . For most companies, dealing cost has been found to be an of import determiner of finance – in both equity and debt beginnings of finance ( Siefert and Gonenc, 2008 ) .

Long-run Finance

The Lloyds Banking Group was created following the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in January 2009 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010a ) . Lloyds Banking Group is now the largest retail bank in the UK – stand foring about a 3rd of bank history holders in the UK. The group is owned by HM Treasury ( 43.5 % ) , bing Lloyds TSB stockholders ( 36.5 % ) and bing HBOS stockholders ( 20 % ) . In November 2009, Lloyds Banking Group issues 36.5bn new ordinary portions in a right issue to raise more capital. Under the right issue, new portions were sold at issue monetary value of 37p on the footing of 1.34 new portions for every 1 bing ordinary portion held ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2009a ) .

In order to avoid handing over the control of the company to the UK authorities, through another bail-out, Lloyds Banking Group raised a farther $ 2bn in capital in December 2009 payable over 15 old ages at a cost of $ 3.6bn ( Bloomberg, 2009b ) . Equity stockholders require a higher degree of answerability than debt funding holders ( Morris et al, 2007 ) . Lloyds TSB had to carefully believe about the ratio of debt: equity stockholders in order to retain control on the Group. The Group ‘s beta is now 2.01 – bespeaking an aggressive hazard appetency in a banking industry where the mean beta is 1.23 ( Reuters, 2010 ) .

Performance Analysis

In February 2009, Lloyds Banking Group reported a loss of ?11bn at HBOS. The hebdomad before the proclamation, the portion monetary value of the Group had fallen by 42 % as concerns rose about the graduated table of the losingss. Following on from the proclamation, the portion monetary value fell by about a 3rd to 61.4p ( Bloomberg, 2009a ) . The Lloyds TSB side of the group, nevertheless, reported a pre-tax net income of ?760m. Overall, the combines concerns reported a loss of ?6,713m. The combined assets for both HBOS and Lloyds TSB in 2008 were ?1,126,718m and entire liabilities for the both companies were ?1,091,065m – stand foring a net plus of ?35,653m. Net Assets for Lloyds TSB entirely was ?9,699m and ?13,499m for HBOS. By uniting the two companies, assets for Lloyds TSB have increased by about 400 % and 270 % for HBOS.

Furthermore, the mark of cost decrease for the first twelvemonth of the integrating was ?450m – this was nevertheless, exceed by the ?84m to ?534m. Obviously, the company is profiting from cost decrease from synergisms of the acquisition and as a consequence, the mark for cost decrease from synergisms was increased to ?2bn in 2011 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2009b ) .

The Group returned to gain in 2010 – describing a pre-tax net income of ?1,603m for the first half of 2010 compared with a loss of ?3,957m in the same period in 2009. However, net incomes per portion ( EPS ) – which is a ratio is net incomes to a company ‘s outstanding portions – dropped from 22.0p to 0.9p. The net border for the group besides increased from 1.72 % to 2.08 % – equivalent to 26 footing points higher year-on-year ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010b ) .

Damages or bad loans for the Group reduced significantly from ?13,399 to ?6,554. The Group ‘s portion monetary value rose by 3.6 % to 74.49pence upon proclamation of the consequences and analysts ‘ outlooks of ?694.5m were exceed ( Bloomberg, 2010 ) .

Trend Analysis and strong Capital ratios

Over the last four old ages before the acquisition in 2009, Lloyds TSB paid out dividends of 16.97p in 2005 and 2006, 17.82p in 2007 – at the extremum of the fiscal roar – 11.4p in 2008. However, the last two trading old ages, 2009 and 2010, the company has failed to return dividends to its stockholders. EPS was besides above 10p between 2005 and 2008. In 2009, nevertheless, EPS for the full twelvemonth came in at 7.50p and to 0.9p in the first half of the trading twelvemonth in 2010 ( Digital Look, 2010 ) .

The Group ‘s capital ratios had addition significantly with a entire capital ratio of 13.4 % , a grade 1 ratio of 10.3 % and a nucleus grade 1 ratio of 9.0 % in 2010 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010d ) . The addition in capital ratio is a consequence of decrease in balance sheet liability direction minutess, lower risk-weighted assets and improved implicit in public presentation. Risk-weight assets reduced by 6 % in 2010 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010d ) . Furthermore, ?2bn from nucleus grade 1 capital has been moved from insurance group to the banking companies to through execution of capital direction and restructuring programmes ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010d ) . It must be noted that this has no impact on the Group ‘s nucleus grade 1 capital demand under the current Basel ordinance – this besides supports the picking order theory.

Assetss sell-off

In 2009, programs were finalised for the Group the sell-off at least 600 subdivisions, a fifth of its UK web, were approved to run into concerns by the European Commission ( Scotsman, 2009 ) . This decrease should assist the company accomplish its balance sheet decrease mark. In 2010, the company reported cut downing assets by a farther ?23bn for the first half of the trading twelvemonth. The current sum decrease since acquisition bases at ?83bn. Overall, the Group aims to cut down the size of their balance sheet by ?200 by 2014 ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010b ) .

Upon the successful acquisition of HBOS, which came with its insurance trade names, Lloyds Banking group sold a 70 % interest in certain – an insurance group in the UK founded as a joint venture with Halifax – for ?185m ( FT, 2010 ) . The sale means that the Group can concentrate on its insurance trade name which they already provide through the Lloyds TSB and Halifax trade names.

In July 2010, the Group besides announced the sale of its Ecuadorian operations for $ 25m. The sale was portion of the Group scheme of depriving assets which are believed to be non-essential to the Group ‘s overall scheme. In the last twelvemonth to July 2010, the Group sold seven concerns raising over ?750m ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010c ) .

Dividend Policy

The European Commission has blocked the Group doing any voucher and dividend payment following the bail-out deliverance bundle from the UK authorities ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010c ) . As such, over the following few old ages, ordinary stockholders will be paid dividends. The Group expects its public capital and senior support issue to be ?20bn to ?25 per annum ( Lloyds Banking Group, 2010d ) . It would be interesting to detect whether the issue of dividends will hold any impact on the portion in the future – does it follow the ‘Dividend Irrelevance Theory ‘ ?

Chapter Three


Without a uncertainty, the planetary fiscal crisis has had immense deductions on the UK fiscal environment. The crisis led to the prostration of large fiscal establishments and authoritiess around the universe had to step in to salvage their banking systems. During the extremum of the fiscal crisis, new loans fell by about 50 % . Furthermore, imparting for investing capital outgo and working capital besides fell by about 15 % .The deficit in investing capital, together with low liquidness in the markets, resulted in the creative activity of chances for amalgamations ( normally for fighting companies ) and acquisitions ( for the cash-rich companies ) in the UK and around the universe.

One of the most notably acquisitions during this period was the coup d’etat of HBOS by Lloyds TSB to make Lloyds Banking Group. Although this created the largest banking establishment in the UK, it came at big cost for Lloyds TSB. Soon after the proclamation of the coup d’etat, the company [ Lloyds TSB ] demand to raise excess capital. This resulted in a revised coup d’etat command where HBOS, so fighting and a threshold of prostration, had to raise portion of the needed capital and besides accept a lower monetary value for its portions. Both companies were bailed-out by UK authorities in raising this capital. As a consequence, the UK authorities presently has over 40 % interest in Lloyds Banking Group.

In order non to manus over control to the Group to the UK authorities, the Group issued penchant portions, at 12 % one-year voucher, and a Right Issue. To do the Group successful, it has undergone a major alteration in cut downing its balance sheet. The company is presently accomplishing net incomes and besides profiting from cost decrease from synergism of the acquisition. The failure or success of Lloyds Banking Group will finally depend on the company being able to cut down its toxic assets and the UK fiscal environment non sing another banking crisis.