Dividends are a portion of company ‘s net income that is paid to the stockholders based on their outstanding portions ( Campbell, 2004 ; Finpipe, 2010 ) . In other words, dividend is a type of wages that is given by the company to the stockholders for puting into the company ( Custodio, 2010 ; RBC, 2010 ) . Improbable other disbursals showed in income statement, dividend is nonexempt payments which must be decided and approved by the company ‘s board of managers before payment are made ( Scott, 2003 ) . Besides, usually company will administer the dividend either quarterly or yearly. Example, the dividend distributed by many Australian Securities Exchange ( ASX ) listed companies is twice a twelvemonth which meant that they are giving out interim and concluding dividends ( ASX, 2010 ) . Besides interim and concluding dividend, company will besides may payout a dividend called particular dividend in some event or fortunes such as company ‘s anniversary jubilation ( financialMarkets, 2010 ) . This particular dividend is separate from one-year dividend and it merely pay in one-off footing which meant that it is non part of a sustainable rise in dividend ( Pietersz, 2010 ; financialMarkets, 2010 ) . Example, when GDF Suez SA purchased the international Power Plc, it had payout a particular dividend of $ 1.45 per portion to that company ‘s stockholders ( Lundgren, 2010 ) . However, there is no fixed clip or period for a company to payout the dividend in the ordinance, therefore dividend can be declared anytime during the twelvemonth ( colom, 2006 ) .
Besides that, although dividend is regularly wage in the signifier of hard currency dividend, but today, there are several signifier of payments that can be used to payout the dividend ( Choong, 2010 ) . One of it is by administering the stock which is known as stock dividend ( MapXL, 2000 ) . In this type of payment, the company ‘s assets, liabilities and gaining will non be affected ( MistakeInTrading, 2008 ) . In other words, the entire market value of the company will stay unchanged ( AccountingCoach, 2010 ) . However, this stock dividend will be reduced the value of each portion in the market ( AccountingCoach, 2010 ) . Another signifier of dividend payment is called belongings dividend which meant that the company is administering the dividend in the signifier of assets ( MapXL, 2000 ) . Following, dividend can besides be paid in the signifier of note collectible which is known as Scrip dividends ( Barrons, 2005 ) . Example, some of the companies that payout their dividend in this signifier are the Prudential Plc, JJB Sports Plc and the Royal Bank of Scotland ( Prudential, 2010 ; Sensatus, 2010 ) . Besides all of this, the companies besides can administer the dividend in the signifier of fillip portions, warrant, and so on ( Investorwords, 2010 ; Farlex, 2009 ; MapXL, 2000 ) .
There are many advantages to a company for administering dividends. First, is carry throughing most of companies ‘ basic purpose and end which are doing net income to the company ‘s proprietors ( WorldIQ, 2010 ) . Besides, it besides can demo a good image to the foreigners that the company is executing good in the concern ( Custodio, 2010 ) . Example in TheDiv-Net ‘s ( 2008 ) statement had stated that a company that is paying the dividend will demo more in fiscal matters apt than a company that is non administering the dividend. Besides, in a research besides showed that in the last 35 old ages, dividend paying stocks are better than the non-dividend paying stock ( TheDiv-Net, 2008 ) . Another advantage is the addition of assurance among the stockholders on their investing in the company ( TheDiv-Net, 2008 ) . It is because the distribution of dividend will demo the ability to bring forth more net income by the company and proven that the company ‘s fiscal statement ‘s information like net income is existent, dependable and non industry by the company itself ( TheDiv-Net, 2008 ) . Besides, dividend besides can turn out that the company is able to utilize their capital efficaciously and expeditiously because distribution of a dividend needs strong hard currency flow within the company ( Matt, 2010 ) . Following, declaration of dividends by the company besides can excite a rise in the company stock ‘s value ( Black, 2010 ) . Last, dividend can indirectly pull the new investors for the company. It is because to investors, dividend paying companies will restrict their hazard and it will besides vouch that they can acquire something back from the company ( Reeves, 2010 ) . In add-on, for the investor which buy stock for their future retirement fund, their chief consideration is the company that can pay them a stable dividend ( Reeves, 2010 ) . Besides, dividend payout besides can turn out to the investors that the company is stockholder friendly which means that the company is really concern about their stockholders and with this, investor will more likely to buy their company ‘s portions.
Although there are many advantages to a company for administering dividend to the stockholders, but there are besides disadvantages that the company may confront if they payout the dividends. First, even though dividend is non considered as outgo, but it still is an obligation debt to the company, one time it had declared ( MapXL, 2000 ) . Therefore, it will indirectly do the company ‘s liabilities to increase ( WorldIQ, 2010 ) . Once the liabilities increase to high place and the assets do non increase systematically, so the company will hold jobs to pay back their creditors and the worst is that it will caused the company to travel belly-up ( Kavitha, 2007 ) . Following, it will cut down or restrict the company ‘s long term operation fund because the proportion of retain earning had been used for the dividends. Therefore, if the company does non hold a solid long-run fund it will curtail their opportunity to growing bigger in the hereafter ( WeSeed, 2010 ) . Besides, it will besides restrict the company ‘s ability in buying assets, spread outing the concern, employ more employee, running research and development for company ‘s merchandises and so on ( Kennan, 2010 ; Tripod, 2007 ) .
Overall of the above, we can cognize that companies will bask benefits by paying out the dividend, but at the same clip, it will besides hold to bear the hazard and serious disadvantage like bankruptcy if they payout the dividends. However, luckily distribution of dividend is non an duty to the company in the jurisprudence and ordinance, so a company can make up one’s mind either wants to administer it or non ( Investorwords, 2010 ) . Therefore, this had attracted my involvement to cognize whether what factors that will act upon the dividend payout in a Malaysia bank called as Public Bank Berhad.
Public Bank Berhad is a top-tier and most efficient bank in the Malaysia which was established in 1966 by Teh Hong Piow who was born in Singapore, starts his banking business in the twelvemonth 1950 and has approximately 60 old ages of experience in this sectors ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . This means that, this bank had operated in Malaysia about 40 old ages by an experience laminitis. Next, the services provided by Public Bank are investing, commercial and Islamic banking and wealth direction goods ( Hinton, 2008 ; Bureau, 2004 ) . Besides, it can be considered as a big group bank because it had 242 subdivisions in Malaysia and 97 subdivisions in oversea like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Laos and so on ( Bureau, 2004 ) . Besides it had more than 17160 employees inside the company to function its client better ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . In add-on, Public Bank besides is an industry leader in Malaysia which had a corporate mission of “ to prolong the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia ” ( Public Bank, 2010 ) .
For the logo of the company which had ideated from two meshing octagon which represent the connexion and international of the group ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Besides, the logo besides demonstrates the security, strength and stableness of the bank ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Furthermore, the logo formation besides likes an “ oculus ” of vision of the bank ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Last, Public Bank Berhad can be known as a strong, reputed and stable Malaysia based bank ( Bureau, 2004 ) . It is because it was non influenced by the planetary fiscal crisis which caused a earnestly mayhem in many major fiscal Centres around the universe ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Besides, this bank besides had received many best awards and grasp for its services ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Example, it had obtained 54 awards and one of it is the Best Retail Bank in Asia Pacific by the Asian Banker based in 2009 ( Public Bank, 2010 ) . Besides, in 2010, it besides had obtained the Ranked No.1 in Best Corporate Governance ( for Malaysia ) in the Euromoney Best Managed and Governed Companies ( Public Bank, 2010 ) .
The aims of this research are:
To analyze the influence of company ‘s profitableness on the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad.
To analyze the influence of dividend revenue enhancements on the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad.
To analyze the influence of company ‘s investing chances on the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad.
To analyze the influence of company ‘s liquidness on the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad.
1.3 Research Questions
a. Is the company ‘s profitableness act uponing the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad?
B. Is the dividend revenue enhancement act uponing the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad?
c. Are the company ‘s investing chances act uponing the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad?
d. Is the company ‘s liquidness act uponing the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad?
1.4 Scope of Study
The chief focal point for this survey is on Public Bank Berhad in Malaysia. Inside this survey, we will analyse the Public Bank ‘s profitableness, Malaysia ‘s dividend revenue enhancement, investing chances and the company ‘s liquidness place in order to find whether which factors of these will act uponing the dividend distribution in Public Bank Berhad.
1.5 Significance of survey
This research is able to assist the investors in their investing determination doing. Before buying a portions, the factors act uponing the dividend distribution is an point that need to be consider by investors particularly those whose purchase the portion with an purpose of acquiring the dividend in return. It is because by cognizing it, the investors able to gauge and look into whether and when the dividend will be payout by the company. For illustration if the company dividend is influenced by the profitableness, so when the company net income increased, the stockholders besides will cognize that the dividend will likely increase excessively. Besides, it will besides able to cut down the misinterpretation of company by the stockholders on dividend issues. For case, the Apple Inc ‘s investors did non understand and clamouring why the company wanted to keep about $ 45 billion of hard currency in the company instead than to administer some of its to the stockholders as dividend ( Rogers, 2010 ; msnbc, 2010 ; Fool Television, 2010 ) . However, if the Apple ‘s investors know the factors that really act uponing the company ‘s dividend distribution such as the growing chance, so they will non be in uncertainty and frustrated about this issue ( msnbc, 2010 ) .
2.0 Literature reappraisals
2.1 Company ‘s profitableness influences the dividend distribution.
Net income is the excess left over from income of the concern after subtracting all its costs or disbursals ( Horn, 2006 ; tutor2u, n.d. ) . It is usually measured in money term and over a period of times such as yearly or quarterly ( Horn, 2006 ; tutor2u, n.d. ) . Besides, net income will demo the viability and a long-run position of the concern ( hofstrand, 2009 ) . It is because company ‘s net income is the indispensable beginning of income for every company. It will be used by company for their day-to-day operation such as purchase stock list, heighten the merchandise ‘s quality, expand the company ‘s premises, fix and care and so on ( tutor2u, n.d. ) . Therefore, without enjoy net income or suffering loss go oning, the company will be holding trouble to payout the disbursals and the duty liability systematically every bit good as the dividends ( Spaulding, 2010 ) . So, company ‘s profitableness is like an of import counsel of the house ‘s ability to administer the dividends to stockholders ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . In other words meant that the sum of dividends payout each twelvemonth will act upon by the company ‘s profitableness ( Malkawi & A ; Husam, 2008 ; Few, et Al, 2005 ) . Example, in a study of 562 New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE ) houses, there are 318 responses from public-service corporation, fabrication, and sweeping companies, had stated that major determiners of dividend payout were the expected future net incomes ( Gale group, 2008 ) .
In a determination of 1999 research 630 NASDAQ -listed companies besides had stated alterations in dividend per portion are mostly a map of a mark dividend distribution based on the earning of the concern ( Gale group, 2008 ) . Besides, in a research at Malaysia which sing analyzing the dividends and net incomes behaviour of the houses listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange ( KLSE ) on the period 1975 to 1989 had founded that the dividend distribution of the houses partly based on their current net incomes ( wee, 2006 ) . Following, the consequence in a study of NYSE companies besides conclude that the major determiners of dividend distribution are future gaining ( ArticlesBase, 2010 ) . Besides, the consequence of the survey in the perceptual experience of dividends by Canadian directors and taken the sample of 291 listed companies on Toronto Stock Exchange ( TSE ) besides founded that one of the of import factor for determiners of dividend distribution is the degree of current earning ( Ahmed & A ; Javid, 2009 ; Okpara,2010 ) . In add-on, in an scrutiny of dividend policy of 34 listed companies in the Athens Stock exchange ( ASE ) during period 1972 to 1988 had conclude that current net incomes constitute the most indispensable variable that tend to act upon the alterations in dividend distribution ( Eriotis, 2005 ) .
In a study of 1000 largest house ‘s fiscal directors besides had stated that their company ‘s current and old net incomes are the major factor that will act upon the sum of company ‘s dividends payout ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . In add-on, it besides proven that net income and dividend had a positive relationship within each other ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . This meant that, when the net income of the company addition, the dividends distribution will be increasing excessively, frailty poetry. Besides, the relationship between profitableness and dividend payout ratio are positive besides had proven in a survey of the factor act uponing the dividend policy in Ghana excessively ( Ahmed & A ; Javid, 2009 ) . In another research on 1950, besides showed that more of the company will paying out their dividends based on company profitableness and usually the company will repair a rate of gaining to cipher the dividend every twelvemonth ( Campbell, 1995 ) . Example, the company will put up 45 % of their earning each twelvemonth will be distributed as dividends in their company ‘s policy. Therefore, when the house had higher net income so the dividends distributed out will be higher excessively. Besides, another illustration is on 2004, Macquarie Bank ‘s president had announced the company will pay out an interim dividend of 61 cents per ordinary portion franked to 90 per cent for the half twelvemonth ended 30 September, 2004 due to the company ‘s net income increased of 17 per cent over the $ 242 million net income for the anterior corresponding period ( Macquarie, 2004 ) .
Following, on 2004, runing net income ( EBIT ) of the Henkel Group, a wash & A ; place attention, cosmetics/ toilet articless and adhesive engineerings company, rose by 172.1 per centum to 1,920 million euros, therefore its direction had proposed in the Annual General Meeting a 10 eurocent addition in dividend distribution versus the old twelvemonth ( Henkel, 2005 ) . Fairwood Holdings Limited which is a fast nutrient eating house had reported that its interim net net income rise 43.4 % to HK $ 70.7 million for the six months ended September 30, 2010, therefore the house had decided to declared an interim dividend of HK $ 0.20 per portion and a particular dividend of HK $ 0.08 per portion, an rise of 55.6 per centum in its dividend payout ( Chen, 2010 ) . Following, Globe Telecom Inc, the state ‘s 2nd largest phone house had provinces that its first half-net net income increased 38 per centum from the old twelvemonth due to nomadic subscriptions and effectual cost direction, this had thrust the company to increased its dividend payout to 75 % from 50 % of the anterior twelvemonth ‘s net incomes ( GMA, 2006 ) . In add-on, Nippon Yuken KK, an industry leader of transporting company in Japan had report its net net income surged to 71.3 billion on 2004, because of that it had announced large dividend addition from 10yen to 18yen per portions to its stockholders ( vBullletin, 2005 ) . Besides, another transporting company in Japan called Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd ( K- Line ) besides give huge dividend rises to 16.50 hankerings per portion from 10 hankerings, due to its net net income addition by 80.3 % to 59.8 billion hankerings on that twelvemonth excessively ( vBullletin, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Black ( 2010 ) , if the company unprofitable in yearly or quarterly, so the company may non issues the dividend to the stockholders. Joao ( 2008 ) besides had the same position with Black, by saying that high incidence of dividend decrease by companies with relentless losingss occurred. For case, the 2nd U.S. mortgage finance company of Freddie Mac had reported an unexpectedly broad net loss of $ 2 billion hence it had planned to cut down its 4th one-fourth dividend distribution by 50 % ( Rucker, 2007 ) .
However, there are some determination had proven that the dividend distribution of the company will non act upon by the company ‘s net income. In other word meant that addition or lessening in net income will non impact the company ‘s dividend payout. Example, FPL Group Inc had increased its dividend distribution even it had acquire a loss in 1990 ( Collegetermpaper, 2008 ) . Besides, SingTel which is a largest telecommunication house in South-east Asia besides had increase its dividend payout ratio to 55-70 per cent of implicit in net net income from 45-60 % even though the quarterly net net income had drop 6.8 % due to the acquisition cost of Indian affiliate Bharti Airtel in June and investing in multimedia services in Singapore ( reuters, 2010 ; Venkat, et al 2010 ) . In Wee ( 2006 ) determination besides had stated that, it is non surprising if some houses besides give out the dividends to the stockholders as return even though they are acquiring a loss for that twelvemonth. Besides, it besides founded that this state of affairs happened is due to the reluctance of houses to cut down or exclude dividends due to research findings which have shown that stockholders, in both developed and emerging markets, responded negatively to a dividend cut down ( Wee, 2006 ) . In add-on, British American Tobacco ( Malaysia ) Bhd ( BAT ) besides give out a healthy dividend even though its cyberspace net income for the 2nd one-fourth ended June 30, 2010 had decrease 7.7 % to RM185.84 million compared with RM201.24million of 2009 ( the star, 2010 ; The Edge,2010 ) . On 2010, Petroliam Nasional Bhd ( Petronas ) , an oil company in Malaysia had announced a 23.2 % bead to RM40.3billion in its cyberspace net income, but it still maintained unchanged its dividend payout ( the star, 2010 ) . Washington Soul, a Australia ‘s 2nd oldest listed company stated that its net net income for the 12 months to July 31 was $ 218.3 million, worsening 80 % on the old twelvemonth ‘s record $ 1.12 billion, nevertheless it ‘s still declared a 20 cents of concluding dividend which is up from 19 cents in the old twelvemonth and a particular to the full franked dividend of 12.5 cents per portion recognizes net incomes from the recent sale of New Hope ‘s keeping in Arrow Energy Ltd ( Fairfax, 2010 ) .
Dividend revenue enhancements influence the dividend distribution
Dividend revenue enhancement is a type of revenue enhancements levied on the entire gross sum of dividend declared or distributed by the houses ( SlideShare, 2010 ) . In other words mean that it is one of most common revenue enhancements that need to pay by the investors due to their investing ( Kennon, 2011 ) . Besides, revenue enhancements on dividend are patterns in many states in the universe. Example, Malaysia had implemented a individual tier dividend system to revenue enhancement on the dividend distribution brand by the companies ( Chong, 2010 ) . In United States ( US ) , they are classified the dividend income received by the investor as a nonexempt distribution ( Kennon, 2011 ) . In India, dividend payout above 10 % of the paid-up capital will be capable to 7.5 % dividend revenue enhancements ( MBA Resources, 2008 ) . When authorities higher up this dividend revenue enhancements, this mean that the authorities are non favor the dividend distribution in this period and want to punishing companies that pay it, frailty poetry ( Hederman & A ; Tyrell, 2010 ) . Besides, increasing the dividend revenue enhancements is besides a motive to the companies to retain their earning in the companies instead than pay out it as dividends ( Detroit, 2010 ) . Therefore, this type of revenue enhancements implemented will cut down the net sum of dividend payout by the company. It is because ; there are some proportion of the dividends distributed must be paying to authorities as their income. This meant that, the higher of the revenue enhancement rate on dividends, the more proportion of the entire dividends will be pay to the authorities as dividend revenue enhancements and the entire dividend that really distributed will be decreased. Example, a company program to give up all its net income after revenue enhancement of $ 100 as dividend to the stockholders in the period of 20 % dividend revenue enhancements, so the stockholders will merely acquire $ 80 of net dividends.
Therefore, by and large companies will payout more dividend payment when the revenue enhancement rate is low and cut down the dividend payout, when the revenue enhancement rate is high ( EEI, 2010 ) . It is because, if the company payout the dividend in high revenue enhancement rate, so the sum of dividend that company really want to return to the stockholders as wagess will be lessening ( Hederman & A ; Tyrell, 2010 ) . In this state of affairs, it will non favor for stockholders every bit good as the companies ( Lee, 2009 ) . Besides, harmonizing to Powazek ( 2010 ) there are more advantages to the company in retaining their earning compared to administer dividends to the stockholders when the revenue enhancements are high. For case, on 1993 in US, the revenue enhancement rate is high, therefore many companies at there had cut down their dividend payout to the stockholder, while in 2003, many companies ‘ dividends payout had increasing due to the revenue enhancement rate had been temporarily reduced from 39.6 % to 15 % by the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 ( Hederman & A ; Tyrell, 2010 ) . Besides, the following six months after dividend revenue enhancement cut in 2003 announced, the dividend payout by the companies in US had increased $ 3.8 billion and in the undermentioned 2 old ages clip, the aggregative dividend distribution by the companies had increased more than 30 % ( Hederman & A ; Tyrell, 2010 ) . Example, company that takes advantage in this revenue enhancement cut period is Microsoft which distributed more that $ 32 billion to its stockholders in 2nd half of 2004 which the revenue enhancement cut system still continue ( Hederman & A ; Tyrell, 2010 ) . Another illustration is Clear Channel Communications Inc besides increase its company foremost dividend distribution in 2003 ( Jouahn Nam, et al 2007 ) .
Next, harmonizing to Brown & A ; O’Day ( 2005 ) , revenue enhancements are an of import factor in the dividend payout determination. Besides, in the Detroit ( 2010 ) statement had stated that when dividend revenue enhancements increased, the companies will alter it dividend payout construction which will impacting all its stockholders. In add-on, Desai, et Al ( 2001 ) besides proven that revenue enhancement consideration have obvious possible to act upon the dividend distribution of a company. Overall of the above had showed that dividend revenue enhancements will act upon the company ‘s dividend distribution.
However, there are some research workers found that the company ‘s dividend will non act upon by the dividend revenue enhancements. In other words, there are non relationships between dividend revenue enhancement and dividend distribution. Example, Mosebach & A ; Ellen ( 2007 ) had stated that there are non important proven that the household houses will increase their dividend payout when revenue enhancement rate is diminishing. Besides, there are besides a study had proven that larger houses ‘ dividend distribution will non affected by revenue enhancement ( GuruFocus, 2004 ) . Example, McDonald ‘s Corporation and Wal-Mart shop had systematically increase their dividend payout for more than 30 old ages go oning, although the revenue enhancement rate were altering during that period ( GuruFocus, 2004 ) . In add-on, Liu & A ; Jabbour ( 2004 ) besides express that dividend policy of a house did non affected by the alterations of revenue enhancement rate. Following, there are besides some researches stated that dividend distribution will non affected by dividend revenue enhancement particularly in banking industries ( Nnadi & A ; Akpomi, 2008 ) .
Following, in a study of Managerial Response to the May 2003 Dividend Tax Cut had indicates that company ‘s direction will see the alteration in revenue enhancements rate in their dividend payout determination, but the revenue enhancements are non first-order importance. Besides, normally the revenue enhancement rates will non look to be an indispensable factor for dividend addition determinations made by companies that were already paying the dividends ( Alon Brav, et al,2008 ) . In add-on, dividends revenue enhancements may be go a factor to the dividend payout merely when the companies ‘ dividend distribution is capable to revenue enhancements. So if the company ‘s dividend distributions are non capable to revenue enhancement on dividend, so the dividend revenue enhancements will non be a factor that will be consider by the company in their payout determination. In other word mean that, the dividend revenue enhancements will non act uponing the dividend distribution in such company. Example, Master Limited Partnerships which had many energy and grapevine companies within its group and the Real Estate Investment Trusts, which are pooled financess of money, organized to put in assorted types of existent estate, their distributions are non capable to the 15 % qualified dividend revenue enhancement rate ( Divman,2010 ) .
Company ‘s investing chances influence the dividend distribution.
In finance term, investing is the purchase of a fiscal goods or other point of value with a belief of profitable future return ( WebFinance, 2010 ) . In concern, investing is the purchase by a shaper of physical merchandises, such as equipment, stock, portions, in the desire of bettering the hereafter of concern ( WebFinance, 2010 ) . Overall, investing agencies that company uses its fund or hard currency invest into an point by trusting its will bring forth return to the company in the hereafter ( WebFinance, 2010 ) . Therefore, investing can be classified as an of import component to the company because chief aim of companies usually is to maximising net income or bring forth highest incomes. To doing an investing by a house, it needs to hold sufficient hard currency in the company. Therefore, in this state of affairs, company ‘s investing will contra with the dividend distribution of the company. It is because, investing needed the fund in the house to transport out and the dividend is types of disbursals which besides need the company ‘s fund to declared it ( Malkawi & A ; Husam, 2008 ) . Therefore, if the company wanted to make an investing, so they have to give some proportion of dividend payout to the stockholders ( Stacescu, n.d. ) . In other words mean that, if the company chooses to transport out an investing so dividend distribution will go the chance cost to the company, frailty poetry ( Stacescu, n.d. ) . This state of affairs will usually happen due to the insufficient of hard currency in the company to carry through all demand. Therefore, investing chances of a house will be one of the factors that will act upon the company ‘s dividend distribution ( MBA Resources, 2008 ; Ben, 2010 ) .
By and large, when the company in the state of affairs of high investing chance, so the company wills more possibility to utilize the company ‘s fund to finance those investing and in other manus, the company will cut down or impermanent non distributed the dividend ( Docstoc, 2010 ) . It is because ; if investing is high profitable potency so it will be profit the company by generate more net income in long tally, while dividend is non an duty to the house, therefore it can pay it when the house had sufficient fund. In other manus, when the company had lower investing chances, so the company will usually administer the excess fund of the company as dividend payments to the stockholders ( Nguyen & A ; Harada, 2007 ; Article book, 2008 ) . Besides, harmonizing to Kothari ( n.d. ) , when reinvestment rate of the stockholders is higher than the reinvestment rate of company, so company will be in better place of giving out their net income to the stockholders as dividends alternatively of retain it for investing intent. However, if the stockholder ‘s reinvestment rate is lesser than the company ‘s reinvestment rate, so retain the earning will be the better picks for the company ( Kothari, n.d. ) . In add-on, in Article Book ( 2008 ) besides had proven that house will merely implement a low dividend and high retain earning policy when the profitable investing chances is available in the house and if the net incomes retained can non be productively used and the return from the company ‘s investing may be lower than the outlooks of stockholders, ensuing in take downing of proprietors ‘ hoarded wealth, so the company would be better to give out high dividends, so that stockholders can put it at a higher rate of return.
Lasfer ( 2000 ) besides province that companies will see its optimum investing foremost before make up one’s minding their dividend degree. In other words mean those dividend payouts are expected to be volatile and to be in negative place related to the investing chances ( Lasfer, 2000 ) . Following, in CiteMan ( 2006 ) article besides proven that companies which have really limited avenue usually prosecute a higher dividend distribution. Besides, harmonizing to Sinivasan ( 2010 ) statement, it had stated that if the companies run in the industries which are in growing phase of merchandise life rhythm so they will high dependance on gaining keeping for their operation and investings purpose, while, if the companies run in the industries which are in the adulthood and diminution stage so usually they will give up high dividends to its stockholders. Besides, in an empirical consequence of the determiner of dividend payment in Pakistan which had carry out in the sample of 320 non fiscal listed houses on Karachi Stock Exchange ( KSE ) which represent 85 % of entire houses in 2007 market and besides cover the history of that 320 houses for the period of 2001 to 2006 had showed that the relationship between dividends payout policies and investing chances is negatively ( Ahmed & A ; Javid, 2009 ) . This meant that, in Pakistan market ‘s companies besides will increase their dividend payment when the investing chances are low, frailty poetry. In add-on, in a questionnaire study examined the dividend distribution of China ‘s listed companies besides had founded that no distribution of hard currency dividend of listed companies is chiefly due to there are good investing undertakings holding in the companies ( FreePapers, 2009 ) .
Next, there are besides some research workers said that the lone factor a house would administer the dividend payment is because it had nil to make with its company ‘s fund in the universe ( Oxyuranus scutellatus, 2010 ) . Besides, in the position of Al-Kuwari ( 2009 ) besides express that house tended to utilize internal support beginnings to finance investing activities if it had big growing chances and big investing undertakings, therefore, these houses will take to cut or administer lower dividend in order to cut down the dependance of external funding. On other manus, house which holding a slow growing and less investing chances will give out higher dividend to forestall director from over-investing or misapply the company fund ( Al-Kuwari, 2009 ) . Example, Microsoft is a fast turning engineering company which does n’t administer dividend to its stockholders in many old ages, but its stockholders still satisfied with its company ‘s public presentation ( marketinvestors, 2008 ; chris, 2010 ) . Another illustration, the Hansen Natural Corporation ( HANS ) a manufacturer of the popular Monster energy drink line which in high turning phase of merchandise life rhythm does non pay a one-fourth dividend to its stockholders and refer to the writer, this company may be get down administer their quarterly dividends after the terminal of its high growing period ( Gillete, 2010 ) .
However, there are some research workers had found that although the company ‘s investing opportunities its high degree but the company still keep its dividend distribution ( Richard, et Al, 2007 ) . This circumstance means that company is willing to go through up its profitable undertaking in order to keep its current dividend distribution if the company does non has sufficient fund ( Richard, et Al, 2007 ) . This statement has proven by a few research workers ‘ study in 2005 as they found that when limited fund available in the company which force the company to take between investing and dividend, the dividend will be choose by the house directors alternatively of investing ( Richard, et Al, 2007 ) . In other words mean that non count how the companies ‘ investing chances is, the dividend distribution by the companies will non affected by it. In this instance, we can cognize that the company director in this study are classified their dividend distribution as a really of import component to its companies compared with the investing O profitable undertaking of the house ( Richard, et Al, 2007 ) . In this circumstance, we can reason as dividend distribution will non impact by the company ‘s investing chances.
Company ‘s liquidness influence the dividend distribution
The last factor that will act upon the dividend distribution is the company ‘s liquidness ( C & A ; K, 2003 ) . In a fiscal term, liquidness means the sum of hard currency that is available for investing ( Amadeo, 2011 ) . For an establishment, liquidness means how easy it is raise hard currency to settle its duty and demands ( Holton, 2004 ) . In other words mean that the more easy a company ‘s plus is convert to hard currency, the more liquid it is, frailty poetry ( JMW, 2010 ) . Example, if the houses had $ 10 million in its current assets and merely 1 million in its current liabilities, the house seems in a really good forms and strong positive in term of liquidness ( JMW, 2010 ) . Overall of this, we can cognize that liquidness is related to handiness of, entree to or convertibility into hard currency by the houses ( Holton, 2004 ) .
For dividend payout, it represents a hard currency escape or a hard currency payment from the concern ( C & A ; K, 2003 ; CiteMan, 2011 ) . Besides, harmonizing to Ayub ( 2002 ) , dividend payment is straight concerned with the handiness of excess hard currency after payments of the disbursals and funding for the extra investing in the company. Therefore, to find the sum of dividend wage by a company, so it will certainly extremely depend on the liquidness place of the house ( Docstoc, 2010 ) . In other word mean that company ‘s liquidness place has a bearing on the dividend determination ( CiteMan, 2011 ) . This meant that, if the company ‘s liquidness place is weak or holding hard currency deficit, so the company ‘s ability to payout the dividend will be low ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . In other manus, if the company ‘s liquidness place is free or strong, so the company ‘s ability to administer the dividend will be high excessively ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . Besides, a company ‘s current assets and more cash-rich, it is besides a strong ability to administer the dividend, when possible, high dividend policy, of class ( FreePapers, 2006 ) . However, if a house was to increase its production or refund debt or loans which have been realizable assets and hard currency outgo is about finished, it should non be taken high dividend policy ( FreePapers, 2006 ) .
In other words meant that, the company ‘s liquidness is holding a positive relationship with the dividends distribution ( Anil & A ; Kapoor, 2008 ) . Example, in the statement of Kim & A ; Gu ( 2008 ) had founded that liquidness to be positive correlated with dividend distribution. Besides, Norhayati ( n.d. ) besides got proven that, by and large, company will merely administer the dividends when it had a good liquidness place or free hard currency flow. Example, U.S. companies such as Nike, Intel, Baxter, UPS, Johnson Control which had big heap of hard currency and hard currency equivalents in their balance sheet on 2010 had announced an addition of dividend payout to its stockholders ( David, 2010 ) . Another illustration, when Wienerberger AG, the universe larger brick manufacturer had faced liquidness job, it had proposed to suspend or halt its dividend payment in 2008 in order to better the company ‘s liquidness place ( Wienerberger AG, 2010 ) . Besides, Telefonica, a telecommunication company in Spain had stated that one of the factors that its company will take into consideration before paying the dividends to its stockholders is the fund or hard currency available in the company, in other word mean that, the company will take in consideration the liquidness place of its house before doing the dividend payout determination ( Devpriya, n.d. ) . In add-on, Nietvelt & A ; Mock ( 2010 ) besides had stated that because of strong 2010 hard currency flow of 1.4 billion of study hard currency and hard currency equivalents holding by Evonik Industries AG, the company will probably payout high dividends to its stockholders. Other than that, in the idea of Springer ( 2010 ) , Barnes & A ; Noble will cut its dividend payout shortly due to high debts of $ 630 million and little hard currency militias of $ 27 million inside the company. Besides, Springer ( 2010 ) besides stated that Nucor Corporation, a steel shaper company ‘s dividend could be in danger place next twelvemonth if the company ‘s hard currency flow or liquidity place does n’t better.
Following, FreePapers ( 2009 ) besides had expounded that the overall liquidness of the assets in the company as possible, the ability to administer dividend is strong. Other than that, the statement besides stated that if company big proportion of hard currency in the fixed assets and lasting working capital, the liquidness will be mostly reduced and will non give precedence to payment of dividends ( FreePapers, 2009 ) . Besides, in the statement of Afza and Mirza ( 2010 ) had besides indicate that companies holding a strong liquidness or greater hard currency flow generated from operations are expected to be in a better place to administer the dividends instead than companies holding negative operating hard currency flows or hapless liquidness. In the study of the panel informations of stocks from Nikkei 225 index of Japan and the research in scrutiny of the determiners of dividend payout in Indian Information Technology sector from 2000 to 2006 besides had founded that dividend distribution by company is positively affected by the company ‘s liquidness ( Afza and Mirza, 2010 ) . Besides, the writer in a statement analyze on weak liquidness place of the Concern Kalina ( JSC ) , largest manufacturer of cosmetics and personal-care merchandises in Russia on 2008, had expected in 2009 the company will forbear its dividend payout as one of the manner or attempts to get the better of the liquidness job ( CbondS, 2004 ) . By this writer ‘s idea, it clear indicates that the company ‘s liquidness place will act upon the dividend distribution.
In a Watchdog Group and University of Technology MARA ‘s study which examines the companies ‘ behaviors on dividend distribution over a three-year period of 2002-2004 on top 100 public-listed companies which market value ranged from RM983 million to RM41, 972 million as atA 31 December 2005 had besides concluded that liquidness are one of the indispensable ingredients for a healthy, dividend-paying populace listed company ( ArticlesBase, 2010 ) . Example, the Deere & A ; Co. ( DE ) had a consistent path record of quarterly dividend payout, due to its hard currency place and its ability to make a healthy and strong hard currency flow in the company ( Zacks, 2010 ) . Besides, Melissa & A ; Frank ( 2004 ) besides indicated that higher degrees of liquidness to let for dividend final payments on possible implicit demands. For case, in the research of Canadian dividend payment issue, the research worker had founded that most of Canadian dividend paying houses are significantly holding greater hard currency flow ( Ahmed & A ; Javid, 2009 ) . Thus this had proven that dividend payment will be available merely when the company has strong liquidness or free hard currency flow. Holder, et Al ( 1998 ) besides stated the greater the free hard currency flow or strong liquidness place, the higher the dividend payout ratio of a company. In add-on, Srinivasan ( 2010 ) ‘s statement had besides stated that the function of liquidness can non be ignored in dividend distribution which mean that the sum of dividend distributed proposed by the companies is critically depend on the company ‘s liquidness place. Following, one of the factors act uponing the rush dividend payout of the IT companies such as Infosys Technologies, Wipro Technologies and HCL Technologies is the high liquidness in these companies ( SlideShare, 2010 ) .
hypertext transfer protocol: //126.96.36.199/~finman/Journals/2008/Winter2008.pdf — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //188.8.131.52/~finman/Orlando/Papers/div02jan2007.pdf — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.melbournecentre.com.au/working_papers/2005_03BrownODay.pdf aˆ¦.used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hkiaat.org/images/uploads/articles/Dividend.pdf — used
hypertext transfer protocol: //hubpages.com/hub/HighDividendStocks — used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.smh.com.au/business/washington-soul-ups-dividend-despite-profit-slump-20100923-15ni4.html used
hypertext transfer protocol: //thestar.com.my/news/story.asp? sec=nation & A ; file=/2010/7/2/nation/6594258 — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //talkaboutsharesmarket.blogspot.com/2010/07/bat-declares-healthy-dividend-despite.html — used
hypertext transfer protocol: //biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp? file=/2010/7/23/business/6718669 & A ; sec=business -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gmanews.tv/story/12060/update-globe-h1-profit-up-38-hikes-dividend-payout — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/idUSN2056084720071121 — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdeclips.com/en/hongkong/Fairwood_interim_profit_surges_43/fullstory_55882.html — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.henkel.com/SID-2630EA33-12E49611/press/2005-12028-henkel-staying-the-course-increase-in-sales-and-profits-at-6060.htm — used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.macquarie.com/mgl/com/news/2004/20041116a.htm — -used
( Kennan, 2010 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/list_6133820_advantages-disadvantages-dividends.html — — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/about_7382649_would-not-declare-pay-dividends_.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC547/fc547.html used ( kavitha, 2007 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.accountingcoach.com/online-accounting-course/17Xpg05.html — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.prudential.co.uk/prudential-plc/investors/shareholder_services/dividendinfo/scripdividend/ — used
hypertext transfer protocol: //timetotrade.eu/wiki/index.php/Scrip_Dividends — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessweek.com/news/2010-08-10/gdf-buys-international-power-pays-special-dividend.html — -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //moneyterms.co.uk/special-dividend/ -used
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/scrip-dividend/4947111-1.html — used