Second linguistic communication acquisition is concerned with the survey of the manner in which an person becomes able to utilize one or more linguistic communication different from his first linguistic communication. This procedure can take topographic point in a natural scene or through formal schoolroom direction, and although the grade of proficiency that can be attained is a controversial subject, it can get down at child goon or during the grownup age ( krashen, 1982 ) .
Although the age is an of import factor to larn a 2nd linguistic communication but isni‚?t the most of import 1. There are some another factors like motive anxiousness, and the other affectional factors, but in this research we are concerned about the age and motive factors.
In this research we are looking for happening relation ship bet ween age and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition and to reply this inquiry is more successful in childhood or adulscence? And besides to reply this inquiry that how motive can act upon an the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition.There are many elements in larning a 2nd linguistic communication that we constrast them between kids and grownups.
Harmonizing to our research grownups are more successful in some facets of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition that kids, but kids have more native-like speech pattern and of class are successful in some another facets. Additionally there are some differences between older kids and younger 1s to larn a 2nd linguistic communication excessively.
Besides, we talked about that kids and grownups have different motive to larn a 2nd linguistic communication because, their end of larning a 2nd linguistic communication differs with each other.
Age and motive
Language acquisition has ever become an of import work-field both in schools and
other private sectors covering with linguistic communication instruction and acquisition procedure. Second
linguistic communication acquisition is a procedure which is affected by many factors. It is accompanied by
different sorts of factors including the scholar ‘s environment both in and out of school. In
this article the age and motive factors in the 2nd linguistic communication larning procedure will be
analyzed, discussed and some positions will be put frontward.
Collier ( 1988 ) , expresses that successful linguistic communication aquistion depends on the learneri‚?s age. Obviously there is a apparent difference between kids and grownups in 2nd linguistic communication aquistion but we doni‚?t know which of them is the best scholar.
To happen the reply of this inquiry that what relation ship there are between age and motive and larning a 2nd linguistic communication, we want to compare kids and adultsi‚?s acquisition in some ways harmonizing to some facets of linguistic communication.
What is critical period1?
Second linguistic communications have hed to the development of the critical period sodium thiosulphate thesis which states that there is “ a biologically determind period of life when linguistic communication can aqcuired more easy and beyond which clip linguistic communication is progressively hard to get. ”
Interestingly to look into in relation sheep between age and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition one of the major countries in which many research have been done is critical period. There is a hypothesis that says linguistic communication can be acquired merely within a critical period, widening from early babyhood until pubescence, in iti‚?s BASIC from, the critical period hypothesis says that kids are better 2nd linguistic communication scholars than grownups and should accordingly make higher degrees of concluding proficiency in the 2nd linguistic communication ( lennebery, 1967 ) .
A scholar ‘s age is one of the of import factors impacting the procedure of second
linguistic communication acquisition. Collier ( 1988 ) , expresses that successful linguistic communication acquisition
depends on the scholar ‘s age. In one of the earliest surveies on 2nd linguistic communication acquisition
Lenneberg ( 1967 ) , claims that there is a certain period in acquisition of a 2nd
linguistic communication. In this period, which is identified critical period hypothesis in linguistic communication
acquisition, Lenneberg theorizes that the acquisition of linguistic communication is an unconditioned procedure
determined by biological factors which limit the critical period for acquisition of a
linguistic communication from approximately two old ages of age to puberty. Lenneberg believes that after
lateralisation, which is a procedure by which the two sides of the encephalon develop specialised
maps, the encephalon loses malleability and lateralisation of the linguistic communication map is usually
completed by pubescence, doing post-adolescent linguistic communication acquisition hard.
After Lenneberg, in some other surveies analyzing topics ‘ pronunciation after
over five old ages of exposure to the 2nd linguistic communication, it was found that the big bulk of
Lenneberg believes that after lateralisation, which is a procedure by which the two sides of the encephalon develop specialised maps, the encephalon loses malleability and lateralisation of the linguistic communication map is usually completed by pubescence, doing post-adolescent linguistic communication acquisition hard. Fathman ( 1975 ) , found that in the first twelvemonth of survey, 11-to 15-years old were significantly better at aquiring English as a 2nd linguistic communication than 6-to 10 old ages old in pronunciation, morphology, and sentence structure.
Pronunciation Age and motive
The critical period hypothesis holds that first linguistic communication acquisition must happen before intellectual lateralisation is complete, at about the age of pubescence. One anticipation of this hypothesis is that 2nd linguistic communication acquisition will be comparatively least, successful, and qualitatively similar to first linguistic communication merely if it occurs before the age of pubescence. This anticipation was tested by analyzing longitiudinally the realistic acquisition of Dutch by English talkers of different ages.
In the trial which we talked about the chief points to be tested was the effects of age on morphology, pronunciation, audile favoritism, sentence repeat, sentence interlingual rendition, sentence opinion, vocabulary trial, narrative comprehension, and narrative relation. The consequences showed important differences between the degrees of accomplishment of the novices and the advanced groups existed merely on audile favoritism, sentence repeat and sentence interlingual rendition, could be expected for the grownups frequently 1 yeari‚?s exposure to the 2nd linguistic communication but that acquisition of Dutch by the 6-15 old ages old was basically completed within 1 twelvemonth. In add-on a few surveies have shown that oldes kids are faster than younger one in geting 2nd linguistic communication ( Ervin Trip 1974 ; fathman 1975 ; Ekstrad, note 1 ) .
The decision was this: the 8-10 and 12-15 old ages old had achieved the best control of Dutch and the 3-5 old ages old scored lowest on all the trials employed. Some consequences of this research shown in table 1 in the table subdivision.
There are many elements which we want to compare kids and grownups larning to happen relation sheep between age and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition: pronunciation, perceptual experience to speech in noise, continuance of sentence, schoolroom patterns, and affectional factores.
Another manner in which we can seek in relation ship between age and linguistic communication acquisition is pronunciation. Some researches have been done to happen if the age has any of import consequence on the linguistic communication acquisition.
A closer expression at the long-run surveies reviewed by larson-freeman and long reveals that most were concerned with realistic acquisition and dealt with one facet of linguistic communication ability merely, notably phonemics. This has led spolsky to one of his 74 conditions for 2nd linguistic communication acquisition: “ The younger one starts to larn a 2nd linguistic communication, the better opportunity one has to develop a native-like pronunciation. ” ( 1989, p.96 ) . Look at figure 1.
grownups retain their speech pattern when the 2nd linguistic communication is acquired after pubescence, whereas
kids originating 2nd linguistic communication acquisition before pubescences have small or no foreign
speech pattern. In two different surveies on measuring pupils ‘ acquisition of pronunciation after
three old ages of exposure to the 2nd linguistic communication, Fathman ( 1975 ) and Williams ( 1979 ) ,
found that younger pupils had retained more accent-free pronunciation when compared
to striplings merely past pubescence.
While critical period surveies normally focused on child-adult differences and
suggested that younger scholars should be superior scholars, surveies of unwritten linguistic communication accomplishment
acquisition by kids of different ages have led to the decision that older kids
get faster than younger kids ( Collier, 1988 ) . In a survey made by Ervin-Tripp
( 1974 ) , it was found that after nine months of direction in Gallic, 7- to-9-year-olds
performed better than 4- to 6-year-olds did in comprehension, imitation, and
Fathman ( 1975 ) , found that in the first twelvemonth of survey, 11- to 15-year-olds were
significantly better at geting English as a 2nd linguistic communication than 6- to 10-year-olds in
Percept of address in noise Age and motive
pronunciation, morphology, and sentence structure.
As to academic intents, pupils need to get as complete to a scope of accomplishments
in the 2nd linguistic communication as possible. In school linguistic communication becomes abstract and focal point of
every content country undertaking, with all significance and all presentation of cognition expressed
through unwritten and written signifiers of linguistic communication as pupils move from one class degree to the
following. Some research workers made comparings on the public presentation of pupils of different
ages on linguistic communication undertakings associated with school accomplishments, including reading and authorship. Some
researches have been conducted by comparing the public presentation of pupils of different
ages on linguistic communication undertakings associated with linguistic communication accomplishments, including reading and authorship, In
some of these surveies, both short-run and long term, it was found that pupils between
the ages of 8 and 12 are faster in early acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication accomplishments, and over
several old ages ‘ clip they maintain this advantage over younger pupils at the age of 4 to 7
old ages ( Collier, 1988 ) .
From these surveies, it can be asserted that older pupils between the ages of 8 to
12 are faster, more efficient acquirers of school linguistic communication than younger pupils between
the ages of 4 to 7. In many of the surveies, immature kids get downing the survey of a 2nd
linguistic communication between the ages of 4 and 7 return much longer to get the hang accomplishments needed for
academic intents than older kids do. The ground why pupils get the linguistic communication
accomplishments better is that kids who enter school at the age of 5 or 6 have non completed
acquisition of their first linguistic communication, which continues through at least age 12. From ages 6
Percept of address in noise
Another points in relation sheep between age and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is perceptual experience of address in noise. To find how age of acquisition influences perceptual experience of 2nd linguistic communication address, the address perceptual experience in noise ( SPLN ) 2 trial was administered to native mexcian-spanish hearers who learned fluid English before age 6 ( early bilinguals ) or after age 14 ( late bilinguals ) and single-channel linguals American English talkers ( monolinguals ) .
Consequences show that the degree of noise at which the address was apprehensible were significantly higher and the benefit from countent was signigicantly greater for monolinguals and early bilinguals than for late bilinguals. These findings indicate that larning a 2nd linguistic communication at an early age is of import for the acquisition of efficient high-ranking processing of it, at least in the presence of noise.
Duration of sentences
There is besides another manner in which some researches have been done related to age and iti‚?s effects on the continuance of sentences produced in a 2nd linguistic communication.
The purpose of the current survey was to find wether a additive relation ship existed between age of reaching ( AOA ) 3 and L2 processing rate. Given the close relation ship of address rate to other step of processing rate ( faverau & A ; segalowitz, 1982, 1984 ) . L2 processing rate was indexed here by the continuance of reported L2 sentences under controled conditions. A correlativity between AOA and sentence continuance could bespeak that the more established the L2 is at the clip of first exposure to an L2, the more it inferences with L2 production and the greater the processing resources required to stamp down it.
Duration of sentences Age and motive
A figure of old surveies have examined the continuance of sentences spoken in an L2. Munro and Derwing ( 1995 ) had 70 grownup mandarion scholars of English who had lived in Canada for 4 old ages on mean read 40 English sentences. The Mandarian topics sentences were significantly longer than those of the native English topics ( 2, 290 vs. 1, 770 ms-a 29 % differences ) .
The first undertaking of this survey was to find wether sentence continuance differences between native and nonnative topics are relation and whether a additive relation ship between sentence continuance and AOA exists. ( Table2 )
The topics were given a list of 344 English sentences to analyze. They heard these sentences over earphone in blockes of 40 native Dutch talkers producted sentences that were significantly longer than the native English topics. Speech rate, defined as the figure of syllables spoken per unit of clip in a non address undertaking ( with or without intermissions. In add-on, address rate was found to be correlated with “ eloquence ” evaluation ( pennington, 1992 ) and besides with planetary accentedness evaluation ( Munro, 1999 ) .
Taken together, the surveies reviewed here suggest that non native talkers are disposed to bring forth longer vocalizations in an L2 than are native talkers. In add-on, the surveies indicate that address rate additions as proficiency in the L2 additions. ( Table3 )
The additive relation ship between AOA and L2 production proficiency can be analyzed as an consequence of L1 and L2 interaction ( flege, 1995 ) . One hypothesis states that the more established the L1 is at the clip of L2 acquisition, the greater the influence it will hold on the L2.
This is because, as L1 phonic catogories are established and elaborated through kid goon and in to adolescence, they become more likely to absorb L2 vowels and consonant.
As a consequences old research has suggested that an L2 is produces more easy than is the native linguistic communication. However no old survey has examined the relation between the age at which L2 acquisition commences and continuance of fluently produced English sentences. ( Figure2 )
Certain linguistic communication learning methods possibly inappropriate for older grownups for illustration, some methods rely chiefly on good auditory favoritism for larning. Since hearing frequently declines with age, this type of the technique puts the older scholar at a disadvantage.
Exercises such as unwritten drills and memorisation, which rely on short-run memory, besides favoritism against the grownup scholar. The grownup scholars best non by rote, but by incorporating new constructs and stuff in to already bing cognitive constructions. Speech is besides a factor that works against the older pupil, so fast-paced drills and competitory exercisings and activities may non be successful with the older scholar.
Childs have a good short-run memory, and, so they doni‚?t have which job we talked about grownups, and are better scholar in malice of schoolroom patterns.
Affectional factores ; motive
Obviously, age is non the lone factor which has influence on the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, there are some another factors like affectional factors that we want to incorporate them with age, and observe iti‚?s consequences. Surely the consequences of affectional factors are different in kids and grownups.
Affectional factores ; motive Age and motive
Affectional factors such as motive and assurance are really of import in linguistic communication acquisition. Many older scholars fear failure more than their younger opposite numbers, possibly because they accept the stereo type of the older individual as a hapless linguistic communication scholar or because previouse unsuccessful attemps to larn a foreign linguistic communication.
Adults analyzing a foreign linguistic communication are normally larning it for a specific intent: to be more effectual professionally to be able to last in an awaited foreign state of affairs, or for other instrumental ground.
Motivation is one of the of import facets of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition.
Motivation is a sort of desire for larning. It is really hard to learn a 2nd linguistic communication
in a acquisition environment if the scholar does non hold a desire to larn a linguistic communication. Take
into consideration from that facet, to be able to do the scholar active and desirable in
larning procedure additions importance.
In the 1990s, research workers in the field of applied linguistics called for an enlargement
of the motivational concept in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( Skehan 1991 ; Oxford
& A ; Shearing, 1994 ; Dornyei, 1994 ) . Preliminary grounds has emerged in recent research,
which non merely demonstrates the relevancy of the new motivational concepts ( such as
goal-setting, causal ascriptions and so on ) in linguistic communication acquisition, but besides shows that
incorporation of such new elements into the bing theoretical theoretical accounts is likely to ensue
in more luxuriant theoretical accounts of linguistic communication larning motive ( Tremblay & A ; Gardner 1995 ) .
Reece & A ; Walker ( 1997 ) , express that motive is a cardinal factor in the 2nd
linguistic communication larning procedure. They stress that a less able pupil who is extremely motivated
can accomplish greater success than the more intelligent pupil who is non good motivated.
Sometimes pupils may come extremely motivated and the undertaking of the instructor is to keep
motive of the pupils. The undertaking of the instructor is to maximise the motive.
Shulman ( 1986 ) , expresses that pupils ‘ acquisition is facilitated most efficaciously when
pupils are motivated, and that motive can be enhanced through the creative activity of a
positive affectional clime. Crookes & A ; Schmidt ( 1991 ) , defines the motive in footings of
pick, battle and continuity, as determined by involvement, relevancy, anticipation and
Motivation depends on the societal interaction between the instructor and the scholar.
To be able to make an effectual acquisition environment holding extremely motivated pupils
necessitates strong interpersonal and societal interaction. Harmonizing to Cooper & A ; McIntyre
( 1998 ) , if it is accepted that acquisition is claimed to be dependent on certain types of
interpersonal and societal interaction, it follows that fortunes that make these signifiers
of interaction desirable or at least congenial become a necessary requirement of effectual
larning. It can besides be said that the appropriate signifiers of interaction help the scholar solve
his or her jobs in the acquisition procedure.
The importance of the instructor factor in holding a high degree of motive in 2nd
linguistic communication acquisition can non be neglected. The success of a instructor in 2nd linguistic communication
acquisition in school affects straight the success of scholars. Cooper & A ; McIntyre ( 1998 )
underscore the importance of the instructor factor in pupils ‘ accomplishment. They add that the
more successful the instructor is in concentrating and easing effectual student standardization, the
more effectual the instructor will be in easing effectual student acquisition.
Affectional factores ; motive Age and motive
The pick of learning scheme on motive is emphasized by Reece & A ; Walker
( 1997 ) . The pick of learning scheme has an consequence upon the motive and involvement of
the pupil. The mode in which the instructor approaches the instruction scheme will hold
an consequence upon motive: an enthusiastic attack is more likely to actuate than a dull
Kristmanson ( 2000 ) , offers that an effectual acquisition environment can be achieved by:
– Encouraging and back uping pupils at all times but particularly when they are fighting
or missing assurance in certain countries.
– Being energetic and enthusiastic about what you are learning and on those yearss when you
do non hold that energy, supply activities that require the scholars to set forth the
bulk of the energy.
– Making an ambiance in which pupils are non afraid to do errors and are
encouraged to take hazards.
– Avoiding tension-causing schemes such as surprise quizzes, excessively competitory
activities, seting pupils in forepart of their equals with no warning or opportunity for
readying, and rectifying mistakes in a negative, accusative manner.
– Allowing pupils opportunities to speak about themselves, their involvements, and their civilization.
– Providing chances for interaction in the mark linguistic communication in and outside the linguistic communication
larning environment through preplanned and self-generated activities,
– Encouraging end scene and a sense of dedication and uninterrupted committedness to the
linguistic communication acquisition undertaking through meaningful, relevant and reliable linguistic communication acquisition
– Encouraging scholars to seek out chances in their lives that will assist in the acquisition
of the mark linguistic communication.
– Creating, through the presentation of come-at-able ends and sensible challenges, a
larning environment with a definite potency for success.
– Acknowledging the “ small successes ” , betterments and advancement of all pupils both
separately and with the full group.
Attitudes can besides play a important function in the language-learning schoolroom. They
hold a close relationship with motive. Krashen ( 1985 ) , proposes that attitudes can move
as barriers or Bridgess to larning a new linguistic communication and are the indispensable environmental
There have been several researches on scholars ‘ motive in 2nd linguistic communication
larning. In a research lab survey performed by Gardner, Lalonde and Moorcroft ( 1985 ) a
French/English paired associates larning paradigm was used, and it was demonstrated
that larning was faster for topics classified as holding comparatively high degrees of
integrative motive than for those with low degrees. Subsequent surveies have employed
the same paradigm but have administered all stuff by computing machine. In one such survey,
Gardner and MacIntyre ( 1991 ) , investigated the effects of integrative and instrumental
motive on the acquisition of French/English vocabulary, and found that both
Conclusion Age and motive
interactively- and instrumentally-motivated topics learned the vocabulary faster than
topics non so motivated.
In malice of all we find in the otheri‚?s researches which are in different subjects related to relation sheep between age and motive and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, there is a apparent thing which says certainly there is an of import consequence of age on the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition.
Of class there are a batch of factors which have influences on the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition both in kids or grownups, but, isni‚?t non deniable that in a natural manner kids are the better scholar in overall acquisition, but grownups besides, can be good scholars in malice of utilizing their first cognition of the linguistic communication to pass on with the higher-order facets of the 2nd linguistic communication.
Another point we should concentrate on is that the older kids are the better scholars than younger 1s, but iti‚?s non still documented thing to firmly state which 1 is the best scholar of 2nd linguistic communication ; grownups, older kids, or younger kids.
So, the last but non the least thing we shoud say is stressing that, the success in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition depends on many factors. age and motive factors are among themost of import 1s. In surveies, it has been found that if a scholar has a competence in his or herown linguistic communication, he or she is more advantageous than those who have non completed his first linguistic communication. as to motive, it has been found that motivated pupils are more successful in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition 2nd linguistic communication acquisition than those who are non motivated.
Mentions Age and motive
Schleppegrell, Marry. ( ERIC clear house on linguistic communication and linguistics ) . Whashington DC: 1987-09-00. Age and linguistic communication acquisition.
CUHK diary of primary Educational Tool. 4 No. 2, pp. 49-54, ( July, 1994 ) . Age and linguistic communication acquisition.
F.O. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2001, 11 ( 2 ) . The effects of age and motive factors on 2nd Language.
Collier, V.P. ( 1988 ) . The National glade house for Bilingual Educational, No: 2, winter: 1987-1988.
Johnson S. New port EL. Journal of address, linguistic communication, and Hearing Research vol. 40686-693 June 1997. Critical period Effectss in 2nd Language Learning.
Susan G. Gulon ; James E. Fleg and serena H. Liu ; Grace H. Yeni-komshian. Printed in the United States of America: Applied psycloinguistics 21, 2000, pp. 205-228. Age of larning Effectss on the Duration of Sentences produced in a Second Language.
Ellen Bialystok, PHD. Published on-line febrauray 9. 2006, Revised October 15, 2008. Second-language Acquisition and Bilingualism at an Early Age and the Impact on Early Congnitive Development.
Catherin E. Snow and Marian Hoefnagel-Hohle. Blackwell printing on behalf of society for Research in kid Development: Dec, 1978. The critical period for linguistic communication Aequisition, vol 49, No. 4, pp. 1114-1128.