The Different Kinds Of Land Drainage Systems Environmental Sciences Essay

In simple footings DrainageA is defined as the “ natural or unreal remotion of surface andA sub-surface waterA from an country ” . Many countries have some natural drainage ; this means that extra H2O flows from the husbandmans ‘ Fieldss to drench or to lakes and rivers. Natural drainage, nevertheless, is frequently unequal and unreal or semisynthetic drainage is required.

There are two types of unreal drainage: surface drainage and subsurface drainage.

Surface drainage is the remotion of extra H2O from the surface of the land. This is usually accomplished by shallow ditches, besides called unfastened drains. The shallow ditches discharge into larger and deeper aggregator drains. In order to ease the flow of extra H2O toward the drains, the field is given an unreal incline by agencies of land scaling.

Subsurface drainage

Subsurface drainage is the remotion of H2O from the root zone. It is accomplished by deep unfastened drains or buried pipe drains.

Deep unfastened drains:

The extra H2O from the root zone flows into the unfastened drains. The disadvantage of this type of subsurface drainage is that it makes the usage of machinery hard.

2.2 Pipe drains

Pipe drains are buried pipes with gaps through which the dirt H2O can come in. The pipes convey the H2O to a aggregator drain

Deep unfastened drains versus pipe drains:

Open drains use land that otherwise could be used for harvests. They restrict the usage of machines. They besides require a big figure of Bridgess and culverts for route crossings and entree to the Fieldss. Open drains require frequent care ( weed control, fixs, etc. ) .

In contrast to open drains, buried pipes do no loss of arable land and care demands are really limited. The installing costs, nevertheless, of pipe drains may be higher due to the stuffs, the equipment and the skilled work force involved.

The intent of my survey is to understand and analyse purchaser behaviour in Drainage Market in India. Thus before coming on to the trifles of the subject, allow ‘s see the basic definition of drainage system in general: In simple footings, Drainage system is “ a system of watercourses or drains for transporting off extra H2O ” .

Drain system in India is chiefly divided into three sub divisions:

Agricultural drainage

Road drainage

Industrial and Residential drainage

There are assorted types of drainage pipes ; some are used to run out H2O off roofs while some are meant to run out H2O off from land. Often these drainage pipes are made of either:

PVC ( Polyvinyl Chloride )

Concrete

Corrugated Polyethylene

Ceramic

After the treatment of the types of drainage pipes, allow ‘s see assorted advantages and disadvantages of each:

PVC ( Polyvinyl Chloride )

Advantages:

Very lasting

Can be recycled

Disadvantage:

Not flexible

Concrete

Advantages:

Cheap

Strong in Compaction

Disadvantage:

Weak under tenseness

Corrugated Polyethylene

Advantages:

Flexible

Easy to put in

Disadvantage:

Expensive

Ceramic

Advantage:

More Earth friendly

Disadvantage:

More likely to check

Therefore supra mentioned information in debut may turn out to be really ready to hand in acquiring to cognize the rudimentss of drainage market in India.

Beginning:

Irrigation Water Management: Training manual no.1 – Introduction to irrigation by Natural Resources Management and Environment Department.

( A© FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 1985 )

Wise geek web site, article on: “ What is a Drain Pipe ” dated 9th September, 2010.

LITERATURE REVIEW

In India, drainage market is projected to be deserving Rs. 50, 000 crores at present which is merely 5 % of the PVC market in India and is projected to turn at the rate of 10 % p.a.

An article by Mr. P. Singh, Vice President Honoraire, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage/ICID, New Delhi, India reflects on the issue of drainage jobs in India. In his article he has mentioned that about the whole of India is situated in the tropical or sub-tropical part. Most of the rainfall is concentrated in a period of about 3 months of the monsoon season.

The countries subject to one-year implosion therapy and drainage congestion prevarication in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The one-year rainfall in these countries varies between 1000 and 1500 millimeter. However, huge countries in the Punjab, Haryana and parts of Rajasthan besides suffer from surface drainage jobs due to the level terrain and insufficiency of natural drainage ; even though the one-year rainfall is some what lower than 1000 millimeter. Areas in the level tableland of Madhya Pradesh besides suffer on occasion from drainage congestion during enchantments of heavy monsoon rain enduring for 2 or 3 yearss.

The development of inundation control and drainage in India started on a large graduated table merely after the black inundations of 1954. Since so a entire length of 26,119 kilometers of drainage channels have been constructed in assorted States up to March 1985. The National Commission on Floods assessed that a entire country of about 40 million hectare is apt to inundations and drainage congestion. Out of this, it was estimated that merely approximately 80 % or 32 million hectare could be afforded sensible protection.

The largest countries provided with surface drainage are located in the Punjab and Haryana in northern India. This is due to the fact that the natural drainage was most lacking in these States. Besides these States contain the largest per centum of irrigated countries. Irrigation in the last few decennaries has led to a steady rise of the H2O tabular array, and to antagonize this, an extended programme was started to minimise groundwater recharge by bettering surface drainage, run alonging canals and distributaries, and more late, third canals and watercourses.

A considerable length of drainage channels has been constructed in the province of Andhra Pradesh particularly to rush up drainage of the countries around Colleru Lake in the Krishna-Godavari delta.

Table 1 Advancement of physical plants completed up to March, 1985

From table 1 it will be seen that, up to March 1985, approximately 13 million hectare is benefitted by inundation protection and drainage steps.

Sometimes inter-state jobs have arisen in the drainage of low-lying countries in some of the northern States like Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and the Union Territory of Delhi. Sometimes the upstream riparian States have constructed unreal drainage channels or improved natural drains, and accordingly flood overflow from these countries has exceeded the dispatching capacity of bing natural or unreal drains in the downstream riparian States. In such instances, there are troubles and holds in geting at amicable solutions sing the design characteristics of an integrated drainage system and/or the liability for the cost. Sometimes, troubles besides arise in bearing the cost of betterment of cross-drainage plants in roads and railroad lines crossing the drainage lines.

Figure below shows:

Access to different types of drainage in some of the provinces of India

( Beginning: National Sample Survey of India, 60th unit of ammunition ( January to June 2004 ) . National Sample Survey Organization in India

Above figure offers another comparing affecting Maharashtra and Gujarat. These two provinces lead India in the per centum of families served by belowground drainage systems. And yet, these provinces besides leave a much higher per centum of their populations without any signifier of drainage compared to those provinces that have pursued less advanced ( but cheaper ) options, such as unfastened puccas ( channels with concrete run alonging drainage systems ) . In the three other provinces listed-Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh-more than 70 % of the families are served by some signifier of drainage system.

( Beginning: Asiatic Development Bank study on “ India ‘s Sanitation for All: How to do it go on ” , series 18, published in 2009 )

India ‘s 4 major metropolitan metropoliss named Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata are besides enduring the job of deficiency of drainage system in topographic point.

Delhi ‘s Drainage System Condition:

The metropolis self-praises of new roads, overpasss, beautiful Parkss, luxury hotels, shopping promenades, but no idea is spared to better H2O and power supply or reconstruct raddled drains and cloacas. The metropolis ‘s out-of-date drainage and sewage system lies in shambles.

The Union Budget has a proviso of Rs 150 crore for the Union Ministry of Youth Affairs & A ; Sports, and Rs 350 crore for Delhi authorities for puting up substructure and other installations. The Sports Authority of India and the All India Tennis Association have outgo budget of Rs 1,000 crore and Rs 30 crore severally towards the locale substructure. The Delhi Development Authority has earmarked Rs 1.5 billion, and building work on bowls and substructure will get down in mid-2007.

However, it is distressing that despite all the money available, the metropolis of Delhi is still in arrant civic muss and will go on to be so even after the Commonwealth Games 2010.

A recent study tabled by the Committee on Petitions, Legislative Assembly of Delhi, while hearing a request filed by CHETNA, a Delhi-based NGO, has highlighted the fact that the bulk of the drains of Delhi have been settled and nil can be done about it. It has besides brought out the fact that in many instances even the design of the drains is defective. The study suggests an pressing demand for retracing the drains.

New roads, overpasss, beautiful Parkss and other substructure installations may be rendered waste if the metropolis ‘s drainage and sewage systems are non strengthened. In position of the Commonwealth Games, the Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi in the twelvemonth 2007, A.K. Nigam ( now Mr. K.S.Mehra ) , has stated that a complete inspection and repair of the drainage and sewage web be carried out on a war terms.

The Municipal Commissioner admitted that to implement the recommendations of the Committee to reconstitute the full sewage and drainage web and convey it under a individual bureau would necessitate gigantic investing in footings of money and work force. The Delhi governments are excessively eager and willing to acquire the show ( Commonwealth Games ) on the route at any cost, but it ‘s the people of Delhi who would hold to pay in a heartfelt way for that.

( Beginning: Undertaking Monitor web site, article on: Delhi ‘s Drainage & A ; Sewerage Network Stinking Mess dated 7th May 2007 )

Mumbai ‘s Drainage System Condition:

At present, the aggregation and disposal of waste H2O and sewerage in Mumbai is divided into seven zones, viz. , Colaba, Worli, Bandra, Versova, Malad, Bhandup and Ghatkopar. From each of these, sewerage and waste H2O is conveyed to the several concluding discharge points for disposal through Marine outfalls, some three kilometers into the sea. There are 53 pumping Stationss for pumping the sewage/waste H2O from lower degree to higher degree and there are 54,000 manholes for care of 1,400km long web of the sewage system.

The belowground drainage pipes of the sewage system in Mumbai are more than 100 old ages old and needs redevelopment. In engorged parts, the sewage lines and H2O grapevines run together and leakages contaminate imbibing H2O. The unplanned and unauthorised growing of the metropolis makes it hard and, at times, impossible to replace old sewage lines. The job of sewer lines of little diameters acquiring choked due to solid waste and silt come ining them is rampant. The consequence is that alternatively of acquiring drained, sewerage floods on to the surface.

Mumbai has a two-tier sewage system. One is the belowground sewage system that discharges about 3.5 kilometer into the sea. The other is storm H2O drains that carry surface and flood H2O during monsoon and discharges straight into the sea right at the sea

shore. However, what complicates the already overloaded sewage system is the presence of a big per centum of the metropolis ‘s population that has no entree to it in the first topographic point. While lavatories in the edifices and constitutions are connected to the belowground sewage system, this installation is non available to the slum inhabitants.

About 65 % of Mumbai ‘s population of 13million, i.e. , about 8million people lives in slums, of which 50 % unrecorded in authorised slums with some lavatory installation. The other 50 % , i.e. , approximately 4million slum occupants have no pick but to ease themselves in the unfastened infinites, along roads, main roads, railroad paths, Parkss, resort areas, unfastened secret plans and beaches. During monsoons, this body waste flows through unfastened drains and nallas into the storm H2O drains and gets discharged right near the seashore.

( Beginning: “ Understanding Our Civic Issues ” an article by The Bombay Community Public Trust )

Chennai ‘s Drainage System Condition:

Citizens of Chennai say: “ Canals and drains all remember, in times of rains and non earlier. When rains are past and everything dries-up, canals get silted and drains clogged. ”

Chennai metropolis and its milieus are really level with contours runing from 2m to 10m above Mean Sea Level with a few stray knolls in the sou’-west. Chennai ‘s monsoons are characterized by clearly marked seasons with specific types of conditions. The Northeast monsoon ( October-December ) is the chief season when over 50 per cent of the one-year rainfall happens.

Chennai ‘s terrain necessitates an effectual storm H2O drainage ( SWD ) system and the Corporation of Chennai has a web covering a length of 855 kilometer. Through this web, rainwater overflow gets drained into the 16 unfastened canals maintained by the Corporation and reaches the sea via four waterways – Otteri Nullah, Buckingham Canal, Adyar and Cooum rivers – under the control of the State Public Works Department.

METROWATER discharges most of its sewerage into these canals and waterways ; Desilting of the drains is carried out twice a twelvemonth and canals are desilted one time in two old ages. Structural fixs are besides carried out whenever necessary and more drains are constructed on a uninterrupted footing. The corporation is in the thick of implementing a monolithic Rs 1,400 crore SWD undertaking for which significant support will come from the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM ) .

Harmonizing to experts, farther urbanisation, as envisaged in the Second Master Plan ( SMP ) along the South and southwest growing corridors would drastically increase inundation extremums in the Adyar and Cooum rivers due to increase in impermeableness of the surface and speedy flow of storm Waterss.

The root cause for the inundations is choking and barricading of natural drains and ‘infrastructure development ‘ . Typical illustrations are the freak called MRTS ( Mass Rapid Transit System ) that has killed Buckingham canal as a inundation bearer and indiscriminate route laying and rise of route degrees all over the metropolis. The much-touted high velocity elevated corridors on the riversides and the ‘expressway ‘ over Chennai ‘s beaches could drive the last nail in the casket! Low quality of stuff used and hapless criterion of building drains result in their breakage shortly thenceforth.

Management and care of H2O supply, waterways and drainage system is a merry-go-round between METROWATER, PWD, Chennai Corporation and Municipalities with no individual, effectual authorization in charge.

The consequence is chaos and confusion, a judicious mixture for corruptness and non-performance. Institutional reform is an immediate jussive mood if the metropolis and its citizens are to be spared of this repeating torment.

( Beginning: Express Buzz web site, article on Chennai ‘s rains and drains dated 10 November, 2009 )

Kolkata Drainage System Condition:

From gull cavity male childs to jetting-cum-suction machine, the century-old Kolkata ‘s drainage system was investigated under the brick cloaca lines laid between Moulali to Pamarbazar drainage pumping station. Civil defence boats and high powered picture cameras were used to take exposure of the belowground lines. The one kilometre long chief cloaca lines which were laid in 1868, have developed a figure of clefts in different musca volitanss, a senior drainage section officer said. The survey will be followed by surveies on brick cloaca lines in other parts of the metropolis. After completion of the survey, the Weston International will urge ways to rectify the system. Harmonizing to a senior drainage section functionary, most of the brick cloaca lines situated in the metropolis proper is lying in a bad form. Some of the lines have collapsed excessively. The prostration of the cloaca lines foremost was spotted in Kalutola country in the northern portion of the metropolis in 1956. A twosome of old ages ago a large brick cloaca line collapsed on AJC Bose Road in the southern portion of the metropolis. “ Although the sewer lines have been rebuilt, we fear prostration of many such lines in other parts of the metropolis as the lines have become antique, ” the functionary said.

( Beginning: The Times of India.Indiatimes website, an article on: City drainage system being modernized )

As discussed in the debut chapter, drainage system in India is chiefly divided into three sub divisions viz. : Agricultural drainage, Road drainage and Industrial & A ; Residential drainage.

As we know that over 70 % of India ‘s population is dependent on agribusiness, and India has the largest irrigated country in the universe ( 57 million hectare ) , but merely a comparatively little proportion ( 2.5 million hectare ) of the cultivable country is drained. Thus it becomes all the more of import to analyze Agriculture drainage in item.

( Beginning: Mottmac.in web site, a hunt on irrigation and drainage I India I Mott Macdonald )

Agribusiness Drain:

An agricultural drainage system is a system by which the H2O degree on or in the dirt is controlled to heighten agricultural harvest production.

Categorization OF TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

Above figure shows the field ( or internal ) and the chief ( or external ) systems Agricultural Drainage Criteria. The map of the field drainage system is to command the H2O tabular array, whereas the map of the chief drainage system is to roll up, conveyance, and dispose of the H2O through an outfall or mercantile establishment. In some cases one makes an extra differentiation between aggregator and chief drainage systems.

Field drainage systems are differentiated in surface and subsurface field drainage systems. Sometimes ( e.g. in irrigated, submersed rice Fieldss ) , a signifier of impermanent drainage is required whereby the drainage system is allowed to work on certain occasions merely ( e.g. during the harvest period ) . If allowed to work continuously, inordinate measures of H2O would be lost. Such a system is hence called a checked, or controlled, drainage system. More normally, nevertheless, the drainage system is meant to work every bit on a regular basis as possible to forestall undue H2O logging at any clip and one employs a regular drainage system. In literature, this is sometimes besides called a “ alleviation drainage system ” .

{ Beginning: Mahalo.com web site, a hunt on Drain system ( Agriculture ) }

Like all, agricultural drainage excessively has positive effects and impacts.

Figure below represents “ Positive effects and impacts of Agriculture Drainage ”

( Beginning: Journal of Applied Irrigation Science, Vol.37. No 1/2002, pp. 33-61 )

In India, large-scale canal irrigation strategies have been in operation for more than a century. At present, there are 1248 major and average irrigation strategies in the state. During the past three decennaries at that place has been a dramatic addition in the usage of groundwater for irrigation. As a consequence, India has the universe ‘s largest gross irrigated country ( 77 million hour angle ) . The irrigation development has been widely acknowledged to hold helped the state non merely to accomplish nutrient autonomy but besides to be an exporter of agricultural green goods in recent times. However, it is now realized that drainage is one of the countries that has non been given an equal and equal position, while be aftering for H2O resource development coupled with a programme for a rapid enlargement of irrigation substructure, during the epoch of the Tocopherol: Thesis filesDrainage in agricultural_filesldquo.gifgreen revolutionE: Thesis filesDrainage in agricultural_files
dquo.gif. Drainage proviso was by and large deferred or postponed in many instances due to the dearth of financess in the initial phases and therefore was left to be taken up later or as a healing step to turn to H2O logging and salt jobs as encountered.

( Beginning: Gopalakrishnan, M. and Kulkarni, S. A. ( 2007 ) , Agricultural land drainage in India. Irrigation and Drainage, 56: A S59-S67. Department of the interior: A 10.1002/ird.368 )

Therefore there originate a demand for a Modern drainage system – planning & A ; building in the field of Agricultural Drainage in India. The planning and design of drainage systems is non an exact scientific discipline. Although there have been many progresss in dirt and harvest scientific discipline, techniques have non been developed for uniting the basic rules involved into precise designs. One of the primary grounds for trouble in using known theory is the freakish variableness of natural dirt in contrast to the idealized dirts required to develop a theory. The type of drainage system designed depends on many factors, but the most of import is the type of dirt, which determines whether H2O will travel through quickly plenty to utilize subsurface drainage. Soils that have a high per centum of sand- and silt-size atoms and a low per centum of clay-size atoms normally will convey H2O quickly plenty to do subsurface drainage executable. Dirts that are high in clay-size atoms normally can non be drained by subsurface betterments. It is indispensable to see dirt belongingss to a deepness of five to six pess ( 1.5 to 1.8 meters ) because the bed in the dirt that transmits H2O the slowest controls the design, and subsurface betterments may be installed to these deepnesss. The topography or incline of the land is besides of import. In many instances, land in demand of drainage is so level that a contour map demoing lifts 12 inches ( 30 centimeters ) or six inches ( 15 centimeters ) apart is used to place problem musca volitanss and possible mercantile establishments for drainage H2O. Often an mercantile establishment can be developed merely by corporate community action. The rainfall forms, the harvests to be grown, and the normal tallness of the H2O tabular array besides are considered. If heavy rainfall is non likely during critical phases of harvest growing, less extended drainage betterments may do. The capacity of the system is governed in portion by the growing form of the harvest, its seting day of the month, critical phases of growing, tolerance of extra H2O, crop day of the month, and value. In some countries the normal H2O degree in the dirt is high, in others low ; this variable is ever investigated before a drainage system is planned.

Road Drain:

Road drainage relates to the aggregation and emptying of H2O nowadays in the bomber class and pavings. It is one of three facets of route drainage, along with surface H2O emptying ( surface drainage ) and re-routing natural flows. ( Beginning: Technical usher on Road drainage dated March 2006 under the mention 0605 and translated in August 2007 )

In state like India Road conveyance dramas of import function in the field of conveyance. Road is the life line of the state. But unluckily the conditions of Roads and Highways in India are really bad and critical. The grounds are:

A Heavy Traffic

A Inadequate StandardsA

A Excess H2O from rainfall

A Local implosion therapy

A Rise in subsoilA H2O

A Most of import is deficiency of proper drainage system etc.

These consequences in damaged roads andA A decrease of utile life of the route ensuing in decelerating down of traffic taking to congestion, clip loss, fuel loss and finally incommodiousness to public.

The best solution for this is to supply effectual and equal Sub-Surface Drainage System ( SSD ) . Sub Surface drains are to be installed along the borders of the roads, under the roads and shoulders / pavements.A This system is reasonably defined in the:

MORTH Specifications for Road and Bridge Works ( Orange Book Sec.300, Cl. 309.3 ) A

Indian Road Congress-Special Publication 42- “ Guideline of Road Drainage ”

( Beginning: Rex PolyExtrusion web site, informations on route drainage under the header Non farm sector SSD )

Residential Drain:

Residential Drain is the natural or unreal remotion of surface and sub-surface H2O from rain, runing snow, overflow and condensation.

In India, a leaking foundation or wet cellar is every householder ‘s worst incubus. It is said that quicker and faster you get H2O off from your foundation, the less opportunity you have of developing a H2O infiltration job. A decently installed foundation drainage system can salvage you tonss of money and grief. One of the most of import facets of constructing a new place, or keeping an bing place, is the aggregation and remotion of H2O from around the foundation. A edifice ‘s foundation is a vulnerable topographic point for H2O invasion.

A foundation drain tile system has four chief constituents. The drain tile ( pipe ) , the filter media ( crushed rock ) , the crushed rock screen, and the H2O mercantile establishment. All of these elements must be installed for the system to work decently.

When a drainage system is used in residential building, it is normally a combination of a gravel drainage bed with a foundation drain, either drain tile or perforated pipe. A ill drained cellar or foundation wall can make a battalion of jobs runing from structural failure of the wall itself to damage to the contents of the cellar because of high humidness.

Industrial Drain:

Industrial pipe covers a wide class of fluid and solid conveyance hardware used in procedure, energy, excavation, building, and many civil substructure applications for the transportation of solids and liquids.

Industrial pipe can be manufactured from a broad assortment of stuffs including: Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, brass, bronze, black lead, heavy responsibility polythene ( HDPE ) , polypropene ( PP ) , PVC, etc. In choosing a piping stuff for your application, particular consideration must be given to coerce evaluations and temperatures. The force per unit area evaluation ( maximal service design force per unit area ) is dependent on three things: the strength of the stuff from which the pipe is made, the thickness of the pipe, the temperature of the pipe in application.

In India, assorted plans are lined up for modernisation of drainage. Some of them are:

The Andhra Pradesh Government is sing a proposal to take up modernisation of drainage system in the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation ( GHMC ) which will imply an investing of about Rs 10,000 crore.

The Ministry of Urban Development has technically sanctioned a H2O drainage undertaking for Bahini and Noonmati basin at Guwahati under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM ) at an estimated cost of Rs 125.36 crore.

The Kolkata Municipal Corporation would be taking up urban sewage and drainage undertakings deserving Rs 180 crores. A The undertakings would be executed by private administrations, which would concentrate on supplying the belowground sewage and drainage conveyance and disposal system to better the environmental and sanitory status and to decrease the job of H2O logging.

Rs 378 crore incorporate sewage intervention undertakings for Agartala ( Assam ) under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM ) designed for betterment of drainage, sewage and waste direction.

Apart from these there are many more undertakings lined up with regard to drainage in India.

Buyer ‘s penchant for Drainage pipes in India:

If speaking of the drainage system in India and the pipes used in that, it was found out through secondary research that:

Drain System Sub-Divisions

Buyer ‘s 1st Preference

Buyer ‘s 2nd Preference

Agricultural Drain

Polyvinyl chloride

Pe

Road Drain

Pe

Concrete

Residential and Industrial Drainage

Polyvinyl chloride

Corrugated Polyethylene

Therefore at the terminal I would state that Drain Market in India is at its origin phase right now and will go a moneymaking market in the old ages to come likely by the twelvemonth 2015.