After the Second World War, the United States began seeing an enlargement of communism into Eastern Europe. President Truman proposed a policy of containment, in which the primary end was to hold the farther spread of communism. The United States saw the Soviet Union to be a direct menace to the free universe and as a consequence, they were approximately to come in a new sort of war: the “ Cold War. ”
After get the better ofing Germany during World War II, most of Europe and Asia lay in ruins, and on the skyline a new menace appeared, communism. Even though the U.S. and the Soviet Union were Alliess during World War II, they both emerged from the war as planetary powers, with differences on their positions of the universe. Both universe super powers were in a deadlock economically and militarily and were invariably viing to be the superior. The U.S. was the richest state in the universe and it promoted democracy and capitalist economy. The Soviet Union thought that communism was a better ( political system because it transformed their economic system and position in the universe from nil but a worsening imperium to a ace power one time once more ) ( StudyWorld ) . By 1947, attempts to keep cooperation between Washington and Moscow had broken down wholly. President Truman took decisive stairss to incorporate Soviet enlargement in parts in which the U.S. had critical involvements.
Soviet aggression in Greece and Turkey was the first major event that would coerce the U.S. to respond to Soviet activity. Both states were on the brink of being taken over by Soviet-backed guerilla motions. In March 1947, Truman decided to ( pull a line in the sand ) ( US History ) and he asked Congress to allow $ 400 million to direct to these two states in the signifier of military and economic aid. The Truman Doctrine came approximately as direct consequence of the Soviet aggression and was fundamentally an ( unfastened treaty to any group willing to stand against communism, vouching them military and fiscal assistance ) ( US Dept of State ) . This is besides the beginning of an abashing an unprecedented series of foreign policy bloopers on the portion of the U.S. The Truman Doctrine would subsequently be used to “ warrant ” fly-by-night actions in Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba.A
The 2nd measure in containment was the Marshall Plan, which provided economic alleviation to the rebuilding of Western European states such as Great Britain, France, Belgium and even Germany. By hiking these economic systems, the U.S. ensured that ( communism would non lift in any of these states from a weak economic system ) ( Studynotes ) . By the mark day of the month of the plan four old ages subsequently, Western European industries were bring forthing twice every bit much as they had been the twelvemonth before war broke out. The assistance besides produced record degrees of trade with American houses, fueling a postwar economic roar. At first the U.S. Congress was n’t in favour of the proposed program, but following a putsch by Communist in Czechoslovakia, they approved it.
After the putsch, the U.S. thought they were in demand of an official confederation with the counties opposing communism. In April 1949, NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization ) was founded. The states agreed that they would stand by each other as one, and any onslaught on a member of the confederation is an onslaught on all. At the clip, this was a great thought ; seeking to forestall communism from taking over the universe. But as clip went by, we have come to recognize that as a portion of NATO, the U.S. is the bulk spouse, and is going the universe ‘s constabulary and major subscriber of the financess for these attempts. I think that the U.S. needs to retreat from NATO and seek and acquire the U.S. back to position of the “ universe ‘s ace power ” . We do n’t hold the financess to bail out the remainder of the universe, when our ain economic system is in such desperate passs.
As portion of NATO, this provided a presidential loophole for military intercession by America in any foreign battle without Congress declaring war, which is a bad thought. All this did was coerce the Soviet Union to flex its musculuss and in 1955, it formed an confederation, known as the Warsaw Pact, with other Eastern European states, such as Poland, Bulgaria, E. Germany, and Romania. Now, these states are no more than marionette states held by the Grand Puppeteer, Russia. In one fell pounce the Soviet Union ( gained about as much land as Napoleon or Hitler ; but without a war ) ( US History ) . America ‘s thought of a united attempt at the containment of Communism had exponential grown into a united enlargement of communism, merely the opposite consequence the U.S. was seeking to carry through.
After World War II, redrawing of boundaries all over the universe came approximately. Korea, who was conquered by Japan during the war, was divided at the 38th analogue, and the northern portion of the state was given to the Soviet Union and the southern half to the U.S. The Soviets pulled out of N. Korea in 1950, go forthing a Communist government behind. That government, funded and equipped by China, invaded S. Korea. The United Nations, led, of class, by the United States, ( raised an ground forces to reconstruct peace and throw out the attackers ) ( Pieper ) . This “ struggle ” lasted three old ages and triumph changed custodies twice before the bloodied United States established a armistice zone on the familiar 38th analogue. Some might state that ( communism in this instance was successfully contained but with the loss of 53,000 American lives in a bootless effort to tumble a government is barely a triumph ) ( US Dept of State ) .A
Another failure of containment by the United States would be in Vietnam. After the contending with France ended in 1954, Vietnam was split in two like Korea, North Vietnam being Communist and South Vietnam led by the Vietnamese who supported the Gallic. In 1963, the South Vietnamese leader was assassinated, and the U.S. sent over American military personnels to back up the non-Communist government, while in conformity with the Truman Doctrine. The ensuing battle would turn out to be ( the most agonising and long licking of the American military in history ) ( StudyWorld ) . Two elements of the U.S ‘s failure of Vietnam were seeking to win a traditional war in a guerilla scene and non holding full support of the U.S. people. This resulted in a loss of 68,000 U.S. soldiers and over 400,000 South Vietnamese. The U.S. started retreating military personnels in 1973, but by 1976, all of Vietnam came under Communist regulation, turn outing one time once more that containment did n’t work.
Even after the Korean War and the creative activity of the Warsaw Pact, the enlargement of communism was non over. In 1959, a rag-tag set of guerrillas overtook the authorities of Cuba and it fell under Fidel Castro ‘s government. The U.S. was unwilling or unprepared to halt this, either for fright of judgement from the international community or of the ( myopia caused by a general antipathy for Cuba ‘s old authorities ) ( Nuclearfiles ) . This would subsequently come back to stalk them, in both the Bay of Pigs debacle and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Recognizing the job that Castro could do, the U.S. planned a actual effort of the Truman Doctrine. President Kennedy ordered the executing of The Bay of Pigs operation and in April 1961, 1500 Cuban expatriates landed in the Bay of Pigs. American air support ne’er arrived and the program backfired and all of the expatriates were gunned down pitilessly. Again containment was one time once more dashed.
A twelvemonth subsequently was likely the scariest minute of the Cold War. The Soviet Union made a trade with Castro to put atomic missiles on Cuba and those missiles gave the Soviets a opportunity to hit U.S. dirt without an air violative. The scope of those missiles was 3000 stat mis, which could pulverize the whole eastern seaside. After a U2 flight over Cuba, President Kennedy ordered a encirclement of Cuba and stated that any farther efforts to build up Cuba would ensue in an act of war. The Soviets backed down and removed the silos from Cuba. It was found subsequently, that Russia ‘s president made a secret trade with the U.S. agreeing to take the missiles from Cuba if the U.S. would take missiles from Turkey. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a ( propaganda triumph for the U.S. and an unrevealed blow to containment ) ( Nuclearfiles ) .
Even though 1989 marked the terminal of the Cold War, some say that since the Soviet Union finally fell, the policy of containment was successful. I think this is incorrect. The Soviet Union fell under its ain weight ; the states expenditures were immense. They had a really big ground forces to back up and the cost of such a big state could non be sustained, go forthing them no choose but to declare bankruptcy. Another symbol of the U.S. failures to incorporate communism, is that the states under the Soviet axis remain to this twenty-four hours ; Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba, and China are still wholly Communist states. Not merely was American ( containment in the tallness of the Cold War a failure ) ( US History ) , those failures can still be seen to this twenty-four hours. And if the U.S. is n’t careful, we excessively could come under communist regulation due to our astronomical debt in which China holds the note.