This chapter gives an apprehension of how the practical work and informations aggregation have been conducted every bit good as how the consequences have been analysed. The chapter discusses the methodological analysis of research adapted to accomplish the stipulated ends of the research. It illustrates the flow chart of the research procedure and shows the informations aggregation methods and informations beginnings. The chapter outlines primary informations aggregation including field study of the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames, Libya. In add-on, secondary informations aggregation such as instance surveies and literature reappraisal. This chapter besides determines what information analysis method should be used in this research.
3.2 Methodology of Research
There are three common attacks to carry oning research. They are quantitative, qualitative and assorted methods. The type of informations needed is expected to reply the research inquiries. For illustration, is numerical, textual, or both numerical and textual informations needed? Based on this appraisal, one of the three attacks mentioned earlier is selected to carry on research. Researchers typically select the quantitative attack to reply research inquiries necessitating numerical informations, the qualitative attack for research inquiries necessitating textural informations, and the assorted methods attack for research inquiries necessitating both numerical and textual informations ( Carrie, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Ricker ( 1998 ) , if most of the information collected contains Numberss, so the information is quantitative informations. In contrast, if the information collected consists of words, so the information is qualitative informations. Based on the aims of this research, all informations collected consists of words. Namely, no information collected contains Numberss. Therefore, the fit attack for this research is the qualitative attack. Consequently, it can be said that this research is a qualitative nature.
Qualitative research methods are a complex, altering and contested field – a set of multiple methodological analysiss and research practises ( Rolf, 2006 ) . Qualitative research is an umbrella term which encompasses an tremendous assortment ( Punch, 2005 ) . Veal ( 2006 ) indicates that qualitative research methods by and large concern the aggregation of big sums of rich information about a limited or little figure of instances and are ideal to analyze attitudes, significances and perceptual experiences of persons. Qualitative methods rely on the engagement of the research during the research procedure ( Flick, 2002 ) . Hakim ( 2006 ) , as quoted by Rolf ( 2006 ) , argues that qualitative research is concerned with persons ‘ ain histories of their attitudes, motives and behavior. Therefore, qualitative research methods can be subjective and observer prejudice may happen ( Rolf, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to Carrie, ( 2007 ) , there are different methods for carry oning a qualitative research ; nevertheless, Leedy and Ormrod ( 2001 ) recommend the undermentioned five methods: Case surveies, grounded theory, descriptive anthropology, content analysis, and phenomenological ; but for this research, merely the instance survey method was applied. Case surveies attempt to larn more about a small known or ill understood state of affairs ( Leedy and Ormrod, 2001 ) . Creswell ( 1998 ) suggests the construction of a instance survey should be the job, the context, the issues, and the lessons learned. Yin ( 1984 ) defines the instance study research method as an empirical enquiry that investigates a modern-day phenomenon within its real-life context ; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are non clearly apparent ; and in which multiple beginnings of grounds are used. The descriptive anthropology is a qualitative research design aimed to research cultural phenomena ( Wikipedia, 6 January 2013 ) . It is unlike a instance survey because instance surveies focus on a individual, plan, or event while descriptive anthropology surveies focus on an full group that portions a common civilization ( Leedy & A ; Ormrod, 2001 ) . Grounded theory method is a systematic methodological analysis in the societal scientific disciplines including the find of theory through the information analysis. It is chiefly used in qualitative research, but is besides applicable to the quantitative informations ( Wikipedia, 6 January 2013 ) . Leedy and Ormrod ( 2001 ) specify the intent of the phenomenological Study as aa‚¬A“to understand an experience from the participants ‘ point of viewaa‚¬A? , while the two research workers define content analysis survey as aa‚¬A“a detailed and systematic scrutiny of the contents of a peculiar organic structure of stuffs for the intent of placing forms, subjects, or biasesaa‚¬A? .
To carry on this research, the right methodological analysis is required to enable the assemblage of informations and information from different resources. It includes three chief phases ( See Figure 3.1 ) get downing from the aggregation of informations, analysis of informations, decision, suggestion and recommendation related to each job encountered. The first phase so comprises a reappraisal of the literature which depends on the secondary informations combined from reading stuffs such as books, articles, seminar documents and other published information back uping the subject of preservation of heritage edifices. The 2nd phase requires aggregation of informations through interviews, field study and instance surveies. Analysiss of informations by utilizing certain methods are done through the gathered reading stuffs and secondary informations derived from the instance surveies. The 3rd phase shows the recommendations which ended with the proposed preservation guidelines of the preservation procedure for the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames. Figure 3.1 illustrates the flow chart of the research procedure.
Figure 3.1: Flow Chart of Research Process
3.3 Data Collection
Many methods and several information beginnings are available to unite information. There are different ways to garner information to react most inquiries. The ideal state of affairs would be to garner the information from more than one beginning or to garner more than one type of informations. The information for qualitative research is gathered by utilizing interviews, field notes, observations, pictures, personal diaries, memos, or other assortments of pictural or written stuff with interviews being the most common informations aggregation method ( Creswell, 1998 ; Marshall & A ; Rossman, 2006 ; Strauss & A ; Corbin, 1998 ) .
Table 3.1 illustrates that the informations collected for this research includes the aggregation of primary and secondary informations. Namely, primary informations collected for this research includes all informations gathered by the field study of the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames which includes ocular review of the residential heritage edifices. In add-on, interviews with individuals familiar with those heritage edifices, while the secondary informations includes all informations gathered from instance surveies and research literature.
Table 3. : Type of informations collected for this research
Field study of the residential heritage edifices of the universe heritage site, Ghadames
( Ocular Inspection of the edifices and Interviews )
3.3.1 Primary Data Collection
Primary research includes roll uping the information from first manus, original informations, and should take topographic point in a structured and methodological mode ( Clark et al. , 1998 ; Veal, 2006 ) . Primary informations of the current research were collected by obtaining information from personal interviews with functionaries of the old metropolis in Ghadames and older individuals who were populating in the metropolis every bit good as by the field study and picture taking. All primary informations is used with secondary informations to develop preservation guidelines for conserving residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames every bit good as to analyze the structural unity of those edifices.
The interviews to be discussed in the undermentioned subdivisions are carried out with two local official authorities sections, who have the most of import function in the development of heritage country in the old metropolis of Ghadames. They are Ministry of Tourism and Municipality ( See Appendix A and Appendix C ) . Both sections were concerted to give the information needed. Another interview with local experts on building patterns is besides conducted ( See Appendix B ) . These interviews aim to garner some information about issues, jobs and be aftering to preservation of the old metropolis of Ghadames.
188.8.131.52 Survey of the Construction of the Residential Heritage Buildings
This type of study is used to research the building of the heritage edifice including its constellation, the types of structural constituents, and the stuffs used. These facets need considerable attending. This information is gathered from the historical archive on the heritage edifice, or from other beginnings, such as, drawings, images, every bit good as with interviews with individuals familiar with the heritage edifice ( CIB Commission, 2010 ) . This study is really of import to plan preservation guidelines of residential heritage edifices. Good cognition of the constituents of residential heritage edifices and traditional building stuffs used aid observe maltreatments during preservation plans.
The study of the building of the residential heritage edifices is used in this research to obtain the informations related to structural constituents of the residential heritage edifice and building stuffs used. For this intent, an interview with the Mayor, the Municipality of Ghadames City ( MGC ) , Libya, has been undertaken ( See Appendix A ) . The list of inquiries that the Appendix A contains, is formulated to garner all information related to constituents of the residential heritage edifices, and stuffs used for the building of each constituent. In add-on, it aims besides to roll up some general information about the old metropolis such as preservation guidelines, the physical size of the universe heritage site of Ghadames, population profile, etc. The list of inquiries of the interview is divided into two parts. Part one is dedicated to general inquiries about the old metropolis, while portion two relates to residential heritage edifice constituents and building stuffs ( See Appendix A ) . All exposures related to residential heritage edifices and their constituents are collected from the Municipality of Ghadames City ( MGC ) , Libya.
184.108.40.206 Survey of Defects in the Residential Heritage Buildings
The study of defects of the residential heritage edifices is besides called decrepitude study. It is preliminary review of the heritage edifice and carried out through ocular review of the heritage edifice, with the aid of simple optical devices such as field glassess ( CIB Commission, 2010 ) . A decrepitude study is the pattern that aims to place and enter heritage edifice defects through the agencies of picture taking and certification before transporting out any preservation work. In other words, the decrepitude study is researching a heritage edifice to roll up and enter informations based on observation of the surfaces and any open construction ( Norlizaiha, 2011 ) .
The study of defects of the residential heritage edifices is used in this research to roll up the informations needed to analyze the structural unity of the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames. To develop an efficient appraisal procedure, all residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames, their figure 105 heritage houses, are selected to bring forth background information. The study of defects is conducted ocular review of damaged residential heritage edifices and interviews with local experts on building patterns ( See Appendix B ) . Therefore, the informations sing defects in residential heritage edifices was collected by two chief methods as follows.
Observations through site study ( pilot study ) where information was collected from a ocular review of defects at the location of residential heritage edifices.
Interviews as reference earlier where information was gathered by fixing a set of inquiries related to defects in residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames.
3.3.2 Secondary Data Collection
Secondary informations are bing informations collected for any other intent ( primary informations ) but which can be used a 2nd clip in the current undertaking ( Veal, 2006 ) . In this state of affairs, any research worker is considered the secondary user of informations that has already been examined and structured by person else. Bell ( 2005 ) , as quoted by Rolf ( 2006 ) , indicates that a research worker will non hold a good apprehension of his research subject without the confirmation of what and how information has already been produced on it. Therefore, the aggregation of secondary informations related to the research subject is likely to be an of import first and on-going phase ( Denscombe, 2003 ) . Research literature and instance surveies to be explained in the undermentioned subdivisions are deemed secondary informations in this research.
220.127.116.11 Literature Review
Research literature comes under beginnings of secondary informations. Therefore, secondary informations aggregation includes a reappraisal of anterior research which forms a important and in most instances indispensable measure in research undertakings as it serves as a cardinal and a model for the research inquiries ( Punch, 2006 ; Veal, 2006 ) . For the literature beginnings, Denscombe, ( 2003 ) mentions the illustrations of books, diaries, web sites, journals, newspapers, and magazines. Literature reappraisal represents secondary informations in this research. It is collected from different beginnings such as mention reappraisal and certification published in diary, newspaper, manuscripts and patrols.
18.104.22.168 Case Studies
Secondary informations for this research is besides gathered from instance surveies. This research has made usage of instance surveies to develop preservation guidelines for residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames. The preservation guidelines are derived and developed from the following instance surveies:
The Historic City of George Town, Penang, Malaysia.
The metropolis of Springfield, USA.
The metropolis of Richmond, USA.
The metropolis of Binbrook, Canada.
The metropolis of Maitland, Australia.
Table 3.2 shows these instance surveies and their beginnings.
Table 3.2: Case surveies and their beginnings used in the research
The Historic City of George Town, Penang, Malaysia.
( Municipal Council of Penang Island, 27 February 2013 )
The metropolis of Springfield, USA
( Williams & A ; Elmer, 2010 )
The metropolis of Richmond, USA
( Knight, 2001 )
The metropolis of Binbrook, Canada
( Official Website of the City of Hamilton, 10 November 2012 )
The metropolis of Maitland, Australia
( Maitland City Council, 10 November 2012 )
3.4 Analysis Methods
After the information is collected through assorted beginnings such as interviews and observation study, the following measure is analysis of informations. Namely, finding of what information analysis method should be used. This research attempts at finding the structural unity of the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames every bit good as developing preservation guidelines that attend to continue and conserve those heritage edifices. Based on A Ghafar ( 2008 ) ; Itma ( 2007 ) ; and Mokadi ( 2008 ) , the current research uses the undermentioned information analysis methods:
Historical Analysis Method
Historical analysis is a method aims to detect what has happened utilizing records and histories. It is peculiarly utile in qualitative research for making a baseline or background prior to participant observation or interviewing ( Marshall, 2006 ) . The research uses this method for the analysis of historical information collected from different beginnings. The historical analysis method helps obtain an thought about preservation development during the past decennaries and until present clip. By utilizing this method, notes should be written and analysed to profit from them in this research.
Analytic Descriptive Method
Analytic methods refer to techniques and processs for analyzing informations gathered while carry oning an appraisal. Two major types of analytical methods include qualitative and quantitative processs. Quantitative methods include statistical techniques for analyzing informations, and qualitative methods used by the current research analyse information, such as notes from interviews and observation study, that can non easy be summarised in numerical informations ( Ehow website, 7 January 2013 ) . This research uses the analytical descriptive method for analyzing primary informations collected by the study of residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames. All primary informations related to defects of those edifices and which is gathered by ocular review and interviews is analysed by utilizing this method with the purpose of the survey of the structural unity of residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames.
Qualitative comparative analysis is a technique, proposed by Charles Ragin in 1987, to work out the jobs which are caused by doing causal illations on the footing of merely a little figure of instances ( Gordon, 1998 ) . This method is used in this research to the analysis of several international instance surveies, viz. , the instance of Springfield, USA, the instance of Richmond, USA, the instance of Binbrook, Canada, and the instance of Maitland, Australia. These instance surveies are explored and analysed to profit from them to develop preservation guidelines for the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames.
This research is a qualitative nature. The methodological analysis of the research includes three chief phases get downing with a reappraisal of the literature which depends on the secondary informations, the aggregation of informations through interviews, field study and instance surveies, and the recommendations which ended with the proposed preservation guidelines of the preservation procedure for the residential heritage edifices in the old metropolis of Ghadames. The information collected for this research includes the aggregation of primary and secondary informations. Primary informations collected includes all informations gathered by the field study of the residential heritage edifices in the OCG every bit good as interviews with individuals familiar with those heritage edifices, while the secondary informations includes all informations gathered from instance surveies and literature. Based on the literature, the current research uses the historical analysis method, the analytical descriptive method and the comparative method.
This chapter explains the attack of research. It illustrates the flow chart of the research procedure. The chapter outlines primary informations aggregation including field study of the residential heritage edifices of the universe heritage site, Ghadames every bit good as secondary informations aggregation such as instance surveies and literature. Furthermore, informations analysis methods are discussed in the chapter.