Bing a cause for one of the longest frozen struggles – Cragged Karabagh is located in the centre of Southern Caucasus. The significance of word Karabagh is “ Black Garden ” . It comes from Turkish and Iranian. In Turkish “ kara ” means “ black ” and in Iranian “ bagh ” means “ garden ” . The word “ Nagorno ” which is frequently associated with Karabagh is coming from Russian and means “ cragged ” . So Cragged Karabagh is a upland district inside the bigger Karabagh that includes Lowlandss, besides ( Kaufman 2001: 50 ) . Cragged Karabagh is the sheltered vale encircled by Caucasic mountains. The part is celebrated for its vinery and orchard plantations. As these lands have big grasslands sheep and cattle genteelness became chief activity. In Christian small towns pig farm was besides one of the chief activities ( Dash 1989: 72 ) . Southern Caucasus itself is on the hamlets of East Europe, Central Asia, and Middle East. Since the old times chief powers that were interested in the part ( Persia/Iran, Russia/Soviet Union, and Ottomans/Turkey ) wanted to maintain under the control these lands ( de Waal 2002: 51 ) . Scholars and faculty members from Armenia and Azerbaijan have used the historical commendations about their civilization and individualities which dates back for more than 2000 old ages ( Dragadze 1989: 58 ) . Harmonizing to Armenian historiographers Karabagh was portion of Armenian land in the fourth century BC. As an statement they use typical “ Artsakh ” civilisation and Armenian Orthodox churches built in the fourth century AD in Mountainous Karabagh country ( Parseghian 2006: 83 ) . On the other manus Azerbaijani scholars argue that Mountainous Karabagh was chiefly settled by Turkic folks until 19th century when as the consequence of Russian in-migration policy first clip Armenians became bulk in the part. These in-migrations were after Russo – Iranian wars ( 1813 and 1828 ) , after Crimean War ( 1856 ) , and as the consequence of bloody events ( 1915 ) that took topographic point in Ottoman Empire. They besides claim that in world there was non any Armenian Orthodox church in Mountainous Karabakh. The churches that Armenians were claiming for being theirs were Albanian churches and Azerbaijanis are replacements of ancient Albanians ( Uhlig 1994: 48 ) .
While Russian imperium and Persia were in war against one another the part was altering its owner depending on the success of these two contending provinces. From the beginning of nineteenth century when Russian imperium under Tsar Nicolas took control of the Southern Caucasus in 1823, dealingss between the chief cultural groups of the part – Armenians, Azerbaijanis, and Georgians became labored ( Yamskov 1991: 633 ) . Czarist Russia formed Shushenskiy Uyezd in Mountainous Karabakh part in 1840. Population of Shushenskiy Uyezd was 140 1000 whose 58.2 per cent were Armenians, 41.5 per cent Azerbaijanis, and 0.3 per cent Russians ( Dash 1989: 72 ) . Harmonizing to other bookman, Svante Cornell, after the pact of Turkmenchay between Russia and Persia in 1828, mass migrations started in the part. In 1823 Armenians were merely 9 per cent in Mountainous Karabagh, in 1832 they were 35 per cent and in 1880 they became more than 53 per cent of all population. Azerbaijanis were forced for migration because they were non dependable harmonizing to Tsarist Russia. Sunni migrated to Ottoman lands and Shiite Azerbaijanis towards Persia. From these yearss as the consequence of Russian policy Azerbaijanis became minority in Mountainous Karabakh despite of being bulk in the Southern Caucasus itself ( Cornell 1999: 5 ) . The name for Shushinskiy uyezd was taken from the metropolis named Shusha, the crucially of import metropolis for both sides of the struggle. I will discourse and give more elaborate information about the importance of this metropolis in Historical Myths portion of this chapter.
The first clangs between Armenians and Azerbaijanis broke out in 1905 during the first Russian revolution, in Baku. Subsequently clangs were in all over the part from Ganja and Nakhchevan to Yerevan. The grounds of these clangs are unsure for the bookmans, besides. Harmonizing to Christopher Walker the ground was Azerbaijani aggravations, but Erich Feigl argues that the existent ground was Dashnaksutiun panic towards Azerbaijani population of Shusha and informs that during these clangs more than 10 1000 Azerbaijanis were murdered by Armenians ( Feigl and Walker, quoted in Cornell 1998: 52 ) . Other bookmans ( Niall Fraser et Al Date ) attempt to explicate these clangs as the consequence of two causes ; foremost, the ill will between these two cultural groups due to their differences in faith and civilization. Second Armenians were favored over the Azerbaijanis by the Russians during this clip which provoked Azerbaijanis to seek retaliation ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 655 ) . This paper disagrees with the first claim due to the fact that for about a century prior to their initial struggle, Armenians and Azerbaijanis had lived harmoniously alongside each other with exclusion to the period of the first Russian revolution and Soviet period ( excepting Karabakh crisis that broke out in 1990s ) . At the same clip Armenians lived in peace with Turks ( whom they still consider as the same state with Azerbaijanis ) in Ottoman Empire about for six hundred old ages until late nineteenth century, where they had both spiritual and cultural differences with them. As cited by Yamskov “ Negative stereotypes do non in and out of themselves render the peaceable coexistence of different cultural groups impossible even in countries where populations have shifted and intermingled ” ( Yamskov 1991: 633 ) .
Soviet Time period
Following the Bolshevik revolution ( 1917 ) in Russia three chief states ( Armenians, Azerbaijanis, and Georgians ) of Caucasus declared independency ( Cornell 1998: 52 ) . Armenian Dashnaktsutiun Party, Azerbaijani Musavat Party, and Georgian Mensheviks decided to make Transcaucasian Federation ( Cornell 1999: 6 ) . But shortly after it was revealed that to make such a federation will non be possible. Because all of these three states were interested in a different sort of associated state as Armenians were interested in Russian or British, Azerbaijanis in Ottoman and Georgians in German associated state ( Parseghian 2006: 85 ) . Three independent provinces were found. Azerbaijanis and Georgians declared independency in May of 1918 as Azerbaijani and Georgian Democratic Republics ( AzDR and GDR ) , and shortly after Armenian Democratic Republic ( ArDR ) was declared in Tbilisi as at that clip they did non hold any district to organize a province ( Cornell 1998: 52 ) . Following these independency declarations it appeared that it will non be possible to organize nation-state because provinces had territorial claims. That was the day of the month when the wrangle reallocated from Baku to the Mountainous Karabagh ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 655 ) . On 17th November of 1918 British military personnels invaded part. They assigned a Muslim governor in Shusha as a cogent evidence that they accept Karabagh as Azerbaijani district. After this determination native Armenians protested it. Later they accepted it unwillingly ( Cornell 1998: 52 ) . But in the mountains Dashnaktsutiun followings continued battling as they ne’er recognized this treaty ( Cornell 1999: 7 ) . This treaty made by British was a topic of treatments. British General George Milne ‘s missive to Wilson in 1919 is rather interesting in this regard and explains this determination. “ They [ local nationalities ] are surely non worth the life of one British soldier. The Georgians are simply disguised Bolsheviksaˆ¦ The Armenians are what the Armenians have ever been, a ugly race. The best are the dwellers of Azerbaijan, though they are in world uncivilized. ” ( Arslanian, quoted in Cornell: 1999: 8 ) .
By that clip arguments about Mountainous Karabagh was still go oning. Caucasic Bureau of the Russian Communist Party decided to delegate disputed district to Armenia on 3rd of July, 1921. The demographic world was the ground lying behind this determination as Armenian population of Mountainous Karabagh was in immense bulk ( Uhlig 1991: 48 ) . But merely two twenty-four hours subsequently, on 5th of July 1921 determination of appropriation of Mountainous Karabagh part to Armenia was canceled and country was assigned to Azerbaijan with “ broad regional liberty ” ( Mkrtchyan 2007: 3 ) . Azerbaijani leader Nariman Narimanov was the individual who was against of Mountainous Karabagh ‘s transportation to Armenia. He showed his resistance to this determination twice. First, in 1920, 2nd of December when he refused Stalin ‘s transportation determination and subsequently in 1921, 4th of July in meeting of Caucasian Bureau of the Russian Communist Party ( Cornell 1999: 9 ) The “ Treaty of Brotherhood and Friendship ” between Turkey and Soviet Union is shown as the chief ground of this determination made by Joseph Stalin ( Cornell 1998: 53 ) . But harmonizing to Dragadze cancellation of Mountainous Karabagh ‘s transportation was non thought of Joseph Stalin. She notes that during that period he was non in charge for foreign personal businesss but for internal cultural personal businesss. Later she continues that there was possibility of secret trade between Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Lenin. But this claim does non hold archival facts as the cogent evidence ( Dragadze 1989: 55 ) .Soviet functionaries decided to give the Mountainous Karabagh the rank of an independent oblast in 1922. A twelvemonth subsequently on 7th of July, 1923 Mountainous Karabagh became the Nagorno-Karabagh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan SSR ( Soviet Socialist Republic ) . In grand capital of NKAO was changed from Shusha to Khankendi. Later Khankendi was renamed to Stepanakert after Armenian Bolshevik leader ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 656 ) . After this determination Nagorno – Karabagh AO became one of four independent oblasts ( others were South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Ajaria in Georgian SSR ) in South Caucasus under Soviet regulation ( Cornell 2002: 257 ) . Armenians were highly frustrated after this determination. For the ground that at an early phase of treatments they had been assured by Soviet functionaries that Mountainous Karabagh will be under Armenian SSR after going the independent oblast ( Cornell 1998: 53 ) . Azerbaijanis say that British authorities and Soviet Union gave Mountainous Karabagh to them because they both knew that these lands were their historical districts. They besides claim that even though Armenians were in bulk among Caucasic participants during Bolshevik motion, they could non alter historical worlds of Mountainous Karabagh ( Dragadze 1989: 61 ) . But Armenians did non give up their hopes for returning Mountainous Karabagh. From 1930s their attempts raised ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 656 ) . The ground that made Armenians to believe that Mountainous Karabakh could be returned was dealingss between Abkhazia and Georgia. During these times position alteration from top was non rare event in Soviet Union. Crimea ‘s assignment from Russia to Ukraine was another illustration ( Cornell 1999: 11 ) . Armenian first secretary who claimed the return of Mountainous Karabakh to Armenian was murdered by Stalin ‘s order. Dragadze provinces that Beria was the 1 who murdered Armenian leader ( Dragadze 1989: 62 ) . After these events the new First Secretary of the Armenian Communist Party once more wrote to Stalin for Mountainous Karabagh ‘s transportation to Armenia.
When Nikita Krushchev came to power in Soviet Union ( 1955 ) after decease of former leader Joseph Stalin, new hope was born for Armenians of Mountainous Karabagh. His political positions were different than Stalin ‘s and procedure of de-Stalinization was seen as an chance for Armenians to raise Karabagh issue once more ( Cornell 1999: 11 ) . In 1963 Armenians wrote to Soviet functionaries once more. Request was signed by 2500 Armenians who were abodes of Mountainous Karabagh. This clip they were protesting economic and cultural favoritism of Armenian population in Mountainous Karabagh ( Mkrtchyan 2007: 3 ) . Merely two old ages subsequently, in 1965 Armenians collected 45 thousand signatures for an entreaty demanding more liberty and contact to Armenian SSR. All these events were go oning more than 20 old ages before glasnost and perestroika. In 1966 in Armenian capital, Soviet governments arrested Armenian intellectuals for taking multitudes to protest actions against province. Amid these captive intellectuals were future president and premier curate of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian and Vazgen Manukian ( Parseghian 2006: 86 ) . Their following presentations happened in 1977. Another ground that was taking Armenians to protest actions was Armenian population lessening in the Mountainous Karabagh. In 1939 in Mountainous Karabakh, 91.2 per cent of population was Armenians. After 30 old ages, in 1970 Armenian population of Mountainous Karabakh dropped to 80.5 per cent. Armenians were certain that this lessening in their population was the consequence of Azerbaijani functionaries ‘ use over migration in the part ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 657 ) . After these incidents leaders of Armenian SSR started to talk about Karabagh instance more frequently at Union meetings of USSR. All their attempts to unite Mountainous Karabagh with Armenia were repressed as traditional nationalist propaganda ( Cornell 1999: 12 ) .
Emergence from struggle to war
Early on phase as a struggle
Since the foundation of USSR, Armenians attempted to convey the instance of Mountainous Karabagh to consideration of Soviet province leaders. But the new chances merely came with Gorbachev ‘s “ glasnost and perestroika ” ( openness and restructuring ) policy ( Cornell 1998: 54 ) .
Anxieties arose in October of 1987, when in Chardakhli small town ( mostly Armenian small town ) Azerbaijani Sovkhoz ( Soviet farm ) manager was appointed. Armenians were against of this assignment and started presentations. As the consequence of little size clangs with local party variety meats villagers were attacked ( Mouradian 1990: 15 ) . Soon intelligence about these incidents reached Armenia. By that clip there were ecological protest mass meetings in Yerevan where multitudes were demanding to shut fouling industries. As a widespread inclination of glasnost clip mass ecological protest rallies morphed into chauvinistic and political protests demanding the return of Nakhchivan and Mountainous Karabagh to Armenia ( Fuller 1987: 1 ) . Moscow was still soundless and did non take any actions. In the beginning of 1988 in Moscow, Armenian anteroom groups met with high profile Soviet functionaries to discourse position of Mountainous Karabagh and other ailments. But all these meetings did non ensue with any measure frontward ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 658 ) . After Chardakhli incidents dealingss between Armenians and Azerbaijanis got worse. The hegira of Azerbaijanis started in Armenia. The first groups of refugees arrived to Baku in January of 1988. Most of them were resettled in industrial metropolis named Sumgait ( Cornell 1999: 14 ) . On 20th of February 1988 Soviet of the Nagorno-Karabagh Oblast ratified a decree requesting to Supreme Soviets of Armenia and Azerbaijan, and besides USSR to delegate Mountainous Karabakh to Armenian SSR ( Cornell 1999: 14 ) . They did on the footing of Soviet Constitution of 1977 Article 70 that stated about state ‘s ego finding “ The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is an built-in, federal, transnational province formed on the rule of socialist federalism as a consequence of the free self-government of states and the voluntary association of equal Soviet Socialist Republics ” ( Constitution of USSR 1977, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.constitution.mvk.ru/content/view/209/159/lang, english/ ) . On 21st of February Politburo ( Political Bureau ) in Moscow refused petition ( Kaufman 2001: 61 ) . In the beginning functionaries of Nagorno-Karabagh Autonomous Oblast, Azerbaijan SSR and Soviet Union tried to hush and quash the protests by leting little via medias and ill think ofing leaders ( Yamskov 1991: 634 ) . Several Soviet functionaries ( Georgi Razumovski, Vladimir Dolgikh, and General Katusev ) came to part to manage the crisis but no advancement was achieved ( Cornell 1998: 54 ) . Later, on 25th February Gorbachev met with Silva Kaputikyan and Zori Balayan. Gorbachev assured them that Sovietss will happen the solution for Mountainous Karabagh job. He asked for one month interruption for protests to give them clip to do the right determination. Armenian patriot promised him to halt presentation until late March ( Kaufman 2001: 61 ) . Two yearss subsequently clangs broke out in Sumgait metropolis. The cause of wrangles was Baku wireless ‘s statement about the decease of two Azerbaijanis as the consequence of contending in Askeran ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 658 ) . There are two opposing sentiments about this wireless broadcast. Dragadze states that it was made by general Katusev to quiet aggressive population as two yearss before Gorbachev besides asked for unagitated Armenian leaders ( Dragadze 1989: 56 ) . But harmonizing to Nolyain Katusev did it to raise strain by following Azerbaijani family names as cultural deceases ( Nolyain 1994: 542 ) . On 26th of February protests started in Sumgait, an industrial metropolis merely 35 kilometers from Baku. First they were inquiring retribution for two Azerbaijani deceases in Askeran. But with proclamations from Armenia done by Silvia Kaputikyan about their triumph in Mountainous Karabagh instance it took farther characteristics ( Cornell 1999: 17 ) . The other factor was Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia who were resettled in Sumgait few hebdomads ago. Their narratives about Armenian force against them multiplied fury ( Kaufman 2001: 63 ) . After three yearss of chaos official studies show 32 dead ( 26 Armenians and 6 Azerbaijanis ) . Entire control in Sumgait was restored on 1st of March ( Cornell 1999: 18 ) . Sumgait incidents refreshed Armenian memories of 1st World War and 1915 calamity with Ottoman Turks. This reaffirmed their strong beliefs that cohabitation with Azerbaijanis ( Cornell 1999: 19 ) . The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union refused assignment of the Karabagh part to Armenian SSR without an option to appeal ( Cornell 1998: 54 ) . This determination was made harmonizing to Article 78 of Soviet fundamental law where it stated “ The district of a Union Republic may non be altered without its consent.A The boundaries between Union Republics may be altered by common understanding of the Republics concerned, capable to confirmation by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” and Article 79 “ A Union democracy shall find its division into districts, parts, countries, and territories, and make up one’s mind other affairs associating to its administrative and territorial construction ” ( Constitution of the USSR 1977, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.constitution.mvk.ru/content/view/209/159/lang, english/ ) . Equally shortly as determination was announced clangs broke out once more. Azerbaijanis were forced to go forth their places in Ararat territory and Manis metropolis. Many Azerbaijani small towns were cleansed and burnt by Armenians. Cardinal authorities of Soviet Union saw as the last pick replacing of regional leaders. Vezirov and Arutyunyan replaced Bagirov and Demirchian ( Collin 1999: 19 ) . In June of 1988 Armenian SSR voted to incorporate Mountainous Karabagh to Armenia. Two yearss subsequently Azerbaijani SSR approved a declaration harmonizing to which this transportation was non acceptable ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 660 ) . On 28th of June in 1988, meeting of Soviet Communist Party Congress was held in Moscow. In congress General Secretary of USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev one time once more declared that no boundary line alterations are possible between Armenia and Azerbaijan ( Dragadze 1989: 57 ) . Two hebdomads subsequently Armenians of Mountainous Karabagh voted for sezession from Azerbaijan SSR. They could make it after decennaries of claiming for liberty when Moscow ‘s manus over Soviet Union shook ( Rieff 1997: 118 ) . However, Azerbaijan SSR stated this determination nothing and nothingness. On 18th of July this determination was declared void and null by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of USSR, besides ( Fraser, Hipel, Jaworsky, and Zuljan 1990: 660 ) . Soon after mass protest actions took topographic point in Baku. Public was against inactive policy of province related to Karabagh crisis ( Cornell 1999: 20 ) . One twenty-four hours subsequently, on 18th of November mass protests started in Yerevan, claiming fusion with Karabagh ( Rutland 1994: 844 ) . At the same great refugee flows started from both sides. On 7th of December due to Spitak temblor struggle was to take a short-run interruption. Soviets used this minute to collar members of ‘Karabagh Committee ‘ who were against Azerbaijani human-centered assistance. Their positions and apprehension made them even more popular in Armenia ( Cornell 1998: 54 ) . Soviets started to play their last cards. They announced Martial Law in Baku and put Karabagh under Kremlin ‘s regulation. After these forced Acts of the Apostless peace was achieved for the first half of 1989 ( Cornell 1998: 55 ) . But peace did non be for a long clip. With a month difference between them Armenian National Movement ( ANM ) ( Hayots Hamazgayin Sharjum ) and Azeri Popular Front ( APF ) ( Azerbaycan Khalq Jebhesi ) was formed. Their rigorous dockets backed up by people did non give opportunity to Soviets for working. Queerly during this period of clangs democratic powers were more chauvinistic than opposing 1s in both provinces. In early phase of the struggle procedure of democratisation played as a accelerator of the struggle. Because in Azerbaijan APF was willing to make a democratic province in order to form state and support province from Armenian menace. The same was go oning in Armenia. ANM was aimed to set Karabagh issue in the Centre of political relations while Communists were seeking to shadow the instance ( Mkrtchyan 2007: 4 ) . On 18th of November in 1989, Volsky Commission returned disposal of Karabagh to Azerbaijan SSR ( Kaufman 2001: 70 ) . Historical determination of uniting Karabagh and Armenia took topographic point on 1st of December in 1989. As the first measure of incorporate province they announced a joint budget for Armenia and Karabagh ( Cornell 1999: 24 ) . Chemical reaction from Azerbaijan was fast. Supporters of APF rallied to Baku to protest current authorities. About 30 thousand Soviet military personnels with armored combat vehicles invaded Baku to stamp down opposition and salvage authorities. In that pandemonium more than 100 citizens were murdered by Soviet soldiers ( Fowkes 1997: 161 ) . In Armenia, ANM came to power in August of 1990. Future president of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian was elected as a president ( Kaufman 2001: 72 ) . ANM ‘s determination to boycott the referendum was non pleased in Moscow. As the consequence Soviets turned to pro-Moscow Azerbaijan ( Croissant 1998: 40 ) . By that clip Armenian military personnels assaulted small towns of Kazakh territory. In response to this Azerbaijani self-defense forces tried to took control over small towns in Khanlar territory. As the consequence of these clangs both sides had human lost ( Cornell 1999: 25 ) . Azerbaijani military personnels supported by Soviet forces launched “ Operation Ring ” . The purpose of operation was look intoing paperss and seeking for arms. In the small towns that did non hold to demilitarize force was used as an option to win. During the operation 24 small towns in Karabagh was cleansed ( Kaufman 2001: 72 ) . When a putsch against Gorbachev failed many democracies of Soviet Union announced their independency from Union ( Kaufman 2001: 72 ) . Armenians saw these events as a opportunity and ‘Karabagh National Council ‘ declared independency of Nagorno-Karabagh on 2nd of September in 1991. New proclaimed province ‘s districts were shown as Nagorno-Karabagh Autonomous Oblast and the Geranboy territory of Azerbaijan ( Cornell 1998: 56 ) . On 26th of November Azerbaijani side eradicated Karabagh ‘s liberty and separated its countries amid the adjacent parts. As the antagonistic measure, Armenians organized referendum in Karabagh and 99 per cent of voters voted for independency. At the same clip Soviet ground forces departed the part and two provinces left entirely ( Cornell 1999: 27 ) .
The last characteristic that could barricade the struggle was eliminated with prostration of Soviet Union. Armenians ready for military actions launched assaults in early February on Agdaban, Karadagli, and Malibeyli small towns of Azerbaijan ( Cornell 1999: 31 ) . Soviet Union collapsed but its military presence was still in the part. Armed troops left in the part started to fall in one or other portion. 366th Motorized Riffle Regiment joined Armenian side and brought 80 armored combat vehicles with them ( Kaufman 2001: 73 ) . Armenian onslaught to Khojaly town on 26th of February was one of the bloodiest military runs of Karabagh War. Population of the town was 7 1000 before the assault. Armenian military military personnels with support from 366th battalion massacred civilians and forced staying population to go forth. Histories are giving assorted figures about figure of victims ( Cornell 1999: 32 ) . Armenian bookmans and their protagonists claim that Azerbaijanis are overstating figure of victims. There are two grounds for these statements. They are Armenian invitation towards Azerbaijanis to claim their dead and warning of population before assault of the town ( Walker 1999: 109 ) . Both of these accounts have weak parts. First, telling population to go forth in progress does non give any alibi for slaying civilians and mistreating dead. Second, ask foring Azerbaijanis to claim their dead hebdomad after slaughters was plenty to pass over out marks of horror that occurred there ( Cornell 1999: 32 ) . There is one more account about these slayings and disappearing given by Thomas Goltz. He shows as the ground Russian secret operation in Khojali ( Goltz 1993: 101 ) . About his positions more information will be given more in following subchapter. In his article to Los Angeles Times, Hugh Pope stated that mutilation done by Armenians included scratched out ears or eyes and cut off sexual variety meats or olfactory organs of victims ( Hugh Pope: 1992, hypertext transfer protocol: //articles.latimes.com/1992-06-12/news/mn-226_1_ethnic-war ) . Subsequently he continues mentioning Azerbaijani functionary Aydin Rasulov “ The figure of 600 dead is a minimal. But it will take several more months for us to make a concluding list ” ( Aydin Rasulov, cited in Hugh Pope: 1992, hypertext transfer protocol: //articles.latimes.com/1992-06-12/news/mn-226_1_ethnic-war ) .
Armenian military success was go oning on the battleground against unorganised Azerbaijani military personnels. Main Armenian end of making a corridor between Armenia and breakaway government was achieved in May, when Lachin and Shusha towns were invaded in 10 yearss difference between them. This invasion had a immense impact on Armenian military success in future of war ( Cornell 1999: 33 ) . Azerbaijani military personnels made the antagonistic onslaught month subsequently, in June. They took back Agdere but this successful run ended shortly as Armenians recaptured town in February of 1993 ( Cornell 1999: 33 ) . In 1992 Armenian military personnels captured Khojavend, besides. It happened on 2nd of October. Their all other invasions were in 1993, get downing from Kelbejer on 2nd of April. Later invaded lands included Aghdam on 23rd of July, Jabrail and Fuzuli on 23rd of August, Gubadli on 31st of August, and eventually Zangilan on 29th of October ( Cornell 1999: 33-40 ) . Weak and ill organized Azerbaijani ground forces was non able to halt combined military personnels of Armenia and breakaway government of Mountainous Karabagh. Now non merely countries that included Nagorno-Karabagh Oblast but besides other Azerbaijani lands were occupied. Catastrophic state of affairs emerged in Azerbaijan related with military lickings and immense sum of refugee fled ( Cornell 1998: 56 ) . Since the struggle broke out 870 thousand Azerbaijanis were forced to go forth their houses and became refugees ( Ozkan 2008: 578 ) . The war with Armenia affected political state of affairs of the state, besides. In 1992 Azerbaijan ‘s president Ayaz Mutallibov was replaced by Abulfaz Elchibey. But lickings and failures in Karabagh instance brought his terminal merely one twelvemonth subsequently. In 1993 Haydar Aliyev became the new president of Azerbaijan ( Kaufman 2001: 73 ) . When Haydar Aliyev came to power in Azerbaijan, for a short term state gained military triumphs. Azerbaijani military personnels could return Agdere and some parts of Kelbejer. But shortly Armenian military personnels once more recaptured Agdere and other antecedently occupied lands ( Cornell 1999: 41 ) .
Pavel Grichev, Russian Minister of Defence declared that new ceasefire was reached in 16th of May, 1994. Two months subsequently ceasefire papers was signed by Armenian and Azerbaijani curates of defense mechanism and the caput of Karabagh Armenians ( Cornell 1999: 41 ) . Human Rights Watch/Helsinki provinces that about 25 1000 people died, more than 1 million people became refugee during Karabagh War ( Rieff 1997: 119 ) .
Causes of Mountainous Karabagh Conflicts