The Bitumen Stabilised Materials Engineering Essay

The undermentioned subdivision looks at what bitumen satbilised stuffs are and how they are implemented in building. As many facets of bitumen emulsion and foamed bitumen overlap this subdivision looks at them both together, which sub-sections sketching the differences between the methods.


Bitumens Stabilised stuffs

Bitumens stabilized stuffs are stuffs which have been treated with either bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen. When adding either type of bitumen the measure of bitumen should non transcend more than 3 % of the entire mass of the dry sum, as this would intend it is more than a stabilising agent. Furthermore in many state of affairss an active filler in the signifier of cement or hydrated calcium hydroxide can besides be added to the mix. If it is added nevertheless it should non transcend more than 1 % of the bitumen stabilizer added. If it does the stuffs is considered to be cement treated.

It is besides of import to observe that this stabilization agent does non the stuff into solid asphalt like stuff. In undergoing this intervention the stuff will stay in a farinaceous province similar to how it was before stabilization. It is merely its behavioural features which will alter. The stuff will see an addition in material strength and a decrease in wet susceptibleness as a consequence of the mode in which the bitumen is dispersed amongst the finer aggregative atoms.

The fact that the stuff will stay in a farinaceous province means that this intervention method is dramatically different from all other pavement stuffs. The spread bitumen changes the shear belongingss of the stuff by significantly increasing the coherence value whilst doing small alteration to the internal clash angle of the stuff. It will besides hold a nothingness content similar to that of a farinaceous bed, non like and asphalt.

Bitumens Emulsion

As the name suggest in this procedure bitumen is emulsified in H2O. This means that bitumen is dispersed in H2O, with the cognition that they will non blend ; due to the fact an emulsifying agent is used. The emulsifying agent will besides give the bitumen emulsion a charge, doing the bitumen emulsion either cationic or non-ionic detergent.

This mixture is so added to the sum which will do up a portion of the paving construction. As the bitumen droplets are charged, they will be attracted to the aggregative atoms. In attractive force they will be drawn to the smaller atoms as they have the greatest surface country and charge concentration characteristics. For these grounds the type and wet of the sum in the mix is important in expeditiously scattering the bitumen emulsion and forestalling premature separation of the bitumen from the H2O during commixture.

Once it has been mixed the separation of the H2O from the bitumen needs to happen. This will let the bitumen to move as a binder. This separation should merely happen after the stuff has been to the full compacted.

The commixture procedure involved with Bitumen Emulsion occurs offsite in a fabrication works. Here it is can be stored for several months. The diagram below shows a simplified version of the fabrication procedure.

Foamed Bitumens

To bring forth foamed bitumen H2O is injected into hot bitumen, which consequences in instant foaming of the bitumen. In the foaming procedure the hot bitumen is turned into vapor, which is trapped in 1000s of bantam bitumen bubbles. These bubbles dissipate in less than a minute.

When the bubbles burst they form bantam bitumen atoms. These spread throughout the aggregative attaching themselves to the finer atoms of the aggregative mixture. When the sum is compacted, the bitumen covered atoms are pressed against the larger atoms in the sum. As a end point of this localised non-continuous bonds are formed, like topographic point dyer’s rockets.


As the stuff treated with bitumen will stay in an unbound province, it will move similar to the original stuff. The lone difference will be an improved cohesive strength and decreased wet sensitiveness, which are both favourable results. This is because the bitumen merely disperses amongst the finer atoms, which forms a bitumen-rich howitzer between the harsh atoms. This besides means that antonym to the common misconception that the stuff will go black and gluey like a hot-mix asphalt. The stuff will merely somewhat darken in coloring material.

Through legion trials around the universe of bitumen stabilized pavings a figure of initial observations on how the paving will act hold been made. The undermentioned behaviors have been assumed.

Materials treated with either bitumen methods will see an addition in coherence.

The clash angle of the treated stuff will stay similar to the untreated stuff.

They obtain flexural strength. Which will intend the paving is less likely to check when subjected to tensile emphasiss.

Moisture sensitiveness and lastingness are improved. This is due to the fact the finer atoms are encapsulated and immobilized barricading flow channels.

The most common manner of failure is lasting distortion.

All these behaviours will depend on the followers:

The local clime ( Temperature, Average rainfall, likelihood of hoar or snow )

The belongingss of the parent stuff

The denseness of the bed

The measure of binder added

The usage of any active fillers

The belongingss of the back uping stuff

It is of import to observe here that BSMs behave really different to asphalt and cement treated stuffs.


There are a figure of benefits associated with utilizing BSMs. These include:

Increased strength

The ability to replace higher quality stuffs, intending a cost economy

Improved lastingness

Improved wet sensitiveness

Can supply cost and clip nest eggs

Typical failure manner is lasting distortion, which requires less attempt to rehabilitate when compared to a stuff that will neglect due to full-depth snap

They are non temperature sensitive

If the route requires rehabilitation BSMs propose small dainty to the environment

They are non excessively sensitive, intending the sum of bitumen added can change somewhat

The procedure does non necessitate heavy building traffic. This limits the harm cause to freshly constructed beds during building


When sing whether to utilize BSMs or non there are three chief restrictions. These should be carefully considered when doing the determination to utilize BSMs. The three restrictions are ;

Economicss – Bitumen intervention can add important costs to a undertaking. Its usage of lower caterogory roads should be carefully examined as it could non be worth it.

Design Expertise – as they are presently been developed and move otherwise from all other pavement stuffs careful design is required.

Construction Expertise – the building procedure requires attending to detail. This means particular preparation of the work force is required.

Along with this limitations the both bitumen emulsion and foamed bitumen have their ain disadvantages

Bitumens Emulsion

With bitumen emulsion come the undermentioned disadvantages

By adding the H2O nowadays in the emulsion procedure, the original stuff may travel over its optimal H2O content. This will intend the stuff can non be compacted decently.

A speedy scene clip is required allow the stuff to derive sufficient strength

the building procedure must be completed with attention. If the bitumen breaks prematurely it will non blend decently. If the stuff is to stable it can take months for the bitumen to interrupt

Foamed Bitumens

With foamed bitumen come the undermentioned disadvantages

it requires sufficient mulcts. They required to guarantee the bitumen mixes exhaustively.

Foaming equipment demands to be up kept and be in right working order. The foamed bitumen needs to be sprayed in uniform, consistent mode.

The procedure requires specialist equipment, as the two liquid are non compatible.

Materials Suitable for intervention

For bitumen stabilization to work a suited stuff must be selected. First of all the stuff must be farinaceous. For this ground stuffs that are suited for intervention include ;

Crushed stone

Previously untreated natural crushed rocks, such as basalt, granite, limestone, vitreous silica, sandstone

Reclaimed asphalt

It can besides be said that calcrete crushed rocks can be used for bitumen emulsion ; nevertheless it will non work with foamed bitumen.

Design Approach

Design Sequence

The first measure in a typical design for a BSM involves an probe of the conditions. This includes expected traffic volumes, the stuffs available, the clime and the paving construction for recycling undertakings.

Once this has been done a laboratory probe of the proposed stuff takes topographic point. This involves finding the stuffs category.

The following measure is to plan the mix and do the concluding stuff categorization.

Once all of these stairss are completed the structural design is completed. In this design if it is shown that the route is non economically feasible the mix design will be redone and the stairss repeated.

Shown below is a flow chart of the stairss involved.

Mix Design

In utilizing a stabilizer it is of import that the stabilizer meets its intended intent. The procedure of design the mix will be chiefly dependant of the design traffic, the stuff available and the cost considerations. However n making a mix design it is besides of import to see the followers ;

The primary failure mode – this will specify the stuffs public presentation demands.

Appropriate research lab trials – trials need to be selected that will place the cardinal public presentation standards and failure mechanisms.

Identifying cardinal mix belongingss and intrinsic stuff belongingss.

Taking into history variableness in stuff belongingss

Environmental factors – Climate and wet conditions.

The ability to efficaciously pack the stuff.

In planing the mix it is of import to observe that optimal bitumen content is non ever selected for the mix design. This is because although the optimal bitumen content will supply the maximal stuff strength, this will intend other features are forfeited. For illustration a high strength design will frequently take to brittle inflexible paving beds that are susceptible to checking. In planing the mix it is of import that the design is balance so that it will be suited to it demands.

Categorization of BSMs

Presently South Africa has divided Bitumen Stabilized Materials into three categories. These categories are dependent on the quality of the original stuff and the design traffic. The three categories include:

BSM1 – The parent stuff has a high shear strength, and is usually the base bed for big volumes of traffic. Beginning stuffs include good graded crushed stone or reclaimed asphalt.

BSM2 – The parent stuff has a reasonably high shear strength and is usually the base bed for moderate traffic tonss. Beginning stuffs include ranked natural crushed rock of rescued asphalt.

BSM3 – The parent stuff is soil-gravel and/or sand, stabilized with higher bitumen contents. It is a base bed that can merely manage low traffic volumes.

It is thought that Australia will hold a categorization system similar to this.

Mix design

BSMs behave in a really complex mode, which gives applied scientists a great flexibleness when it comes to planing a mix that will outdo run into the design conditions. The mix is made up of sum, bitumen and sometimes an active filler where required.

In design the mix there are two cardinal failure mechanisms that need to be designed for in the mix these are ;

Permanent Deformation – This is dependent on the stuffs shear belongingss as it is caused by the accretion of shear emphasiss. Resistance to permanent distortion every bit known as rutting is improved by:

Improved aggregative angular shape form, hardness and raggedness

Increased maximal atom size

Improved compression

Reduced wet content

Addition of limited sums of bitumen

Addition of an active filler

Moisture Susceptibility – this is the harm caused by the exposure of a BSM to high wet contents and pore-pressures caused by traffic. This so means a loss of adhesion between the bitumen and the sum. Due to H2O been involved in the commixture phase and the partly coated nature of the sum makes wet susceptibleness an of import consideration in the rating of material public presentation. Moisture opposition is improved by

Increased bitumen content

Addition of an active filler

Improved compression

Smooth uninterrupted scaling

It is interesting to observe here the difference in recommended bitumen content. To assist forestall distortion limited sums of bitumen are recommended. However to better moister opposition increased bitumen contents are recommend. This means that a via media must be made, by utilizing the research lab proving to find a bitumen content which will run into the demands of the design.

Mix type choice

As stated in sectionXX the three chief factors the influence the type of BSM used are:

The design traffic

The quality of sum available

The cost

Once the type of BSM has been selected there are three chief factors that affect the bitumen and active filler choice for the mix design ;

Traffic design ( volumes and burdens )

Climate ( peculiarly wet considerations )

Supporting beds ( strength )

The influence these factors have is demonstrated in the undermentioned figure. As it can be seen heavy traffic tonss, a wet clime and weak back uping beds all mean an increased sum of bitumen is required to guarantee design demands are fitting.

Mix Design Procedure

To make the best design mix possible several procedural stairss need to be done. This ensures that that every standard is meet, as there are legion variables that need to be checked.

The first measure of the mix design is to prove the stuff which will be treated. This is done to guarantee that the stuff is appropriate for proving. These trials include standard research lab trials to find the stuffs rating curve, moister, denseness and Atterberg bounds.

The following trials which are undertaken are the degree 1 mix design trials. These provide an indicant of the application rate of bitumen and active filler required to accomplish an indicated category of BSM. Level 1 starts with the readying of samples that will be used to fabricate the specimens required for all degrees of mix design proving ‘s. proving at this degree involves fixing 100mm diameter specimens which are compacted and cured for the intent of undergoing Indirect Tensile Strength proving. These proving consequences are used to:

Indentify the preferable bitumen stabilising agent

Determine the optimal bitumen content

Identify if there is a demand for an active filler and its type

Trials after degree 1 are done depending on the design traffic. The first of these are Level 2 mix design trials. The trial at this degree involves doing a sample which is 150mm in diameter and 127mm in length. These are manufactured utilizing vibratory compression and so cured at the equilibrium wet content. This sample so undergoes Indirect Tensile Strength to optimise the needed bitumen content.

The degree 3 mix design trial is merely recommended for high capacity roads. This trial involves fixing 150mm diameter by 300mm in length specimens, which allows for a higher degree of assurance. It so undergoes the same Indirect Tensile Strength trial.

Mix Components


A broad scope of mineral sums are suit for usage with both types of bitumen intervention. These include sums runing from littorals to weather-beaten crushed rocks to oppress rock and can either be virgin or recycled. These must nevertheless fall into certain quality criterions to guarantee the route will be at it required category.

When analyzing a stuff its following belongingss will be checked:

Durability features of the untreated sum



Spatial composing

Weathering features

Aggregate beginning

The sum used can come from three different beginnings, Virgin Aggregate, Recycled Farinaceous Layers and Reclaimed Asphalt

Quality of Aggregate

In utilizing bitumen to stabilise the stuff it is possible to utilize a poorer quality of sum. For virgin sums four trials are used to place material bounds.

Soacked Cosmic background radiation

Rating – finishing a scaling will place any lacks in the stuff

Percentage passing through the 0.075mm sieve – higher mulcts contents mean a higher demand for bitumen

Plasticity Index – for bitumen emulsion the stuffs PI should be less than 7. For foamed bitumen the stuffs PI should be less than 10. Materials with a high Pi can be treated with calcium hydroxide.

For recycled farinaceous beds the stuffs quality will depend on:

The construction of the bing paving

Construction variableness

Depth of recycling

Age of the paving

Degree of patching and fix on the bing paving

Thickness and nature of old surfacing seals.

Using reclaimed asphalt demands serious consideration as some stuff may non run into the quality criterions required. This is peculiar of import on extremely used roads, where traffic tonss are traveling to be big.

When make up one’s minding whether the quality of the rescued asphalt will run into criterions, the following demands to be considered.

Climatic part – if the stuff is traveling to be placed in a warm clime, shear trials must be carried out to stand for that clime

Axle loads – high emphasiss will ensue in accelerated distortion of the route. This means that if the route is to transport heavy traffic its shear belongingss will necessitate to be carefully considered

Reclaimed Asphalt Composition – if needed crusher dust can be added to the mix. This will supply an angular skeleton that will better the mixes shear opposition.


The scaling demands for both types of bitumen stabilization is different. This is due to the fact that the bitumen will scatter otherwise. The graph and table below give an indicant of the scaling required for each type of stabilization.


Bitumens Emulsion

As the above tabular array shows a minimal filler content of 2 % is required. This is because the bitumen emulsion will surface the big atoms of the sum better than the foamed bitumen.

Foamed bitumen

Foamed bitumen requires more filler ; about 5 % filler content is required. This is because the bitumen droplets disperse through the stuff, merely partly surfacing the big atoms. It uses the filler to make a “ topographic point dyer’s rockets ” linking the larger atoms utilizing the mulcts.

Bitumens Choice

The bitumen selected dramas an of import portion in how good the BSM plants. Penetration grade bitumen is used to bring forth both bitumen emulsion and foamed bitumen. In the following two subdivisions the specific bitumen demands for each signifier of stabilization is given below.

Bitumens Emulsion

For bitumen emulsion base bitumen ‘s with a incursion value between 80 and 100 are usually selected. In stating this around the universe softer and harder classs of bitumen have successfully been used.

In recent old ages at that place have been many technological progresss which have allowed the bitumen emulsion to hold improved stableness without protracting the interruption clip. However sufficient testing of the bitumen mix demands to take topographic point both in the mix design stage and during building tests. This will guarantee the right bitumen has been chosen.

Another of import consideration is the compatibility of the bitumen emulsion and the sum. This is because the type of bitumen chosen is influenced by the type of sum been treated. Certain stuffs are non suited for catatonic intervention and others are non suited for anionic intervention. The tabular array below gives an indicant of the compatibility of the emulsion with a sum.

Aggregate Type

Compatible with

Cationic Emulsion

Anionic Emulsion











































Furthermore it is usually recommended that the undiluted bitumen emulsion is heated to between 50 and 60A°C. This will forestall premature breakage of the bitumen emulsion while pumping in the building equipment. It is besides of import to observe here that when thining the emulsion the emulsion must be added to the H2O. This will forestall premature breakage.

Foamed Bitumens

When it comes to froth bitumen a softer class of bitumen can be used without compromising stableness. This is because foamed bitumen merely requires low per centums of bitumen in the mix. However like bitumen emulsion typical incursion values are between 80 and 100. Harder bitumen is usually avoided due to the hapless quality of froth it produces.

There are two chief belongingss that determine the suitableness of the bitumen for foamed bitumen stabilization. These are its Expansion Ratio and its Half-Life.

The enlargement raito is a step of the viscousness of the froth. This is what determines how good the bitumen will scatter through the mix. It is calculated by happening the ratio between the maximal volume of froth in relationship to the original volume of bitumen.

The half life is a step of the stableness of the froth and provides an indicant of the rate of prostration of the froth during blending. It can be calculated by finding the clip it takes for the froth to fall in to half its maximal volume. The tabular array below shows the minum bounds of the enlargement ratio and the half life of the bitumen.


The greatest factor which will act uponing the froth belongingss is the H2O injected into the enlargement chamber. A greater injection of H2O will intend a higher enlargement ratio, but this is offset by the fact it will intend a short half life as the froth will subsided faster. Furthermore a higher bitumen temperature is normally recommended as it will make a better quality froth.

Active Filler

There are two types of fillers which can be used to better the consequences of bitumen stabilization ; these are active and natural fillers. An active filler is a filler which will chemically change the mix belongingss. There are assorted active fillers which can be used, illustrations of these are cement hydrated calcium hydroxide and wing ash. Natural fillers are fillers such as stone flour.

These fillers can be used either by themselves or in a combination with another filler. Their usage will depend on their cost, efficaciousness during usage and the stuffs handiness. Research has shown that it is about impossible to foretell the effectivity of a filler. The lone manner to derive an thought of their consequence is to complete experiments utilizing different mixes.

Active fillers are added to the bitumen in order to ;

Increase the stiffness of the mix

Increase the rate at which the mix will derive strength

Better the scattering of bitumen in the mix

Improve adhesion between the bitumen and the sum

Better the hardening clip of the compression mix

Along with these general betterments, there are specific benefits for both interventions. For Bitumen Emulsion a filler will:

Control the breakage clip of the emulsion

Better the workability of the emulsion

For Foamed Bitumen a filler will:

Aid in scattering the bitumen droplets

Natural fillers on the other manus merely act as a addendum for a deficiency of mulcts in the stuff which is needed for scattering.

It is of import to observe that when adding an active filler the clip between the bitumen is assorted and it application is dramatically reduced. When an active filler is added the reaction begings instantly when it comes into contact with damp stuff. The longer the hold between blending and application the less the filler will work.


To guarantee a high quality merchandise it is of import that the H2O used in blending meets certain criterions. Each technique requires different H2O qualities.

Bitumens Emulsion

For bitumen emulsion the pH degrees of the H2O are highly of import. For cationic bitumen the H2O can non be alkalic. If it is hydrochloric acid can be used to diminish the Waterss pH.

For anionic bitumen emulsion the opposite applies, the H2O can non be excessively acidic. To do the H2O more alkalic calcium hydroxide or acerb sodium carbonate can be added to the H2O.

Foamed Bitumens

The criterions for foamed bitumen are n’t every bit high as they are for bitumen emulsion. It is acceptable for the H2O used to incorporate some drosss, nevertheless this should be avoided. This is because the H2O can impact the mixing machinery.

Specimens Preparation


Moisture plays an of import portion in utilizing bitumen to stabilise stuff. The function that wet dramas in the two types of BSM is explained in the tabular array below.


Bitumens Emulsion

Foamed Bitumens


Contributes to fluids for compression

Does non consequence

Moisture in sum

Reduces soaking up of bitumen emulsion H2O into sum

Offprints and suspends the mulcts doing them available to bitumen during blending

Prevents premature interrupting

Acts as a bearer for bitumen droplets during blending

Extends bring arounding clip and reduces early strength

Reduces early strength

Provides workability at ambient temperatures

Reduces clash angle and lubricates for compression

Provides shelf-life for the mix

The term for the best wet content in the stuff is the optimal commixture wet content or OMMC. It is of import to observe that for bitumen emulsion this wet value is the wet in the aggregative plus the wet from the emulsion.

The debut of modern rollers has allowed for high energy compression. In the instance of BSM this means a lower fluid content can be used to bring forth the same quality of compression. This has the added benefit of increasing the strength of the BSM.

Material Preparation

Below is the basic process for the material readying involved in the commixture design.

Determine the rating curve of the sum and its optimal wet content of the natural stuff

Determine the stuffs Atterberg Limits

Determine the wet and denseness relationship of natural stuff to obtain optimal wet content

Determine the wet and denseness relationship of the treated stuff to obtain optimal wet content

Determine the wet and denseness relationship utilizing vibratory hammer compression to obtain optimal wet content


It is recommended that a pugmill sociable is used in both mixes. The usage of different sociables can bring forth up to a 25 % difference in strength. Experiments have found that the pugmill mixer provides the most comprehensive mix.


Correct compression of the stuff is highly of import as it reduces the nothingnesss and improves particle contact. The usage of bitumen emulsion will assist better the compatibility of the mix, while the usage of foamed bitumen will advance the adhesion of the bitumen mastic to the rock.

Bring arounding

Hardening is the procedure where the H2O is removed from the compacted bed. Water can be removed from either vaporization, atom charge repulsive force and pore-pressure induced flow waies. The decrease in wet content will take to an increased tensile and compressive strength every bit good as attention deficit disorder stiffness to the mix. The hardening procedure is different for both methods

Bitumens Emulsion

It is chemical science that controls the manner bitumen emulsion treated stuff remedies. By taking the H2O from the mix breakage of the emulsion occurs. To make this the H2O is removed by agencies of vaporization and migration. This hardening will take longer than foamed bitumen bring arounding, due to the higher wet contents.

Foamed Bitumens

The hardening of the foamed bitumen is a natural procedure. It is cured through the migration of H2O during compression and continues as the H2O is evaporated.


There are two chief trials which are used to look into the assorted mix designs, they are the Indirect Tensile Strength trial and a Triaxial Trial

Indirect Tensile Strength

This trial is completed to mensurate the flexibleness of the stuff and give an indicant of its tensile strength. The tabular array below gives a usher for construing the consequences of the trial.


Specimens Diameter ( millimeter )





ITSdry ( kPa )


& gt ; 225



Indicates optimal bitumen content

ITSwet ( kPa )


& gt ; 100



Indicates need for active filler

ITSequil ( kPa )


& gt ; 175



Optimise bitumen content

ITSsoaked ( kPa )


& gt ; 150



Check value on ITSwet

Triaxial Trial

This trial is completed to meause the coherence of the stuff, the clash angle and the maintained coherence. The tabular array below gives a usher for construing the consequences of the trial.

Trial or Index




Cohesion ( kPa )

& gt ; 250



Clash Angle ( A° )

& gt ; 40


& lt ; 30

Retained coherence ( MIST )

& gt ; 75



Structural Design

As discussed in Section XX the structural beds purpose is to protect the subgrade by scattering the traffic loads. This means that the paving construction and subgrade must work together to guarantee the needed design capacity.


For both stabilising methods one time the stuff has been mixed into the stuff, the assorted building operations are relavitivily the same as those if the stuff was n’t treated. This includes the operations to put the stuff, cut degrees, packing the bed and completing the bed.

Below is a chart demoing the primary factors act uponing the attack to building.

As the chart shows there are five chief building methods that can be used with BSMs. these are broken into two subdivisions, In Situ Treatments, which includes In Situ Recyclers and conventional works which is merely applicable to bitumen emulsion. The other subdivision is In-Plant blending which includes conventional works, paver laid and labour intensive building.

In Situ Treatment

There is now a broad scope of new works that have made the recycling procedure a batch easier. Along with the recycling machine, compactors, graders and H2O oilers are besides needed. Each type of bitumen stabilization requires a different set up.

Bitumens Emulsion

In situ intervention is chiefly done utilizing purpose built machines, which have replaced older manner building works such as graders and Big Dippers. Although this is the instance, Bitumen emulsion stabilization can be done with either. When the purchase of a intent built recycler can non be justified, the older conventional type works can be used to build the route.

Foamed Bitumens

Foamed bitumen building on the other manus is requires extremely specialised equipment. This is because the froth needs to blend into the stuff in a short clip period for the stabilization to happen.


Using a recycler the stabilised bitumen is added to the sum with the usage of pumps which spray the bitumen over the stuff. When altering the pumping system is controlled by a micro-processor, which is designed to supervise and set the application of the stabilizer. The commixture occurs in a milling chamber.


When packing the stuff normally three types of compactors are used. First a heavy primary roller, which can either be a padfoot or smooth roller, is used. This compacts the lower beds. The following compactor used is a smooth-drum roller, which is applied at a low amplitude quiver. This compacts the upper portion of the bed. Once the bed is compacted to a satisfry status, a pneumatic-tyred roller is used to complete the bed away. This roller allows for a tightly knit surface texture.

The graph below gives a choice usher to choosing the primary roller.

In Plant Treatment

There are a scope of grounds why in-plant intervention may be used for a undertaking. These include:

The stabilization must hold consistent quality.

The merchandise needs to be stockpiled for usage at a ulterior day of the month.

All sums are available at one location

The stabilizer is to be topographic point utilizing a paver.

In-Plant Mixing

The works used to bring forth BSMs must be capable of:

Accurately intermixing predetermined proportions

Systematically bring forthing a homogeneous merchandise

Bitumens Emulsion

In the instance of bitumen emulsion comparatively unworldly mixes can be used, without endangering quality. This allows for costs nest eggs ; on smaller undertakings a concrete sociable can be used. This can happen every bit long as the stuff is proportioned right and sufficient clip is allowed for commixture.

Foamed Bitumens

Due to the fact that the foamed bitumen needs to be created on site the commixture works needs to be more specialised. It needs to run into the undermentioned demands

Needs to be micro-processor controlled

Needs a burden detector on the stuff provender conveyer

A continuously weighed plumber’s snake

Must be able to keep an operating force per unit area above 5 bars.


The usage of a paver and screed to layer the BSM bed requires expertise to obtain a quality merchandise.

When building with a paver and screed building articulations possibly required. These must be kept to a minimal nevertheless. This is best these articulations may take to failing in the construction. They should besides ne’er be where they are trafficked wheel waies. Taking this into consideration big pavers is the best option, in either full or half-widths of the route.

A paver bed should be kept below 150mm, as it allows for better building. This bed is usually compacted utilizing a vibrating membranophone roller with a inactive mass of between 10 and 12 dozenss. It is of import to observe that a thicker bed will be more hard to pack without turn overing the surface out of form. This is because coarser stuffs are more prone to segregation in thicker beds.

Bitumens Emulsion

In footings of beds bitumen emulsion can merely hold a individual bed when pavement. This is because H2O from the 2nd bed would run into the original bed doing it to neglect.

Foamed Bitumens

Foamed bitumen on the other manus can be successfully paved in two beds although it ‘s non recommended. Rigorous controls are required to guarantee that a critical bond is established between two beds doing building hard.

Using Conventional Equipment

This is the preferable, instead than paved, method of building when it comes to in-plant assorted stuffs. This is because it allows for thick beds of BSM to be laid. Which the usage of conventional equipment there are two chief restrictions

Thick beds can merely be constructed in full breadths.

Moisture can be lost due to the stuff been spread over big countries.

These two restrictions mean that this method is non appropriate for bitumen emulsion as this method requires extra wet. It besides limits the application of the foamed bitumen.

Labour Intensive Methods

BSMs can besides be laid utilizing labour intensive methods. However beds will be kept to a upper limit of 125mm as the stuff can non be laid faster plenty to hold larger beds. Moisture loss is besides a job due to the slow rate of building.

It ‘s due to its physical restrictions that the usage of labour intensive methods are merely recommended for smaller occupations, where it the disadvantages can be offset by cost nest eggs.

Bring arounding and Trafficing

Curing is a comparatively speedy procedure when it comes to BSMs. The strength of utilizing BSMs is in the fact that they can defy traffic lading shortly after the bed has been completed. When it comes to rehabilitation work recycling is usually done in half-widths with unidirectional traffic been allowed through with the usage of traffic control.

Bitumens Emulsion

Before the bed is ready for traffic the bitumen emulsion must foremost interrupt. This increases the coherence which is required for opposition. The compression entirely which increases the denseness is n’t sufficient to guarantee opposition to traffic harm.

The interruption usually takes a few hours at the surface, where vaporization will coerce the interruption. The bitumen emulsion deeper in the bed will take up to a few yearss.

Foamed Bitumens

Once compression is complete the bed will see an addition in coherence which will do the bitumen resistant to traffic harm. At this phase nevertheless the bitumen will still stay stamp until the wet content reduces.


A benefit of utilizing BSMs is the early strength the bed is able to derive. This is from the bitumen increase the coherence between the atoms, which allows the roadway to defy traffic without come uping. This is nevertheless non recommended for more than 4 hebdomads. This is because the heavy Sur tonss imposed on the route will be given to loosen and take the coarser atoms at the surface which will do raggedness. By come uping the route between 2 and 4 hebdomads are compression the likeliness of this occurring is cut down, every bit good as supplying protection against inordinate traffic scratch and H2O immersion.

It is recommended that an asphalt surfacing, which is around 30mm midst, be used on BSM beds. This is because South African research has proven that the asphalt is highly lasting on the BSM beds

Environmental Effectss

Bitumens Emulsion



Improves Shear Strength

Reduces Permability

Flexibility – means greater opposition to distortion

Ease of Application

Standard trial methods are availiable


Moisture Effects – where the paving is close to OMC, impregnation will happen

Bring arounding – Takes a long clip


Foamed Bitumens



Improves Shear Strength

Reduces Permeability

Flexibility – means greater opposition to distortion

Ease of Application

Rate of Strength Gain

Lower wet contents required incomparison to bitumen Emulsion

Ready for traffic about instantly

Can be carried out in situ


Foamed bitumen demands that bitumen is hot – Requires specialised equipment

Purpose reinforced equipment required for building

Not suited for all paving types

Has non been to the full researched






Ease of Application


Shrinking snap is ineluctable

Additions rigidness in flexible pavings

Can non be trafficked instantly