The Basic Principal And Concept Engineering Essay

The basic principal and construct of the undertaking was to hive away the electrical energy by giving of mechanical inputs to the system and besides better the storage system and every bit good as the end products of the system. The chief building and working of the undertaking was the system inputs are implemented with the aid of manus powered mechanism by without utilizing of any power beginnings like power supply or batteries.

Fig 1: The block diagram of mechanical storage system

2.2 The Problem Probe:

The chief probe of this undertaking was execution of manus powered mechanical engineering and besides bettering the electrical storage system efficiency.

The purpose of the probe was to happen out the best methodological analysiss for cut downing of the electricity uses and minimizing of the electricity supply and care costs. With the aid of natural kinetic energies converted the mechanical energies into an electrical energy and besides better the storage engineerings for supplying the power when of all time its required.

The probe of manus powered mechanical inputs every bit good as different types of energy coevalss and storage systems.

Use the natural kinetic energies

Bettering of the storage system efficiency

2.2 The Background Design Information

The mechanical storage of electrical energies conducted with the aid of little electrical generators like dynamos and little storage systems like either capacitances or batteries. The working principal of the undertaking was dwelling chiefly the coevals of manus powered mechanical energies and storage of electrical energy system.

2.2.1 Mechanical Energy Generation: –

The basic construct of the energy coevals system was by giving of some manus powered mechanical inputs to the system, the energies are induced and it will hive away into the storage system.

Fig 2: The block diagram of mechanical energy coevals system

These types of system are fundamentally implemented with the aid of air current up engineerings like by revolving of manus grouch shafts the energies are induced with the aid of dynamo and it will hive away into the storage system.

2.2.1.1 Windup Technology

The working of the completion engineering was implemented with the aid of manus powered mechanical inputs to the system. It was constructed with the aid of manus grouch shafts for revolving of the generators either in clockwise or in counterclockwise waies. The completion engineering system was connected to the clockwork mechanism for implementing of the energy coevalss.

Fig 3: The block diagram of completion engineering

2.2.1.2 The Clock Work Mechanism

The clockwork mechanisms chiefly consist of a gear box system for bring forthing the rotary motions of the system in either way. It was keeping the steel home base with the generator attached, with the aid of generator underneath. When the applying of completion engineering the cogwheels was revolving and electromotive forces are will be generates. [ Lawton, G. Sept, 2004 ]

Fig 4: The block diagram of Gear Box Mechanism

2.2.1.3 The Dynamo

The dynamos are besides known as an electrical generator. The generator requires whirling rotors to bring forth energies. With the aid of manus powered rotary motions the spinning of the rotor was generated. The rotor was made up of Cu turnings which produce magnetic Fieldss to the system. The fixed magnetic field generates electricity in conformity with Faraday ‘s jurisprudence of initiation. The generated energy can be sent from the weaving mechanism to the storage system.

Fig 5: The block diagram of Dynamo

2.2.2 Electrical Energy Storage System: –

In the energy storage system, with the assisting of storage devices energies are traveling to hive away and using when of all time it ‘s required. The possible applications of hive awaying the energies are widely used in capacitances and batteries. The chief purpose of the storage system was to hive away the input energies for much more clip and using those energies for whenever it ‘s required. The electrical storage systems are widely used in the undermentioned applications.

Capacitor Storage System

Battery Storage System

Flywheel Storage System

2.2.2.1 Capacitor Storage System

The capacitance was an electronic device, which are used to shops comparatively little sum of electrical energies. The higher powered capacitances have raised the possibility of the applications. The dual bed capacitance looks to hold the capableness to back up such maps as power stabilization systems.

The capacitances consist of two carry oning home bases separated by an dielectric called insulator. The energy stored in a capacitance of electrical capacity C Fs, when subjected to a possible difference of V Vs, is given by

Fig 6: The block diagram of Capacitors

W = ? CV2, Where the electrical capacity can say C = A?/d = AK/d

A = Plate Area ? = Permittivity of Dielectric

D = Plate Separation K = Dielectric Constant

The energy denseness given by UE = ? KE2

2.2.2.2 Battery Storage System

The battery storage system was a procedure of storage of chemical energies, A cell consists of two electrodes and it connected externally a circuit was created, leting the reactions to happen. At the anode electrodes are generated in an oxidization reaction, and they flow through the external circuit to the cathode, where they are consumed in a decrease reaction. The electrolyte allows the flow of charge between the two electrodes internally.

Fig 7: The block diagram of battery

The overall capacity of a cell was basically the figure of negatrons available from it. Because a cell has a fixed electromotive force, it energy capacity was normally quoted non in watt-hours but in ampere hours. The energy Idaho deducible from this, utilizing the fact that power in Watts was given by the merchandise of current in As and electromotive force in Vs. The capacity of an single cell may run.

2.2.2.3 Flywheel energy storage system

The kinetic energies may besides be used to hive away the energies. The flywheel storage system was a procedure of high rotational velocities and so uses the electrical energy generated during spin-down as the power beginning. The reciprocating engines contain flywheels to smooth the pulsed end product of the Pistons and supply stable power. With the coming of advanced composite stuffs with high tensile strength, and the development of stable magnetically suspended bearings, flywheels may now be made with significantly higher operational velocities. These in bend open a new field of chances for flywheel energy storage.

The minute of inactiveness I of a whirling organic structure was correspondent to its mass when traveling in a consecutive line. For a thin disc of mass M and radius R it can be shown that.

I = ? MR2, The energy stored in a rotating disc can be shown in KE = ? I ?

Fig 7: The block diagram of Flywheel Mechanism

2.3 The Basic Calculations

The charge ‘q ‘ stored on the home bases of a capacitance proportional to the applied electromotive forces, and the invariable of proportionality defined as the electrical capacity,

Q = C V

The Electric Field Strength E = V/d

The Electric Flux Density D = a/A

The absolute permittivity ‘? ‘ if there was no insulator between the home bases, the dielectric changeless ‘K ‘ . If there was nil between the home bases at all ? = ?0 permittivity of free infinite.

The dimensionless comparative permittivity of the medium, and it was given by ?r = ?/ ?0

K = ? = D/E = q/AE = CV/AE = Cd/A

C = A ?/d = AK/d

Energy Stored in a Capacitor:

The work done adding a little charge ‘dq ‘ was given dw = V dq

W= ?V.CdV

W= ? CV2

Energy Density of a Capacitor

The volumetric energy denseness UE of a capacitance was given by

UE = ? CV2/AD = ? V2/Ad ( A?/d ) = ? ? ( V/d ) 2

UE = ? ?E2 = ? KE2

2.4 The Design Specifications: –

Win-up Specifications:

The wind-up system was required to supply the power supply 9 Vs

The Dynamo Specifications:

The dynamos required to bring forth the power coevals 6 to 9 Vs

The Capacitor Specifications:

The LED ‘s Specifications:

The minimal velocity and brightness 2.3years

The medium velocity and brightness 1 twelvemonth

Stepper Speed 2LED’s/sec to 2revolution/sec.

LED Current = 24ma pulsations, LED Voltage bead = 3.2 at 24ma.