Who says economic sciences, said funding of the economic system, that is to state, money, payment, recognition, banking and fiscal system etc.. Money, whatever its signifier, coins, measures, cheques, electronic money… plays an indispensable function in our day-to-day lives.
But exactly, currency, pecuniary policy, rising prices, ordinance and supervising of the banking system are at the bosom of the concerns of a cardinal bank.
The Bank of France, in the Eurosystem, plays a cardinal function in the economic system of our state.
The currency has multiple maps, multiple signifiers and is created by Bankss under the control of the cardinal bank ( 1.1 ) . The Bank of France plays a critical function for the readying and execution of pecuniary policy ( 1.2 ) every bit good as in supervising payment systems ( 1.3 ) and more by and large contributes to fiscal stableness ( 1.4 ) .
1.1 The Bank of France and the currency
Money fulfills indispensable maps ( 1.1.1 ) and takes many signifiers ( 1.1.2 ) . Money creative activity ( 1.1.3 ) is ensured by the Bankss under the control of the cardinal bank.
1.1.1 The maps of money
Currency allows work forces to portion the wealth they produce. It fulfills three chief maps:
unit of history: it allows to repair the monetary values of goods and services
agencies of colony: the goods are acquired by exchange against money
shop of value: money can be hoarded for future purchases
1.1.2 Forms of money
A small history: current merchandises to cherished metals
Today, in the narrow sense, there are two signifiers of currency:
manual or fiducial currency: bills and coins. It is the Bank of France are entrusted with the cardinal function in the production, circulation and care of fiat currency.
Production of a big portion of euro bills, including states other than ours: a paper for the paper and printing tickets. Partss, nevertheless, are made by Coins and Medals Department of the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Circulation, the Bank of France issues its new ATM tickets, and tickets already used it has verified the genuineness and quality ( see below ) .
Care and security, the Bank of France controls the notes and coins that are issued by recognition establishments and some big users such as big currency countries, upstream plays a really of import function in finding the security characteristics of scope of tickets to come.
The money ( from Latin scriptura text, composing ) are deposited on an history, available instantly ( on sight ) that are exchanged Hagiographas controlled by the usage of payment instruments such as cheques, recognition transportations, the payment card etc.. ( Data – distribution )
1.1.3 The creative activity of money
– The measure of money: all the money, said money consists of currency in circulation ( notes and coins all ) of the money ( movable sedimentations ) and all investings that can readily converted into hard currency such as nest eggs histories, term sedimentation histories or money market financess. By definition, excludes the money the long-run investings ( lodging nest eggs programs, investings in bonds ) and hazardous investings ( equity investings ) .
Economists include these constituents into subsets that fit together called pecuniary sums, cognition of which is indispensable for the readying of pecuniary policy ( see below ) .
– Changes in the measure of money: money is non inactive, it evolves with the demands and consequences of economic activity, thanks to Bankss that extend recognition. The bank recorded the sum of recognition to the history of the borrower: it created money. When the borrower repays the loan, the money supply decreases.
– Limits on money creative activity: each bank is limited in its money creative activity: it must hold sufficient hard currency each twenty-four hours to get by with all of its ordinances to other Bankss ( clients and providers of its clients may hold histories in other Bankss ) and to run into hard currency backdowns from its clients. To keep their place in equilibrium, Bankss rely on the interbank market where they exchange them every twenty-four hours of the money they borrow from each other: this is the cardinal currency, recorded in the histories they the Bank of France, which is the bank of Bankss. When the Bankss need hard currency all at the same clip, without being able to equilibrate them, the state faces a liquidness crisis. It is this sort of phenomenon experienced by U.S. Bankss during the summer of 2007 as the subprime crisis ( Focus – Ten cardinal words to understand the crisis ) .
– The Bank of France and the control of the measure of money created: the Banque de France is the lone one able to supply the money that cardinal Bankss need, at a monetary value called involvement rate. For all states of the Eurosystem, the rate is set by the Governing Council of the ECB. ( See below the pecuniary policy determinations ) .
[ In add-on, you can see an extract from chapter 7 of Pascal Gaudron, Sylvie Lecarpentier-Moyal Monetary and Financial Economics ]
1.2. The Banque de France, the Eurosystem and Monetary Policy
The Bank of France, with the cardinal Bankss of other states that have adopted the euro and the European Central Bank ( ECB ) itself form the Eurosystem. National cardinal Bankss prepare and implement the pecuniary policy decided by the ECB. Policy based on a wide model for the analysis of economic information available.
Monetary policy of the Eurosystem is defined within the Board of Governors of the ECB pecuniary policy that is alone for the whole euro country, the end of monetary value stableness, that is to state, it aims to maintain rising prices rates at degrees below, but near to, 2 % over the average term. Price stableness has so many advantages ( benefits of monetary value stableness ) .
The action on involvement rates and bank liquidness: to accomplish the aim of monetary value stableness, the chief instrument used is the involvement rate, the rate at which cardinal Bankss, the Bank of France France, Central lend money to commercial Bankss in their states to run into their liquidness demands.
The Banque de France, the Eurosystem, recognition and rising prices: any cardinal bank, keeper of the value of the currency it issues, must be peculiarly argus-eyed against rising prices, which corresponds to a loss buying power of the currency. Therefore, the Banque de France, by implementing the individual pecuniary policy, France plays an indispensable function in the development of a figure of economic variables such as rising prices and recognition ( entire volume of loans that Bankss will do economic agents ) : in fact the rate applied to Bankss mostly determines the involvement rate in the short-run loans between Bankss in the interbank market, so cascade all involvement rates in the economic system. Therefore, a alteration in the rates at which families and houses can borrow an impact on economic activity and the rate of rising prices. Specifically, a rise in involvement rates will be given to decelerate rising prices, we speak of fastening pecuniary policy. Conversely, a lower rate corresponds to an moderation of pecuniary policy
[ In add-on, you can see an extract from Chapter 12 of the book Pascal Gaudron, Sylvie Lecarpentier-Moyal Monetary and Financial Economics ]
1.3. The Bank of France and the agencies of payment and colony systems
The Banque de France is responsible for guaranting the smooth operation and security of payment systems, colony systems and securities glade of fiscal instruments ( Supervision of payment systems ) .
Bank of France keeps the histories of recognition establishments and manages the Gallic subdivision of the European Regulation Target allows unafraid cross-border large-value payments and hence the efficient operation of the interbank market in the euro country.
The Banque de France is responsible for guaranting the security of cashless payment and relevancy of criterions in the field. For the first clip in 2006, she has published a study on the monitoring of payment and trading systems in which it presents its appraisal of their operation and safety. Monitoring of payment and trading systems in 2006
The Governor of the Bank of France chairs the Security Observatory maps whose secretariat is provided by the Banque de France.
1.4. The Bank of France and the banking supervising and fiscal stableness
The Banque de France is involved in the supervising and ordinance of banking and fiscal system which has an first-class cognition. See for illustration the twelvemonth 2005: “ The Gallic banking and fiscal system in 2005 ”
The Governor of the Banque de France chairs the recognition establishments and investing houses ( CECEI ) – which provides the necessary blessings at assorted phases of creative activity, development or restructuring of these establishments – and the Banking Commission, responsible their prudential ( solvency, liquidness, hazard… ) .
The Bank is a member of other cases of the Paris fiscal market, whether the Autorite diethylstilbestrols marches moneymans ( AMF ) , the Advisory Committee of statute law and fiscal ordinance ( CCLRF ) . Regional Directors of the Bank are the delegates of the AMF in the parts.
The Banque de France provides the agencies of the General Secretariat of the Banking Commission, the CECEI CCLRF and the Financial Sector Advisory Committee ( FSAC ) .
The Bank of France and the Banking Commission take part in international undertakings related to banking supervising and fiscal stableness.
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