The Accounting And Finance For Managers Finance Essay

The Mandarin group started in 1963 with the gap of their chief hotel in Hong Kong, The Mandarin. While the old ages where go throughing through they formed The Mandarin Oriental Managerial Group and since so they have been focused in edifice hotels that calls the attending because of its luxury and quality. The Group is looking to be progressively recognized for constructing each of its belongingss as an illustration of a epicurean combination of invention, tradition and category, and ne’er allowing quality flower stalk from their aims.

The Group now operates, or has under development, 45 hotels stand foring about 11,000 suites in 28 states. In add-on, the Group operates, or has under development, 14 Residences at Mandarin Oriental connected to its belongingss. ( Communications, n.d. )

Mandarin International, as a group has shown its growing and its direction schemes through the old ages being able to make a niche in the luxury market and it is standing at that place with a strong and competitory company state of affairs. As it is seen in this analysis, Mandarin Oriental ends are to maintain turning by a competitory scheme. There is besides the chance to larn how the Global Financial Crisis has it impact in this particular niche of the market and how the direction of a epicurean hotel group should respond to that sort of crisis.

Mandarin Oriental Group Introduction

The 28 states that are operated or represented by Mandarin Oriental are divided by geographical countries, which lead the thought of the direction of the hotel, it is non a cardinal direction, it is more like a Geographic direction as presented in Figure 1.1 gross informations. Inside this gross data includes the subordinate hotels in add-on to 100 % of gross from associate, joint-venture and managed hotels. As for illustration the Residences by Mandarin are non develop, sponsored or owned by Mandarin Oriental but at the same clip the usage of its hallmark is under Mandarin Oriental.

Figure 1.1. Gross generated by Mandarin Oriental by geographical country and comparing between 2010 and 2011 ( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 )

We can see in the informations in Table 1 that the strongest geographical country is Hong Kong, where the Mandarin and the Excelsior are located ; both hotels are 100 % owned by Mandarin Oriental and had become the generators of gross for the company with a value of US $ 231.2 million. In the other Asia hotels it is possible to see that there has been a small addition of 2.4 % over last twelvemonth operation, largely because the natural catastrophe that affected Tokyo last twelvemonth, and the Mandarin Oriental, Tokyo ‘s is still coming back signifier it ‘s large concern autumn. The Last one-fourth of 2011 Thailand suffered a implosion therapy that affected the operation of Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok ‘s ( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 ) . Equally good we can see that Europe has grown a 54 % this twelvemonth over the last twelvemonth gross produced. This impact is largely from the gap of Residences at Mandarin Oriental in London, which generated and had a large impact into the gross for this twelvemonth, tand it besides includes the loss of US $ 13 million for the disbursals in the gap of Residences at Mandarin Oriental in Paris. As for The Americas, the growing has non been every bit high as in other parts but as minimal it may look, there has been some addition, intending that the hotel ‘s places has been strong and they have been able to maintain their operations every bit strong as last twelvemonth.

Before acquiring into the different analysis we should besides look into how has been the development of the hotel these past old ages so, we can acquire an thought what to look for into the existent analysis if the fiscal statements. As we can see in Figure 1.2 the two last old ages have been a uninterrupted growing, after the 2009 lessening. This lessening in 2009 can be attributed to different jobs that appear in that twelvemonth. First of wholly, the GFC or Global Finance Crisis that hit the universe in 2008 but, and we can see it on the tabular array, it hit the Hotel Industry harder on 2009. This may hold been, because in 2008 people still had their economy to maintain it up their motions, but the start to merchandise down, every bit said as in utilizing cheaper services with no attention about quality in exchange for the first quality or epicurean services ( Pizam, 2009 ) . Besides above the GFC the universe experienced another crisis that had a deep impact in touristry. The A1H1 eruption had an historical impact on the hotel tenancy ( Wu, et al. , 2010 ) , in gross per available room ( RevPAR ) , and even the strongest hotels of Mandarin Oriental, The Mandarin and the Excelsior had a downside in their tenancy, which besides affected the twelvemonth and made 2009 a harder twelvemonth for Mandarin Oriental.

Figure 1.2.Revenue overview consolidated in a 5 twelvemonth sum-up ( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 )

Horizontal Analysis

As explained before, the gross autumn into 2009 for different ground and since so has been on its changeless growing boulder clay 2011 where it has grown every bit far as a 16 % in comparing with the base twelvemonth 2007, and we besides can see that the different schemes held by the Group direction had had an enormous consequence on its operations and two old ages after the crisis it has non merely increased in regard of gross, Table 1.1 it has gained a 16 % over 2007 public presentation.

Table 1.1 Annual Variations for gross and comparing between different computation.

( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 )


5 Year Summary

US $ m










Annual Variation

0 %

0.09 %

-17.36 %

17.17 %

Percentage alterations utilizing 2007 as base twelvemonth

0 %

0.09 %

-17.28 %

-3.08 %

But public presentation is non merely based in the gross. There are another factor that we have to see excessively reassure that it has been a genuinely strong twelvemonth for Mandarin Oriental. In the Amalgamate Net income and Loss Account ( Appendix A ) , we can see that besides as our gross went up 19 per centum points, our Cost of gross revenues besides went up by 15 points. These addition is besides due for the new hotels that has being opened towards the twelvemonth 2011 and has brought an addition in both cost and gross. Even analyzing this addition in both of them, the Mandarin Oriental Group is far from acquiring back in path with his operation net income. Since the GFC there has been ups and downs for the Group and the 5 old ages drumhead ( Appendix C ) we are utilizing is a tool where we can see what was traveling on with the Group before the GFC and how the Group and it ‘s schemes has helped to acquire back in path, and fortunately acquiring much better than the Group was making before the crisis.

Its operating net income or net incomes before involvement, revenue enhancement, depreciation and amortisation ( EBITDA ) , for this 2011 twelvemonth had besides a part of US $ 10.1 m. net income for a leasehold involvement on One Hyde Park in London less US $ 1.6 m. of proviso for plus damage, giving us a sum of US $ 8.5 m. in the history called non-trading points, because is an administrative net income and it is non into the normal trading activities that Mandarin Oriental realizes. Although Figure 1.3 gives a truly clear thought of why and how much the impact of the GFC really affected an Group every bit strong as Mandarin Oriental, and how the Group, has been making an excess attempt to seek to retrieve its loss from that period of clip

Figure 1.3 Net income Variation for the last 5 old ages, taking 2007 as base twelvemonth

( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 )

It tell us that the external and no commanding environments as in this particular instance as the political, economic and even wellness environment has a deep impact in the Group and in the company and directors, had to take in history non merely a SWOT analysis but besides a Plague analysis in order to be able to analyze with some advantage how the market is traveling and will be the new schemes to take in history.

Vertical Analysis

This Addition on One Hyde Park London is clearly stated in our P & A ; L ( Appendix A ) . Here is seen that the cost of gross revenues for the 2011 sum is the 61.4 % of the entire gross for this period. Which can be called every bit high, but with the thought that Mandarin Oriental Group is merely a luxury hotel concatenation with no hotels under 5 stars, we can understand that their operational cost or cost of gross revenues being over the 60 % . Even though the gross net income with will be the difference between the Revenue and the Cost of gross revenues, giving us a sum of 38.6 % being it rather high. After holding stated our gross net income, there is besides the necessity to see the Year Net income or the Net income after revenue enhancement, and possibly compare it with the last old ages so we have the existent image of the growing of the company. First of wholly, our net income, twelvemonth net income after all the price reduction and disbursals for the twelvemonth 2011 will be of US $ 67.9 million or 11.1 per centum points ( Table 1.2 ) .

An 11 % from the gross that after all price reductions and disbursals loss shows that whichever scheme the company is making it is working good. Even if in the Hotel Industry the gross border is sometimes a small spot higher than in other industries we must admit that besides the operating cost is high, and particularly in hotel that has luxury, quality and invention as their end. It is expensive to keep something like that and at the terminal of the twelvemonth obtaining a high net income as in this instance an 11 % .

Table 1.2. Vertical Analysis of the Consolidated Profit and Loss Account for old ages 2009 and 2011

( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2012 ) .

2009 US $ m


2011 US $ m







Operating net income





Net Financing Charges





Share of consequences of associates and joint ventures





Additions on disposal of associates and joint ventures



Net income before revenue enhancement










Net income after revenue enhancement





Formulas used in base of Accounting and Finance for Managers Power Point Lecture 3 ( MHC601, 2012 )

As an illustration of how a company tries it best, with schemes in short term, we can analyze as the same as done before the instance of China Mandarin Consolidated Profit and Loss Account for the twelvemonth 2009. As this twelvemonth is the twelvemonth when their public presentation was down at the group strategies become more apparent. At first expression, it is possible to see the difference in the operation net income of around 9 per centum points that starts by giving the scenario of their schemes. However, the chief point here, in twelvemonth 2009, is the history of Gains on disposal of associate and joint ventures. It represents an 18 % over the operation net income. This makes us inquire what genuinely happened in the twelvemonth 2009 to travel around the crisis.

The sale of the Group ‘s 50 % involvement in Mandarin Oriental, Macau. The hotel was valued at US $ 205.0 million for the intent of the sale. On disposal of its 50 % involvement, the Group received returns of US $ 90.0 million, with a post-tax addition of US $ 80.8 million. ( Mandarin Oriental International Limited, 2010, p. 50 )

So, the Group had to take a fast determination on selling half of their involvement of their Hotel, the fact that we can besides province is that Macau, was officially opened half twelvemonth of 2010 ( Cruz, 2010 ) . In times of crisis, there should be some determination that must be taken fast and the determination, as we can see know, was the correct. That sell made the group close the twelvemonth with a net income after revenue enhancement of 19 per centum points over their gross, and as it looks much better that the 2011 Net income and Loss history, we must be cognizant of that excess history. In the long term the understanding of the merchandising was that the Group will go on to pull off the hotel for a period of up to two old ages.

Liquid and Solvency

The Group, this twelvemonth is holding a on the job capital of US $ 394.9 million which, as being as high, and as our current ratio can state us ( Table 1.3 ) , the group can maintain on traveling with its enlargement and development plans, with no job, at least seeing what the figure state us. When related to the cordial reception industry and because it is a comparatively liquid sector, there is non much impact on the acerb trial ratio or speedy ratios, and besides here in our illustration talking about all the services the group gives in the industry it will be, bothersome and possibly meaningless for the intents of this study to hold an stock list history ( Guilding, 2002 ) . However, in the direction of each country inside the hotel the usage of a speedy ratio can be justified for being more accurate. However, if the Group had a high ratio that may hold non been every bit good as it looks because it can besides intend that the Group is non smart in the usage of their investings or in its scheme.

Table 1.3 Formulas and computations for liquidness and solvency. ( MHC601, PowerPoint Lecture 3 2012 )

Working Capital = 538 ( current assets ) – 143.1 ( current liabilities ) = 394.9

Current ratio =


= 3.75


Quick ratio =

538 – 61.2 ( prepayments )

= 3.33


Ratio of fixed assets to long-run liabilities=

1183.5 ( Fixed Assets )

= 1.78

662.8 ( long-run )

As for our solvency, the group has a 1.78 ratio of fixed assets to long-run liabilities, but with the cognition that the fixed assets for the company that this has presented in the fiscal statement are besides called non-current assets. As for some side info, companies do n’t frequently set their intangible fixed assets because they are internally managed and non frequently capitalised. So a ratio of 1.78, points that the company has plenty fixed assets in order to pay their long-run liabilities and the company direction gives the thought that they are in a strong place in the industry.


The chief issue here is if the company is profitable how it utilizes its assets. It besides shows us how our ain assets in a comparing to the income are. As a clear illustration, the 0.36 ratio points or a 36 % of our ratio of net gross revenues to assets is the index that our net sale can cover our entire assets. The fact of this index being low, means that a 0.36 ratio points are non even plenty to cover the company assets one clip. The ground can be and may be that the existent assets that exist inside the Hospitality Industry are non plenty to be cover by the gross revenues that the company has. This is a instance of Oriental Mandarin and can non be for all the hotels in the industry. It besides shows that the direction of the gross or the net income the past old ages has been invested into assets for the group. So in a broad position of the industry, holding a ratio of 0.36 points can be into the norm. As the same analysis is valid for the rate earned on our entire assets when holding a 4.8 per centum points involves a high hazard direction. It means that the net income, the concluding net income that the hotel made this 2011 is merely a 4.8 per cent of the norm of assets that the group has. And it is a high hazard direction because it is possible to see how the group is increasing their ain assets with a growing scheme, by if there is another crisis closer to the last one in 2008. The group is doing a gamble, to take the same determination in instance of a crisis. In readying for that, they will go on to develop and put in this sort of histories.

Table 1.4 Formulas and computations for profitableness. ( MHC601, PowerPoint Lecture 3 2012 )

Ratio of Net Gross saless to Assetss =


= 35.6 % or 0.36


Rate earned on Total Assets =


= 4.8 %



Mandarin Oriental has been a non so broad known as the chief hotel ironss and groups as Accor, Marriot, Sheraton or IHG, but after this analysis, there can be a believe that Mandarin as an Hotel Group must be paid attending to. It the survey it has been seen that even non been every bit large as others companies, merely by holding merely 10,000 suites, it has developed a good control of their assets and their liabilities, conveying the company to a strong place in the luxury market. Besides a good direction of the industry can hold the hazard on holding to hold drastic step to guarantee the Numberss in the balance sheet. That scheme teaches besides the importance that the proprietors ‘ equity has over the company. The lessening of the company gross and the direction to assist the equity and profitableness of the twelvemonth 2009 had a large impact in the company, but as we can see on the entire equity, the impact was non every bit large as it was supposed to be. The motion seen with the sale of Macau, even with the possible reverberations that has non yet impacted the company ; speech production as the loss of the direction of that specific hotel, if they manage their current development undertakings, they may non experience it. There are ever other undertakings and other development issues to concentrate, and the Group is making the best to be Hotel Group accounted as strengthen place throughout the universe.