Tantalum Is An Offshore Reservoir Having Oil Engineering Essay

Tantalum is an offshore reservoir holding Oil, the exportation of oil, Processing and transit of the offshore can take topographic point by utilizing FPSO ( Floating Production Storing and Offloading ) systems. FPSOs can be suited for H2O deepnesss runing from 25 metres to over 2,500 metres. FPSO systems are the most Versatile of drifting production systems holding installings in all oil bring forthing parts of the universe, for a different scope of deepnesss of H2O and inauspicious environmental conditions with no obvious restriction on their feasibleness for bing frontiers. For an FPSO system the hull and the topsides, the raisers and the umbilical ‘s and the moorage systems are the cardinal constituents. The cardinal aim of FPSO systems are to supply maximise production and storage. FPSOs are converted or new built flatboat or oiler, for good moored at a location to roll up rough oil or gas or their merchandises for storage, transportation and processing installations with installations required for safe and environmental friendly operations. Suitable for little or fringy Fieldss unlike like fixed platform and to the full dedicated semi- submergible platforms.

By and large the FPSO systems are coupled with berthing systems which are used for lading and offloading rough oil i.e. for the transit of rough oil from the FPSO to onshore installations, Generally used Mooring systems are Single Buoy Moorings ( SBM ) , The chief constituents of the moorage systems are the Buoy organic structure, Mooring and Anchoring constituents, merchandise transportation systems such as swivels etc, Auxiliary constituents such as boat landing, managing and raising equipment, power commissariats etc. The advantage of this is production can takes put even in the absence of berthing system.

FPSOs are integrated with Process equipment for rough oil intervention and good sweetening. The procedure equipment optimises the intervention of different petroleum types. Processing of different types of petroleum like light petroleum, heavy petroleum, waxen petroleum are considered critical for runing efficient and economic FPSO design.

Main Specifications of Process Facilities:

Separation of good fluids into stabilized petroleum i.e. separation of produced H2O, oil and gas.

Treatment of produced H2O obtained in the first measure.

Compressing and intervention of gas to export good quality of gas or for re-injection of gas.

Treatment of saltwater for injection into reservoir by utilizing really great force per unit area H2O injection pumps.

Chemicals are injected for the betterment of processing, for the corrosion protection or to avoid obstructor of produced fluid flow.

In some instances Sulphur and Carbon dioxide remotion workss can be added if required.

Monitoring of Oil and Gas production from the pull outing to the transit.

Facilities Available in FPSO:

FPSO Topside: The processing of rough oil in FPSO takes topographic point at the top side. It is comprised of assorted faculties with specific maps. These are rough separation, gas compaction, gas intervention, public-service corporations, power coevals etc. The rough fluids i.e. oil, produced H2O and gas flow from the subsea wells through the grapevines to FPSO and so to the separation unit.

Crude Separation: The type of centrifuge is horizontal three stage centrifuge, the horizontal centrifuge is used when the chief separation component is oil and three stage separation is used for separation of three stages that is oil, produced H2O and gas. The rough oil is heated in the centrifuge up to 60-80c to accomplish bulk oil and H2O separation. The three stage horizontal centrifuge is equipped with recess device, cylindrical container, deflector tablet, demister tablet, baffles, degree accountant, and force per unit area accountant. The procedure of remotion of H sulfide and C dioxide from the petroleum is called Gas Sweetening. The chief rule involved in the separation of oil and gas is Flash separation, this procedure involves the injection of oil in the centrifuge which is a variable volume centrifuge and the oil is brought to its boiling point force per unit area at the selected temperature of the centrifuge, so the force per unit area in the cell is bit by bit reduced by increasing the centrifuge volume in a series of stairss and the gas is removed from the solution, so the all gas removed from the oil solution will be in equilibrium with the oil from which is it released. Salt, sand and other drosss are besides removed in the three stage horizontal centrifuge.

Main Aims of the Crude Separation:

To divide the produced hydrocarbons from the contaminations which are produced along with H2O, salt and sand.

To fix hydrocarbons suited for transit, depending on the export installations like oilers etc.

To let the testing of the petroleum from the Wellss that is supervising the quality of oil or gas.

To happen exact metering of oil and gas.

Treatment of Produced H2O ( utilizing cyclone centrifuge ) : Produced H2O from the three stage horizontal centrifuge may incorporate considerable sums of oil which is to be separated. To divide the oil from the produced H2O the high force per unit area of this H2O watercourse is fed in to hydro cyclone centrifuge which creates a centrifugal force by rotary motion which separates the produced H2O watercourse in an oil tilt and oil rich watercourse. Since the forces doing the separation in hydro cyclones are much greater than the gravitative force, hydro ringer separation is non motion sensitive so it is peculiarly suited in traveling centrifuges like

FPSO s. Oil rich watercourse will travel to the three stage centrifuge and the oil thin watercourse will travel to the discharge.

Water Injection: Water injection is done to keep the force per unit area in the reservoir. Generally saltwater is used for injection, produced H2O can besides be used for injection every bit good. The saltwater is collected by utilizing the lift pumps the cool saltwater may be used prior to usage the saltwater is filtered to take coarse atoms and all right atoms every bit good, the filtered saltwater is deaearated i.e. the remotion of O in the deaerator. Vacuum pumps and ousters in the deaerator produces vacuity and take bulk of O. This H2O is injected in to the reservoir by increasing force per unit area through pumping.

Utilities: The following public-service corporations will be present in the top of the FPSO Systems

Power Coevals

Fuel Gas


Cooling System

Heating System

Nitrogen ( for compaction in the centrifuge )

Chemicals such as Demulsifiers for demulsifying in the centrifuge, anti froth agents, anti oxidizers, corrosion inhibitors, asphalt, wax inhibitors to forestall waxing, scale inhibitors for the bar of graduated table in the centrifuge.

The processed oil and gas can be stored in the FPSO system until a berthing system such as Single Buoy Mooring system collects the processed oil and gas and offloads it in the nearest onshore installation.

Transportation system of Oil from FPSO to Onshore:

Single Buoy Mooring ( SBM ) will near the FPSO which is present in the offshore.

The terminus of the FPSO will be connected to the moorage system.

The terminus allows for weathervaning manner.

The sweep arm of the moorage system will be brought aboard of the terminus by agencies of pusher ‘s propulsion.

The loading side platform will be in place alongside of the FPSO manifolds.

Pilot wires are attached for connexion of lading weaponries.

Loading weaponries are winched towards manifold by energy system.

The system is ready for lading or offloading.

The oil is transferred in to the buoy once the buoy is filled the operation incorporates an exigency gulf system.

Activation of exigency release systems and lading Michigans.

Sweep arm will be pulled off from the SBM system

And the bearer leaves.

The above process of offloading is believable, practical and safe.

Option 2:

Palladium is an seaward platform situated 10 kilometer from the Ta the petroleum produced in the Tantalum field is sent to the Pd through grapevines or umbilical ‘s or flow lines, manifolds for the processing installations and besides contains Electrical and hydraulic power generators, accountants, corrosion inhibitors etc, this type of instance arises when there is a demand of fringy development of the field i.e. to obtain net income the processing of the petroleum can be done at the about available procedure installation of other platform or other direction. The tantalum petroleum is processed in the Pd installation together with the Pd petroleum and the blend will be formed at the terminal which is a mixture of two petroleums but from the give informations Ta petroleum is more valuable than the Pd so if the sharing with the end product blend may get loss to the Ta direction in this instance there is a demand to analyze about Hydrocarbon Allocation.

Hydrocarbon Allocation by Reconciliation system involves the measuring of liquids coming from the Tantalum field by utilizing allotment metre and the liquids coming from Pd field measured by other allotment metre and these two petroleums are processed in the same procedure installations and the blend oil is obtained after processing and it is measured by Fiscal metre, as the allotment metre is holding more mistake than the financial metre the end product will be different i.e. the amount of the two allotment metres is non equal to the financial metre. So in order to counterbalance this the financial metre reading is every bit distributed by the two Ta and Pd Fieldss in this instance the Ta field is ended up with loss. These issues should be identified and addressed during the contract dialogue between the spouses of the two companies.

There is no job for the gas because all of the gas that is produced by the Ta is sold to the Pd.

Hydrocarbon allotment by Difference system involves merely the measuring of allotment metre of the Pd field the tantalum field petroleum is straight sent to the procedure installation and the blend formed is measured by utilizing the financial metre and the measuring of the Ta field is obtained by the difference between the blend and the allotment metre reading of the Pd field. This type of allotment is suited when the field Ta is higher green goodss as in this instance and this type of allotment is seen when the bing platform has been runing for a long clip, when it is coming off tableland it is able to convey in new users to utilize the installations more expeditiously.

Operators should give serious consideration while presenting extra Fieldss in to the bing 1s. The Reconciliation and by difference methods are the quantitative methods of mensurating the hydrocarbon allotment.

Oil and Gas Allocation for Export installation:

This is an country of direction that is to be concentrated more. The current tendency of oil and gas companies is to understate the production and operation costs. This means the operators will be sharing a common installations or export installations. Under these fortunes it is of import that everybody will be every bit profitable.

Gas terminus


Gas gas grapevine Gas

FFfifffffffff Field

Oil oil grapevine

Oil terminus

Oil blend

Other oil Fieldss

Field exporting oil and gas

The above figure shows different runing Fieldss sharing a common oil export installation every bit good as a common gas exporting installation. Under these conditions it is necessary that each operator subscribes in to an understanding with the operator of the exporting installation.

Commercial and Technical Advantages and Disadvantages of the two options:

Comparing the two options as the Ta field is merely a fringy field there is no demand of individually put ining a procedure installations and export installations, the tantalum field can take the aid of Pd platform in this instance. The same illustration is in the instance of the ALWYN NORTH which is located in the North Sea there are several Fieldss discovered in that part and utilizing the installations available in the ALWYN platform. Commercially there is no demand of installing of grapevines, flow lines, manifolds, umbilical ‘s, pumps and other transit equipment, no demand of procedure installations like Centrifuges, compressors, and re-injection systems. The topographic point can be utilised for adjustment and little petroleum intervention i.e. primary intervention for non eating the transportation grapevine or the oiler. No labor or proficient section required for the processing.