Systems Heat Pump Key Word Engineering Essay

The Heat Pump was invented in 1855 – 1857 by Peter von Rittinger, but his accomplishment would non hold been possible without other of import old progresss in the field. In 1748 William Cullen demonstrated unreal infrigidation. In 1834 Jacob Perkins designed a practical icebox with diethyl quintessence. In 1852 Lord Kelvin, a British applied scientist, described the theory of the heat pump. He foresaw the usage of heats pump in the chilling oh edifices. In 1855 – 1857 Peter von Rittinger developed and built the first heat pump. In 1940 Robert C. Webber developed and built the first land heat pump.


Since the number ones heat pumps, a batch of betterments have been implemented, triping a lifting in the efficiency and, hence, in the COP. Some of these betterments in the last decennaries are:

Thermostatic enlargement valves can acquire more precise control of the refrigerant flow to the indoor spiral.

Variable velocity blowers. These are more efficient and are able to counterbalance some of the inauspicious effects of restricted canals.

Improved design of the spiral.

Improved design of the electric motor and two velocity compressor.

Copper tubing grooved indoors to increase country.




It is known that heat flows from hot countries to cold countries and that is the ground why there is a demand to invariably heat edifices infinites. The thought is to drive warming from outside heat beginnings ( land, H2O, airaˆ¦ ) or from heating human waste into edifices, with the smallest sum of energy required as possible. There are many different systems with their ain efficiency, advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, heat pumps can hold many others applications than warming, particularly in industry. The Heat Pump is the device that can make a revolution in building and in a few old ages in industry.


It is better to speak of Coefficient Of Performance ( COP ) alternatively of heat pump efficiency. It is the ratio of heat delivered in system distribution and electricity required to do the system work. This coefficient permits the finding of which sort of heat pump will be the best for our demands: industrial, domestic, hot or cold country:

Pump type and beginning

Typical usage

COP fluctuation with end product temperature

35 A°C

45 A°C

55 A°C

65 A°C

75 A°C

85 A°C

Air beginning heat pump ( a?’20 A°C )







Air beginning heat pump ( 0A°C )

Low end product temperature







Land beginning heat pump

H2O at 0 A°C







Land beginning heat pump

land at 10 A°C

Low end product temperature







TheoreticalA Carnot cycleA bound, beginning a?’20 A°C







TheoreticalA Carnot cycleA bound, beginning 0 A°C







Theoretical A Carnot cycleA bound, beginning 10 A°C







Figure S.1.1: Table to compare efficiency of different heat pumps in relation to end product temperature.

Typical heat pumps, in good conditions, can supply for case 300 kWh of heat which can be used, with merely 100 kWh of electrical energy, and 200 kWh heat from environment or human waste. It should be noted that the COP lessening when the difference of temperature between the heat beginning and the heat sink addition. This is the ground why heat pumps are better preforming in warn countries. Ground beginning heat is preferred alternatively of an air beginning, because the land has comparatively the same warm temperature during the whole twelvemonth, and that is non the instance of air which can change between -20A°C to 35A°C in some countries. To see this parametric quantity, there exists the Seasonal Performance Factor ( SPF ) which is the ratio of the heat delivered and the energy required over the season in order to compare the warming and chilling demands. Furthermore, alternatively of COP, when it is a inquiry of chilling, it is common to utilize the Energy Efficiency Ratio ( EER ) , non expressed in W but in Btu/h. ( 1Btu/h=0,293W )

Users have to be cognizant that several factors cut down efficiency of heat pump:

The difference between heat beginning and heat sink

The size of the heat pump as a map of the demand

The control system

The energy ingestion for subsidiary system ( fans, intercrossed system need more heatingaˆ¦ )

The heat money changer must be the largest possible

The type of heat pump: air may distill inside the system and may stop dead, so energy needed to deice it, or to travel air into the system which requires more energy than liquid.


The fluid which transfers the heat in the heat pump is the refrigerant. The refrigerant is a volatile fluid sealed in to a closed circuit and must non degrade in the life of the device. Different refrigerants are available. Chlorofluorocarbons, such as R-12 was frequently used until the 1990s, but now it is non allowed because it causes harm to the ozone bed if release into the ambiance. R-134a has been adopted widely but heat pumps that use this refrigerant are non every bit efficient as those that used R-12. Ammonia ( R717 ) is used on a big graduated table. Propane and butane can be used every bit good. Recently, the C dioxide ( R-744 ) has increased and R-22 is still widely used. However HFC R-410A does non damage the ozone bed and is being used besides. Nowadays, most iceboxs use isobutene, which does non damage the ozone bed. The usage of Dimethyl quintessence is besides increasing.




Most of the heat pumps work in compaction, because of its high efficiency. Its demand of electric energy or fuel is the disadvantage of this heat pump, even if heat from fuel can be used on the capacitor.




3. Capacitor

1. Vaporization

4. Expansion

2. Compaction


Expansion valve


Heat OUT

HEAT INHow does it work?

Figure S.1.2: Closed rhythm, engine-driven vapor compaction heat pump. ( IEA Heat Pump Center, 2010 )

A compaction heat pump is composed of four constituents and an engine to supply energy ( electric motor or burning engine ) to do the compressor work. Those four chief constituents which are the evaporator connected with the heat beginning, the compressor, the capacitor connect with the heat sink with the 2nd money changer, and the enlargement valve, are linked in a closed circuit where a refrigerant is circulated.

First in the evaporator, heat from the heat beginning is transferred to the refrigerant which has a lower temperature, because heat of course flows from higher to lower temperatures. Then, the heated refrigerant evaporates into the compressor. There, high force per unit area is applied to the hot vapour, which increases refrigerating temperature in order to shoot it into the capacitor where it transfers heat to the heat sink with the aid of an money changer and the natural flow of heat. Then, the condensate hot vapour is driven into the enlargement valve to diminish the force per unit area and hence decrease the temperature. Finally, it returns in the evaporator at its natural temperature, in order to do another rhythm.


The advantage of an soaking up heat pump is that it does non necessitate electricity, but merely natural gas, because it works with an internal burning engine. In add-on to countries where electricity is expensive, this sort of heat pump is peculiarly utile in cool countries, because it needs lower operating temperature from outside beginnings.

HEAT OUTHow does it work?

Heat IN





Expansion valve

Expansion valve


Absorber hypertext transfer protocol: //

Figure S.1.3: Absorption heat pump ( IEA Heat Pump Center, 2010 )

Its manner of working is similar with the electrical compaction heat pump with its chief constituents: the evaporator, the capacitor and the enlargement valve. The new component is the electrical compressor which is replaced by a natural compressor made with chiefly an absorber and a generator heated with the natural gas. Like in the old one, the refrigerant called the working fluid is in liquid province in the evaporator. Bing in contact with the heat beginning makes it into a vapour. This vapour goes up of course into the absorber where the vapour from the working fluid will be absorbed into the absorbent. Nowadays, two different twosomes of working fluid / absorbent are used:

Water/Lithium bromide or Ammonia / Water

( It should be noted that H2O can be used for the working fluid or for the absorbent! )

This soaking up produces heat that is used to heat the heat sink, and this is the ground why the temperature of the heat beginning can be lower than with an electrical compaction heat pump. Once the vapour is absorbed into the absorbent, a small pump automatically drives the liquid into the generator. There, it will be heated by the natural gas ( at the terminal, this waste heat will besides function to heat the sink ) in order to divide absorbent and the on the job fluid thrust of course them into severally the absorber to be reused and the capacitor to heat the heat sink.



This is a really popular type of heat pump, and the cheapest. In fact, an air status is an air to air heat pump which cool the interior air. The air to air heat pump transfers the heat from the outside air to the inside air. This air contains some heat, so the device can take some heat to chill or heat the inside of the edifice. The chief constituents of an air-air heat pump are:

An out-of-door money changer spiral, which extracts heat from the outside air

An indoor money changer, which transfers the heat to the interior air

Figure S.1.4: Air- Air heat pump. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )


In this type of heat pump, the outside air is still the heat beginning, but the heat is transferred into a warming circuit, a floor warming ( the most efficient ) , or even into a H2O armored combat vehicle to be used in the shower and hot H2O lights-outs of the edifice. Air to H2O heat pump use is turning in Europe because it is really easy to put in and to incorporate in to an bing H2O system.

Degree centigrades: UsersIsmaelDesktopScreenHunter_26 Nov. 08 20.59.jpg

Figure S.1.5: Air- Water heat pump. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )


In this instance, both the beginning and the sink are H2O. The procedure is similar, but there are differences in the money changers. Normally the H2O beginning is in the land ( ground- beginning systems ) , but can be different: river, waste wateraˆ¦

Degree centigrades: UsersIsmaelDesktopScreenHunter_27 Nov. 08 21.08.jpg

Figure S.1.6: Water- H2O heat pump. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )



In houses, normally, there is a possibility of taking to implement the heat pump outside or in the boiler room, so any type of heat pump can be chosen as needed based on the map of the device to which the heat pump is linked. Actually, the supply temperature scope needed will depend on the application:


Supply temperature scope ( A°C )

Air distribution

Air heating

30 – 50

Floor warming ; low temperature ( modern )

30 – 45

Hydronic systems


45 – 55

High temperature ( conventional ) radiators

60 – 90

District heating – hot H2O

70 – 100

Under floor warming

30 – 35

District warming

District heating – hot water/stream

100 – 180

Cooled air

10 – 15

Space chilling

Chilled H2O

5 – 15

District chilling

5 – 8

Figure S.1.7: Table of supply temperature scope in map of different applications of heat pumps ( IEA Heat Pump Center, 2010 )


In industry or in commercial environments, most of the clip, the heat pump has to be outside of the edifice because of the deficiency of infinite. So in order to avoid a auxiliary boiler, it is easy to take an soaking up heat pump which does non necessitate high temperature from the heat beginning to work. But the pick of the heat pump still depends on the difference between the heat beginning and the heat sink.

It is common for commercial and institutional edifices to prefer heat pump with H2O in order to be able to chill and heat different topographic points at the same clip by spliting a cringle into small cringles for each suites. In that instance, the beginning is cold but is reinforced by a boiler in the instance of heating. To cool room driving cool H2O into the edifice can cut down or even extinguish the air conditioning.

It may be noticed that utilizing heap pumps for industry has a COP more efficient than heat pumps for residential edifices. That can be explained because conditions for operating in industry remain stable in comparing to house conditions. Furthermore, industry demands lower temperatures so the difference between the heat beginning and sink are smaller.

Figure S.1.8: Table of temperature required in map of several industrial applications. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )

Current STATUS


Despite the increasing usage of heat pumps, dodo fuels still dominate the market of heating houses, and air to air heat pump have a large execution in the market of chilling edifices. In some European states like Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and France and in USA every bit good, a big figure of geothermic heat pumps are presently working.

Most of the market development takes topographic point in Central and Northern Europe. In these states air conditioning is seldom needed, so heat pumps chiefly operate in the warming manner. With the inclusion of more applications and the proliferation in to the South of Europe, the usage for both warming and chilling will be more of import.

Figure S.1.9: Number of installed heat pump units in some European states ( Sanner, B. et al. , 2003 )

As for the Ground beginning Heat pumps, the popularity is still modest in Europe, with the exclusion of Sweden and Switzerland. Further market growing can be expected.

Figure S.1.10: Annual heat pump gross revenues in Germany ( Sanner, B. et all. , 2003 )


The chief use of heat pump is heating room infinites, and besides chilling for some of them. Furthermore, the heat pump can be used to heat domestic H2O for cleansing, taking a shower or even for hot bath or swimming pool. This can be really interesting because we need to heat the swimming pool during the summer when we need to chill the house. In that instance, one can be the beginning, while the other is the sink!

As seen antecedently, in industry, the warming demands can be varied. In add-on to the warming system, heat pumps can be utile during the procedure of production particularly for dairies, to clean infinites with hot H2O ( breweries, drink industry, etc. ) and merchandises ( fruits and veggies, etc. ) or to dry jambon or fishes.


Heat pump systems are good developed in the universe, and harmonizing to the country, some sort of heat pumps are more common than others.

For illustration, Japan and United States give precedence to air distribution, while Europe Canada and north E of United States favour H2O. That can be explained by the fact that in the latter states, the temperature frequently goes under zero grades Celsius during the summer, so utilizing air like a heat beginning could hold bad effects with condensation which can stop dead in the system.

Even if it is good known that the heat pump has been a proved engineering for many old ages in the North of Europe ( Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark ) , it is interesting to concentrate on Europe to measure, where the heat pump could be developed, where it is developed and besides where it is voguish.

Figure S.1.11: Heat pump market in Europe ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )






Air beginning heat pumps ( ASHP ) extract the heat from the outside air, and can present it either to the inside air or to an interior H2O system. They work by the same rules of an air conditioner, but air conditioners are optimized for chilling alternatively of heating. ASHP have historically been the most widely used type of heat pump, because they are the simplest and the cheapest, but when the exterior temperature autumn below around 5° the heat pump starts being less efficient. An air beginning heat pump will ne’er be every bit efficient as a well-designed land beginning heat pump. The COP in a mild conditions may be around 3-4 but it decreases with lower temperatures. The chief advantage of them is their lower initial investing.


A land beginning heat pump extracts heat from the land. The land temperature is instead steady, warmer than the air in winter and ice chest in summer. As we have seen before, the smaller the difference between the beginning temperature and the sink temperature the higher the efficiency. For this ground land beginning heat pumps are more efficient than air beginning heat pumps, despite the fact that land beginning heat pumps have more initial costs. This energy beginning is even more interesting in the coldest parts, where an air beginning heat pump would hold a really bad COP in winter, and in fact, is in these parts where it is more popular.

The most common manner to pull out the heat is with pipes in the land. The pipes are normally putted in horizontal trenches at deepness about 2 metres. Vertical boreholes are an alternate if there is non adequate infinite to set them horizontally, but it is a more expensive solution.

Land beginning heat pumps typically have more or less steady COPs of 3.5-4. However, the land temperature can fall if a heat pump is pull outing a batch of heat twelvemonth by twelvemonth, doing the COP worse. To work out this job, solar aggregators can be used to replace the extracted heat, as we will see subsequently.

Land beginning heat pumps are normally confused with geothermic energy. Actually, geothermic energy can be found at deepnesss of about 500 metres or in specific topographic points like Iceland, where volcanic activity comes near to the Earth surface. The heat extracted by a land beginning heat pump is caused by the Sun.

Figure S.1.12: Ground beginning heat pump ( CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 2002. )


The usage of solar energy in heat pumps is related to land beginning heat pumps. In a solar assisted land beginning heat pump, the solar thermic roll uping mechanism replaces the heat that the heat pump infusions from the land. This is of import because the land temperature can fall twelvemonth by twelvemonth and hence, if the beginning temperature decreases, the COP get worse, and the costs rises. Besides, there is the possibility of utilizing these solar systems to hive away summer solar energy for usage in winter, bettering well the efficiency of the land beginning heat pump. Some types if storage systems are by armored combat vehicles, by boreholes, aquifers… This combination of energies and engineerings ( land beginning and solar aggregators, heat pumps and storage systems ) is still non widely developed and some researches are focused on this issue.


Water beginning heat pumps normally refer to the types of heat pumps that extract heat from a H2O beginning like a organic structure of H2O or a watercourse, even from a recirculation system ( typically in an industrial scene ) .


Free and in great measure in our society, the usage of homo wasted heat is developing to better efficiency of heat pump and cut down energy demands. Actually, inside boilers are less efficient than centralised production of heat with interconnected system from assorted wasted heat.

We have many illustrations of states which already have used human wasted heat. For case, heat from incineration, or from sewerage.


As we have seen before, some heat pumps do non necessitate electricity to work. Nevertheless, compaction heat pumps work with electricity which can be provided from hydropower or renewable energy in order to cut down C gas emanation compared to char, oil or gas electrical beginnings. It is noticed that heat pumps optimize electrical beginnings more than opposition warmers, because with one measure of electricity, heat pumps can bring forth three times more heat energy in order to drive it into the sink.

Figure S.1.13: Electrical energy required for heat pump with a COP of 3. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )


Heat pumps are a dependable system for many old ages, if users install them good at the beginning and supply to them a good care during its old ages of work. The installing must be led by experts or qualified technicians who could advice users for auxiliary equipment.

For case, to forestall condensation which can stop dead during the winter, insulating pipes which can incorporate cold liquid can be really of import in some countries. Besides in evaporator, still to forestall the condensation, it is good to run out it on a regular basis with basin or adapted pipe.

Furthermore, to acquire runing conditions more stable in order to widen heat pump life span, associating the heat pump with an inertial armored combat vehicle is a good solution.

Finally, it is advisable in cold countries, to add boilers for electric heat pump when the system is outside or with a cold beginning, whereas soaking up heat pump can work with -20A°C air.



How much can utilize of heat pumps cut down gas emanation?

We ever talk about C gas emanations, but many gases are responsible for the environment planetary heating: the sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) , the N oxides ( NOx ) and the well-known C dioxide ( CO2 ) . The usage of heat pumps instead than common boilers can cut down all emanations. Actually, this system requires much less primary energy. For illustration, gas boilers produce 40 % more CO2 than air beginning heat pump.

22 billion metric dozenss was the emanation of C gas fifteen old ages ago. One tierce was produced by constructing warming and one tierce was emitted because of industrial activities. It was calculated that if merely 30 % of the residential and commercial edifice warming is provided by heat pump, one billion metric ton will non be emitted, which is a decrease of half of the C emanations. In industry merely 0,2 billion metric dozenss could be eliminated but it represents in entire 6 % of the entire emanations.

To hold an thought, if all the boilers are replaced by heat pumps, 35 to 50 % of fuel will be saved and an equal measure of CO2 emanation reduced.


There is non much information about if the temperatureA?s descent triggered by a land beginning heat pump or an air beginning heat pump can impact beings and workss that surround the device. However, it has to be considered, particularly the big graduated table heat pumps, because it can bring forth thermic taint in aquifers and land H2O near the heat pump sink, impacting to the beings.


As it has been mentioned before, some refrigerants are really aggressive with the ozone bed. One of them is HCFC-22 ( R-22 ) , the most common refrigerant for heat pumps. But its production and usage is being prohibited. It will be shown a Agenda for its phasing out:

2004: decrease of 35 % below 1989 degrees

2010: decrease of 65 %

2015: decrease of 90 %

2020: Hydrochlorofluorocarbons phased out ( 0,5 % allowed until 2030 for bing equipment )

A batch of heat pumps are still being marketed with R-22 as refrigerant. Despite being available other refrigerants, they are still less efficient. Research and developments are afoot to accomplish replacements of R-22.


In colder climes antifreeze solutions are necessary to avoid stop deading during the warming operation. A batch of these merchandises are toxic, caustic and flammable. Some good solutions are Ethanol, which is efficient, have a low toxicity and is biodegradable ; and Propylene ethanediol which is besides non aggressive with the environment, but it is less efficient.



It is really hard to gauge the costs and nest eggs of a heat pump system because as they depend on a big figure of factors, they vary a batch. The chief factors that affect both the investings and the energy nest eggs are:

Size of the edifices

Energy demands

Climate ( for air beginning heat pumps chiefly )

Insulation of the house

Heating current system ( radiators, air airing, floor warming )

Land features ( for the land beginning heat pumps merely )

Exterior factors ( Fuel costs, supports )

Control and usage of the system

However it will be shown some typical mean values as a usher, without taking into history possible authorities subventions.


Air beginning heat pump: This system is the cheapest. A typical system for a familiar house costs around 6 000 to 10 000 euro.

Land beginning heat pump: A typical system for a familiar house would be around 9 000 to 17 000 euros.


Air beginning heat pump:

Existing system

Unit of measurements

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 2.2

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 3

















Figure S.1.14: Energy nest eggs in an air beginning heat pump. ( Energy salvaging trust, 2012 )

Land beginning heat pump

The tabular array has been calculated with COPs of 2.5 and 3. However in a well-designed land beginning heat pump it can be achieved higher values.

Existing system

Unit of measurements

Land beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 2.5

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 3

















Figure S.1.15: Energy nest eggs in land beginning heat pumps. ( Energy salvaging trust, 2012 )


Air beginning heat pump

Existing system

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 2.2

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 3













Figure S.1.16: Payback clip in air beginning heat pumps. ( Energy salvaging trust, 2012 )

Land beginning heat pump

Existing system

Land beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 2.5

Air beginning heat pumpA executing at COP 3












Figure S.1.17: Payback clip in land beginning heat pumps. ( Energy salvaging trust, 2012 )


If the bing system is gas, the payback clip is really high due to the competitory gas monetary values. If the bing system is electrical we can accomplish easy low payback times. In other systems the payback clip depends a batch on the efficiency of the system. It has to be mentioned that the values of land beginning heat pumps has been calculated with medium efficiencies: a good design land beginning heat pump can better these values. Besides, the values have been calculated for an mean European house. The higher demands of energy of the northern European states because of their lower temperatures make the heat pump systems even more executable. Some European states have funding strategies to put in these systems.



Governments begin to be cognizant of their function in environment protection. By presenting revenue enhancement interruptions and grants they can do people put so increase the market of sustainable supply in building.

In some states, residential or industrial users can have grant in order to put in heat pumps, equipment and stuffs required. Grants can depend on heat pump power, type of organisation ( industrial, commercial, public, community or families ) .

The grant can normally account for 40-50 % of the entire investing ( Austria, Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Luxembourg ) but the record is with 70 % of eligible costs in Hungary.

Furthermore users can be exempted of revenue enhancements on energy salvaging steps, CO2 emanations and energy revenue enhancements. Besides, in some states, they can subtract a portion of their entire investing of stuffs and equipment from their one-year revenue enhancements ( from 11 % to 55 % in Italy for constructing redevelopment ) .

However, many states have a maximal budget for grants and revenue enhancements freedom per organisation: normally from 700a‚¬ to 3500a‚¬ for families ( in Greece, Ireland, Sweden ) but can be a bound of 200 000a‚¬ in Slovenia or even 850 000a‚¬ in Cyprus.

Many European states do non assist organisations which want to better their production system or warming system with heat pump to cut down their energy ingestion and gas emanations: Estonia, Spain, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Malta, and Lithuania. Most of these states are either in hot countries, or non really developed.

Even if most of the clip, the whole investing is non covered, the subventions and revenue enhancements freedoms can be really helpful ab initio before salvaging money on long term with less energy required.


The existent advantage of the heat pump is that usage free and renewable energy from outside: land, air, H2O heated by the Sun.

It reduces fuel or electrical measures because can supply the same sum of energy with three times less primary energy. Some heat pumps in industry can even supply the same measure of heat with merely 3 or 4 % of electricity, but this high public presentation has non been developed for families yet.

To compare heat pump or other boilers on energy economy, the SPF can be used, because it takes into history primary energy required during the whole twelvemonth, CO2, and the efficiency.

The best manner to salvage energy is to unite the heat pump with other sustainable devices in the same edifice in order to hold a passive or even a positive house which does non necessitate any external energy to do dwellers confortable during all seasons.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Figure S.1.18: Energy required by a traditional boiler and an soaking up heat pump ( IEA Heat Pump Center, 2010 )



In order to develop heat pump in new sectors, a new manner of thought is needed to unite cold countries with hot countries. That is why, it is common to see ice rink following to swimming pool, because with the aid of a heat pump, the cold or the heat of one of those countries can be the beginnings for warming or chilling the other 1. To do it clear, take the heat from ice rink to give it to swimming pool in order to heat the H2O has a dual consequence: chilling the ice rink and heating the swimming pool.

This illustration can be developed in many sectors. For case, in supermarkets, it will be clever to set electric refrigerator and deep-freeze following to bakery, in order to unite that heat and cold beginnings. This manner of thought can assist to salvage a batch of energy and money ; we merely have to believe about it during the execution of commercialism or industry.


Building Sector

The heat pump possible market is every bit broad as the heating systems market, with some specific characteristics. In rural countries, where natural gas grapevines are non available, heat pumps seem to be more attractive. Most of the market growing is related to new buildings with low-temperature heating systems, but the chief possible market is in bing edifice stock with high-temperature heating systems. Unfortunately, the high temperature of operation is a proficient obstruction to large-scale usage of single heat pumps.

Figure S.1.19: Electrical energy required for heat pump with a COP of 3. ( Poulsen, C. , 2012 )


The industrial heat pump is being developed as good, with more than 20 % addition every twelvemonth. More than 50 states are advancing these systems. Besides, it is expected to hold a higher incursion by 2020.


Government aid and realisation by the society that the environment has to be protected will better the heat pump development in Europe, every bit good in industry as in commercial and residential edifices. Europe wants to implement by 2020, a scheme “ for smart, sustainable and inclusive growing ” concentrating on environment marks: reduction by 20 % ( from rates in 1990 ) CO2 emanations, and increase by 20 % energy efficiency betterments and renewable energy beginnings in entire energy supply.


To reason, heat pump has many advantages. The betterment of efficiency of heating/cooling systems triggers a direct decrease of gas emanations, and the possibility of save money in many different applications. The economic feasibleness is non so obvious and depends on many factors, chiefly on the clime ( difficult temperatures worse the efficiency ) , on the bing warming system and on the heat pump design. State subvention and revenue enhancement freedom can do a large difference for possible users.


Competitive gas monetary values

Can be combined with a batch of others sustainable energies

State subventions and revenue enhancements freedom in many states

Trendy to protect environment

Need electricity or gas-source

High initial costs

Uncertainty of the existent COP that can be achieved in each instance.

Merely 1/3 electricity required

Need natural free and renewable input ( land, H2O, airaˆ¦ )

Can cut down CO2 emanations

Suitable for different application ( industry, residential edifices ) C: UsershpDesktopSWOTSWOT.png