Sustainable Energy Policies And Technologies In Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

Current forms of production and ingestion of energy in Nigeria are unsustainable, and damaging the environment. As an energy rich state ( oil & A ; gas ) whose economic demand is great, it is indispensable that energy supplies be developed sustainably ; to back up economic and societal development. The chief aim of this research is to critically analyse current energy production and use forms, and to place proficient and policy chances for greater sustainability of the energy industry. The overall purpose is to develop a consolidative sustainability coverage model that could take to dramatic betterments in sustainability for the whole economic system. The undertaking will be based on rating of four dimensions of sustainability viz. ; economic, environmental, societal and institutional dimensions ; utilizing sustainability prosodies and a systems attack as measurement and analytical tools severally. The consequences of this research is envisaged to be of strategic importance to Nigerian authorities bureaus and companies working in the energy sector, and can possibly, be a theoretical account for other emerging economic systems in undertaking sustainable energy challenges.

Africa as a continent is one of the World ‘s less energy efficient parts. It is estimated that up to 40 % of the energy input in production procedures across the continent is wasted ( Tim, 2010 ) . Reports have besides shown that immense measure of the energy available is non converted into “ utile energy ” ( Tim, 2010 ) . The energy industry in Africa demonstrates gross deficiency of entree, low production and buying power, unequal energy efficiency and heavy dependance on the traditional biomass such as fire wood, for run intoing basic energy demands. Since entree to affordable energy is the cardinal determiner of economic growing and poorness decrease attempts, African states are faced with critical challenges related to the energy industry. Access to electricity for illustration remains highly limited, with rural countries in some Sub-saharan states like Nigeria, holding electrification rates of less than 1 per centum as at the twelvemonth 1999 ( Tim, 2010 ) . Traditional biofuels energy in those countries represents every bit much as 70 per centum of the primary energy supply, while energy strength per capita is highly low, at about less than half of the universe ‘s norm ( Tim, 2010 ) ; all this despite the fact that the continent is endowed with huge energy resources that go undeveloped.

Nigeria for case, has immense sedimentation of oil and natural gas militias but, depends mostly on inefficient traditional biomass for cookery and warming intents. Traditional biomass histories for over 80 % of primary energy demands. These beginnings of energy, for illustration, fire wood and wood coal burn inefficiently, giving rise to energy loss ( GSA, 2009 ) . Excessive use of fuel wood is already making considerable environmental jobs particularly in the Sahel ( CAT, 2009 ) . The environing environment is besides degraded, through the depletion of forest resources ( GSA, 2009 ) . Pollutants ( GHG ) , which are wellness damaging substances are besides emitted when these signifiers of energy beginnings are used indoors. In Sub-Saharan Africa, deceases from indoor air pollution originating from combustion of biomass fuels are progressively significant. However, Nigeria has all the possible to work out its energy jobs if appropriate engineerings and policy model, every bit good as infrastructural support can be provided for tackling the abundant resources ( CAT, 2009 ) .

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Current forms of production and ingestion of energy in Nigeria are unsustainable and damaging the environment. The demand for energy has besides, continued to turn over the old ages at a high rate ; and the major challenge for authorities and sentiment formers in the energy industry, is how to develop and pull off equal, low-cost and dependable energy services. With high demand for energy and environmental harm being experienced in the state, there is pressing demand for solutions that could dramatically better energy services in Nigeria.

A dependable and equal supply of energy, at low-cost cost, in a secure and environmentally friendly mode, and in conformance with societal and economic development demands ( IAEA/IEA, 2001 ) ; are besides indispensable elements for sustainable development of Nigeria. Energy is indispensable for eliminating poorness and bettering criterion of life for Nigerian people. Energy is besides cardinal to improved economic wellbeing, and is indispensable for industrial and commercial wealth coevals for the state. Nigeria ‘s entree to sustainable energy is besides important to attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Besides, Nigeria ‘s vision to go one of the universe ‘s top 20 economic systems in the close hereafter is come-at-able if there is equal and sustainable supply of energy, to hike all sectors of the economic system.

With these benefits nevertheless, Nigeria presently has no dependable and unafraid energy supplies ; hence, the demands for sustainable energy development. This research intend hence, to analyse current technological and policy challenges of conveying energy sustainability at practical degree in Nigeria ; and every bit place proficient and policy chances that could take to dramatic betterments in energy services, and to the full economic system of Nigeria.

2. Research Aims

2.1 Global Aims: The planetary aim of this research is to show the turning importance of sustainability indexs as critical tools for national decision-making, and to lend to the general organic structure of cognition and research the application of sustainability prosodies in measuring the sustainability of systems and procedures.

2.2 Specific Aims: To accomplish the planetary aims, this research aims at utilizing sustainability prosodies and systems approach to analyse current production and energy use form in Nigeria, and place policy and proficient chances for sustainable energy development.

3. Overall Aim

The overall purpose is to critically measure four sustainability dimensions ( economic, environmental, societal and institutional ) , and develop a consolidative sustainability coverage model that could take to dramatic betterments in sustainability for the whole economic system of Nigeria.

4 Research Questions

The cardinal research inquiries for this survey are:

What are the technological challenges confronting Nigeria in accomplishing energy sustainability?

To what degree sustainable energy challenges of Nigeria are reflected in current policy programs for economic development?

What are the proficient and policy chances available for sustainable energy development in Nigeria?

5 Justification/Significance of the Study

It is obvious that the cardinal energy issues in Nigeria today, is non merely to better energy ingestion but to guarantee entree to adequate energy supply and energy services through energy efficiency, therefore advancing sustainable ingestion. The Nigerian authorities has over the old ages, made elephantine paces in an effort to set the energy industry on the way to sustainability, but to day of the month this sector has had no systematic and comprehensive procedure for measuring and mensurating sustainability advancement and accomplishments. Several other research workers have developed some signifiers of solutions for undertaking energy challenges in Nigeria, but failed to integrate the rules of sustainable development and sustainability schemes in their attacks.

This survey will therefore, research ways of get the better ofing these challenges, by unlocking the potency for sustainable energy development in Nigeria. Developing constructs of conveying energy sustainability at practical degree in Nigeria, through designation of appropriate engineerings and developing policy models that could take to dramatic betterments in the full economic system of Nigeria ; remains the primary focal point of the research. The consequences of this research will enable authorities bureaus and other stakeholders in the energy sector to join forces and find how best to step and proctor advancement and additions accrued from sustainable energy development.

It is anticipated that if the consequences of this research are to the full adopted and implemented, the Nigeria energy industry will non merely be on the way to sustainability, but the state will be widely recognized as theoretical account for sustainable energy development in Africa. Within twenty old ages ‘ timescale, Nigeria will hold made important advancement towards turn toing energy challenges. It is expected that within this clip, energy production and use will better dramatically. There will be improved economic well-being, dramatic decrease in CO2 emanations and environmental debasement, improved societal position, increased coevals capacities, reduced ingestion and a systematic institutional model for farther betterment.

These painstaking attempts and actions will be complement with farther research and development in the energy industry, acquisition and execution of cutting border engineerings, capacity edifice and work force preparation, appropriate policy preparation and execution and effectual monitoring and coverage of sustainability advancement.

6 Proposed Methodology/Techniques

This survey is a quantitative research that will be based on critical rating of four sustainability dimensions viz. : Economic, Social, Environmental and Institutional dimensions ; utilizing sustainability prosodies and systems attack as measurement and analytical tools. The sustainability dimensions proposed for this undertaking stems from sustainability indexs developed by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, for mensurating advancement and benefits achieved through the execution of sustainability enterprises by member states. The thought is to utilize these illustrations to orient a peculiar solution for Nigeria energy challenges.

6.1 Solution Strategy/Approach: Datas for the variable sustainability indexs will be collected and measured for all the four sustainability dimensions. The information will be obtained from national ( public-data ) beginnings such as, consequences of studies obtained from authorities statistical bureaus like Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation ( NNPC ) , Ministry of National Planning, Department of Petroleum Resources ( DPR ) , Ministry of Environment and National Energy Commission etc. ; every bit good as international informations beginnings such as World Bank, UNDP, US EIA, IEAE, database etc. , from ( 1999 – 2009 ) .

The indexs for Economic dimension will mensurate how the usage and production forms of energy affect economic development of Nigeria. The indexs for societal dimension will mensurate the impact that available energy services in Nigeria have on the societal wellbeing of the people. Environmental dimension will hold its indexs focus on mensurating the impact of energy systems on the environment. Finally, the indexs of Institutional dimensions will measure the handiness and viability of the institutional model designed to advance energy sustainability in Nigeria. Basic information on the chosen indexs for all the four sustainability dimensions will be obtained utilizing specific mensurating methods applicable to the index in inquiry.

6.2 Evaluation of Research Work: In order to analyse the current energy issues in Nigeria and develop a fresh attack for undertaking energy sustainability challenges, system-based energy usage theoretical accounts will be built ; and the end product from the theoretical accounts will supply effectual step of the proposed sustainability indexs. Since the timeframe for this rating is 10 old ages ( from 1999 – 2009 ) , a set of non-linear differential coincident differential equations will be specified and solved at annually interval from 1999 – 2009. The simulation package proposed for constructing the theoretical accounts is STELLA or VENSIM. The end product of the simulation theoretical accounts will bespeak clearly the motion of Nigeria energy industry towards or off from sustainability for each of the sustainability dimensions under examination. The dynamic motion of each of the indexs measured will besides uncover the degree of inter-dependency and combined consequence offered by each of the dimensions.

The theoretical accounts will enable finding of current forms of production and energy ingestion and benchmark advancement into the hereafter. With ability to bring out empirical informations that can be reported in quantitative footings, prosodies will enable the research worker to mensurate success and failure of Nigeria energy industry over the 10 old ages timescale ; and do recommendations for a fresh class of action. The indexs, when critically analyzed and interpreted, would supply utile statistical informations that would give better penetration into the barriers of sustainable energy development in Nigeria and supply a “ world cheque ” on schemes for future sustainable development.

7 Research Timeline

This research is planned to be completed within a maximal period of three old ages.

The 1st stage of the survey ( 6-9 months ) is the origin stage, which will be for other desk plants and reappraisal of bing literature on technological and policy issues refering energy industry in Nigeria and elsewhere.

The 2nd and full stage of the research ( 9- 12 months ) , will be to research sustainability of Nigerian energy industry, through rating of the proposed four sustainability dimensions, to measure advancement and step yesteryear and current public presentation ; and benchmark future betterments.

Phase three of the work ( 6-9 months ) , will be for informations analysis and informations reading ; developing of energy usage theoretical accounts every bit good as developing consolidative model for mensurating public presentation and advancement in the energy industry in Nigeria.

The 4th and concluding stage of the research ( 5-6 months ) will be for proving and airing, and concluding research thesis authorship.

8 Publication and Conference Presentation Expected

This research lies clearly within the Fieldss of energy and sustainable development. It is envisaged hence, that the research will be published in parts to show the turning importance of sustainability indexs as critical decision-making tools and its relevancy to energy and sustainable development.

The research worker is besides anticipating to go to at least two national and two international conferences on energy and sustainable development, to get extra thoughts to farther develop on the research and possibly, present the work.

9 Infrastructure/Software Required

Modeling and Simulation package, ( STELLA/VENSIM ) is proposed.

10 Summary/Conclusion

This DPhil research is advanced and strategic to work outing energy challenges in Nigeria and beyond. The survey seeks to add something fresh and important to the field of energy and sustainability, by using new methods of pattern based attack ( sustainability metrics/systems attack ) , to give new penetrations to energy challenges. The survey dwells profoundly on the demand for technological inventions, and strategic planning and direction of energy resources in Nigeria as a solution to the research inquiries raised. The mark audience for the research is Nigerian authorities bureaus and companies working in the energy sector, and other emerging economic systems confronting sustainable energy challenges.

As a preliminary consequence, this research anticipates that for development of the Nigeria energy industry to be sustainable, decision-makers expected to incorporate energy undertakings into national planning, and explicate appropriate polices/institutional model to advance sustainable development. The state has to besides hold entree non merely to current engineering, but besides, with confidences that they can go on to follow best patterns. Furthermore, to accomplish sustainable energy development, the authorities is expected to get engineering transportation on a monolithic graduated table, and do support available to do certain the engineering acquired is put to good usage.

Ultimately, it is hoped that the solutions drawn-out in the research will help Nigerian authorities bureaus and decision-makers in formulating and implementing appropriate sustainable energy policies and redefine their functions in development of the energy industry.