27 % of CO2 one-year emanations in the UK come from non-commercial edifices i.e. Homes ( cite 1 )
Purposes of the undertaking
The purpose of the undertaking is to make sustainable design to retrofit the Mill, Harmonizing to BREEAM: Ecohomes counsel. But non all of parts are applicable to betterments of an already existing construction. Main focal point will be on CO2 emanations prior to retrofit and after using betterments to the edifice. The other subjects will be touched every bit good, but non in deepness. As sustainable edifices are eco-friendly they benefit both society and single consumer. The chief purpose is to cut down CO2 emanations in sustainable manner utilizing ecologically friendly stuffs and engineerings.
To execute site probe and analysis of the edifice from sustainability point of position utilizing SAP 2009 ( Standard Assessment Procedure ) implementing RdSAP ( Reduced Data Standard Assessment Procedure used for bing edifices where in-depth study can non be performed )
Propose usage of insularity stuffs the roof, walls, floors and Windowss that would cut down one-year CO2 emanations.
Materials installing method to cut down Global Warming Potential ( use of foamed or un-foamed )
Improve current energy usage in the edifice by presenting renewable energy beginnings. Research of alternate energy beginnings: air current, solar, hydraulic that would be executable for cut downing external energy income.
Look into possibility of presenting Ventilation systems, would it be Sustainable or would it increase one-year CO2 emanations.
Propose alternate warming solutions and possible application of it in the design.
Apply recycled stuffs where possible during retrofitting.
Waste direction during building and storage of produced reclaimable and un-recyclable waste.
Management of the building procedure and edifice care ( place user usher )
There is big assortment of literature available for counsel of the design for new developments as Code for Sustainable Homes by BREEAM supplying elaborate counsel to the applied scientists for betterment of their domestic homes design in cut downing Carbon Dioxide emissions throughout a whole edifice life, get downing in design phase and stoping in with dismantlement. Majority of books cover subjects such as land usage, building procedures, site location etc. and bulk of them are non applicable to refurbishment but more tailored to new developments. Unfortunately much smaller counsel is given in UK for betterment of bing constructions as it is much more forced field of survey where all instances are alone and feasibleness of techniques used in new developments comes into inquiry. BREEAM ECO: HOMES is presently considered the counsel for renovation of bing constructions in UK, but “ There is no specific counsel to refurbishment. The standard attack, utilizing SAP2005 should be followed ” is said and bulk of subdivisions can non be improved in already bing construction. In add-on EcoHomes requires SAP 2005 rating, instead than newer available SAP 2009 which will be used for new BREEAM Domestic Refurbishment design usher, which is scheduled to be published in May 2011. For the intent of this undertaking SAP 2009 integrating RdSAP will be used as it analyses sum of variables and environmental influences on the construction.
There are other ushers available every bit good for bing edifices, for illustration LEED 2009 For bing edifices: Operationss and Maintenance, it offers big assortment of betterments for residential edifice daily life direction and execution of newest engineerings, but unluckily it chiefly focuses on the quality of life and stuffs used, and the Environmental issues that arises with it, but non the CO2 emanations. The lone countries where CO2 emanations were even mentioned were for airing in order to keep low CO2 interior of the construction while supplying minimal out-of-door rates and iceboxs GWP ( Global Warming Potential ) and ODP ( Ozone Depletion Potential ) . The other usher by USGBC is LEED for Homes, unluckily it has the same focal point on CO2 emanations as antecedently mentioned usher, but it besides includes mention to Energy public presentation optimization, where insularities and HERS Index which shows the energy efficiency is included. But there is no comprehensive usher available for renovation or rating of bing edifices.
Riverside tribunal, Victoria Rd, Saltaire, Shipley BD18 3LX
The centre of this research is a factory that is being used as an evident composite. It has 97 flats, evidences, auto park and entree to Leeds and Liverpool Canal and River Aire. It has been erected in 1907-1909 ( Age set B ) . In add-on it is situated in World Heritage site in Saltaire. ( mention ) . The Riverisde Court is Grade Two Listed Building, as a consequence external and aesthetical alterations must be kept minimunm.
This edifice represents a bulk of historical edifices in the metropolis centres where external architectural alterations must be kept minimal to continue the herritage and edifices with changed intent.
For the intent of this undertaking the factory will be evaluated in by utilizing EcoHomes while presenting betterments to sustainability of this delling.
The factory has two wings, they will be called West wing ( WW ) and East wing ( EW ) for the easiness of description.
WW has 6 floors entire: Groud floor, 1-4floors and Attic. Besides it has pitched roof consisting of 2 pitches.
EW has 5 floors entire Groud floor, 1-4floors, pitched roof dwelling of3 pitches.
The roof pitch is the same on both wings, but is asymethrical with smaller angle confronting South, which could potentially offer larger aera for Solar pannels.
Premises for the design:
West Wing ( assumed mean highs ) :
5thfloor ( Loft ) = 3m2
4th floor= 3.5 M2
3rd floor= 3.5 M2
2nd floor= 3.5 M2
1st floor= 3 M2
Land floor = 3 M2
East Wing ( assumed mean highs ) :
4th floor ( Loft ) = 3 M2
3rd floor= 3.5 M2
2nd floor= 3.5 M2
1st floor= 3 M2
Land floor = 3 M2
Assumed dimentions of Double glazes timber Windowss with air spread used:
Type1 ( used in 1st floor ) = 1.75*1.5=2.625 M2
Type 2 ( used in 2nd, 3rd and 4th ) = 1.5*2=3 M2
Type 3 ( used in Ground floor and fifth floor ) = 1.5*1.5=2.25 M2
Number of Windowss:
Assumed dimentions of Entramce doors:
Main entryway = 9mX9m
4x Secondary entrywaies = 3mX3m
Datas to utilize in SAP 2009 For Assesment Prior to Refurbishment, for easiness of reading papers SAP2009 is advised to be consulted:
Data / Assumptions
Calculations and Remarks
Presently the Dwelling has:
WW Total area= 15×11+14×60=1005m2 ( for Ground, 1st and 2nd floors )
WW Total area= 14×71=994m2 ( for 3rd, 4th and 5th ( loft ) )
EW Total area= 57×22=1254m2
Limestone Wall thickness=0.9m
For computation of Floor country in SAP, merely het floor country is considered i.e. country has to be reduced by the thicness of the wall.
WW Floor country Ground, 1st and 2nd floors = 1005- ( 60+1+11+15+71 ) *0.9=862.8 M2
WW Floor country for 3rd, 4th and 5th ( loft ) = 994- ( 71+15+71 ) *0.9= 852.7 M2
EW Floor area= 1254- ( 10+57+22+57 ) *0.9=1122.6 M2
Floor Area ( M2 )
Assumed Storey height
Volume ( M3 )
Entire floor area=
No chimneys, flukes and flueless gas fires
Intermittent fans tare used in kichen and bathrooms
All Windowss and doors are non draught stripped and all countries inside are heated.
Number of fans should be equal to figure of flats multiplyed by two= 97*2=194 fans
Stairss 12 to 19 of SPA 2009 are non applicable
Riverside tribunal has two sheltered sides, one by Salt factory, the other by New Mill. They fullfill the demands in SAP 2009 Chapter 2.5 Page 11.
Assumed merely natural airing in the edifice
Heat loss and heat loss parametric quantity
Thermal conduction ( K ) Limestone 1.33 W/ ( m.K )
( ref a )
Limestone denseness assumed 2560 kg/m3
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.natural-stone.com/limestone.html
Thermal bridging inside informations are non available
Valuess taken from Approved Document L1A Of constructing ordinance of Conservation of fuel and power in new homes.
Doors and Windowss have similar construction of lumber frame and air filled dual glazing with 116mm spread
U-value = 2.7 W/m2K
For Ground floor heat loss through the Earth, limestone value is used, as it was chief edifice stuff during that clip, besides the same thickness of 0.9m is assumed
Roof tallness is assumed 2.5m and flip angle confronting south 27 grades
Roof cross-section assumed:
For west flying
East wing uses the same pitches, merely has three ridges alternatively of two.
Clay tiles are used and timber finish interior.
Assumed U-value by table S10 in SAP2009 =0.68
U-values for external limestone wall, as it is solid wall:
Thermal transmitttance of 0.9m Limestone
( U ) = 1/1.477=0.6769 W/m2K
For Windowss reduced U value has to be used ( mention Chapter 3.2 )
U=1/ [ ( 1/U-value ) +0.04 ] U= 1/ ( ( 1/2.7 ) 0.04 ) =2.44 W/m2K
Heat capacity per unit areaiˆ iˆ i?«-value=10-6*thicness of bed ( millimeter ) *density ( kg/m3 ) *specific heat capasity ( J/kg*K ) .
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-solids-d_154.html
i?«-value for external wals and land floor
Area of the roof:
West wing: ( 5.589+3.533 ) ( margin of one pitch ) *2 ( figure of pitches ) *60 ( length of the wing ) =1094.64m2
East wing: ( 5.589+3.533 ) *3*57=1559.862 M2
Entire Area =sum ( 1559.862 ; 1094.6 ) =2654.462 M2
Assumed community heating
No armored combat vehicle makers informations is available and for storage of hot H2O 110 litres and 0.0152 loss factor kWh/litre/day is assumed as per secion 4.3 in SAP 2009
Not insulated primary organ pipe and cylinder thermoregulator
Internal Gains ( human activities )
No low energy visible radiation is assumed
Correction factor as a consequence is =1
Overshading is More than norm as the factory is resting behind Salt Mills which are somewhat higher than Riverside tribunal and blocks bulk of the sunshine coming from E, South and West is blocked by New factory.
For addition from pumps and fans there is no applicable informations in Table 5a, as a consequence these additions will be ignored
Building sides south, south West and west have more than 60 % covered in sunglassess due to obstructions as seen in the map below.
Number of Windowss for country computation of glazing on each side needs to be counted: as edifice is non positioned paralel to any of the axes, sides will be anotated as shown below:
GPS readings show Latitude of 53.84a-¦N
For computations following Table 6a in order to find solar radiation on perpendicular surfases
Fx ( m ) = Rhtov ( i?± ) Sh where Rhtov ( i?± ) = A + B cos ( i?± ) + C cos ( 2i?± )
A = 0.702 – 0.0119 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) + 0.000204 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) 2
B = – 0.107 + 0.0081 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) – 0.000218 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) 2
C = 0.117 – 0.0098 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) + 0.000143 ( i?¦iˆ – i?¤ ) 2
i?¦iˆ iˆiˆ latitude i?¤ – solar decline during the month
Analysis has to be performed for each month for each type of glazing. But as the lone thing changing between the types of Windowss in the country, it is acceptable to number as one and the same type, it would non act upon the computations. Transmittance factors and frame factors taken from tabular arraies 6b and 6c.
Internal temperature ( heating season )
Assumed community heating strategy with gas boiler and reactivity ratio 1
Energy and CO2 Emissions SAP 2009
To measure CO2 Emission rate provided worksheets provided in hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2009/SAP-2009_9-90.pdf were used to make excel spreadsheet shown below, utilizing expressions provided and integrating informations from Riverside tribunal.
Prior to refurbishment CO2 Emission rate is:
For increasing the quality of renovation, in each portion of SAP analysis CO2 apart the 1s dependant on edifice dimensions and location will be tried to be reduced.
The Mill that we are covering with already exists ; as a consequence it limits the possible thermic dielectrics. If it has pits in the wall design, so it could be filled with froths or fibers. External facing or internal insularity or dry liner could be used. Unfortunately in the factory merely internal dielectrics can be used and to cut down environmental impact proposed insulating materials should hold an `A` scaling
To cut down planetary heating from blowing agent emanations that arises from the industry, installing, usage and disposal of foamed thermic and acoustic insulating stuffs.
The Heat Loss Parameter is a statistic that combines the impact of both external surface country, insularity value of building and airtightness. Honoring a lower value for Heat Loss Parameter encourages increased degrees of insularity and airtightness.
These exposures were taken on 24th November 2010 with thermocamera to look into heat loss throush the edifice envelope and see where the focal point of betterment should be centered. During the clip the exposures were taken the temperature was +2 Degrees Celcium. During probe of the site it has been noticed that extternal walls have signifficant heat loss every bit good as Windowss and doors. As can be seen in images the temperature shown varies through out them, that can be ecplained by air current influence every bit good solar exposure.
Heating/boilers, heat pumps
Areas of Possible betterment
Surface H2O run-off
River tribunal Factory
Health and wellbeing
BREEAM for non-domestic renovation is now under development, A The strategy is due to be launched in May 2011.