Study On Egyptian Civilization History Essay

When Egyptian society began in the twelvemonth 3000 AD, the land of Egypt was split into Upper and Lower Egypt, and the people had two major beliefs: that the God Ra was the God who created everything ; and that the Nile River was the beginning of life and a God of its ain. Every twelvemonth the Nile would either overrun or withdraw, depending on which occurred resulted in either a plentiful crop or a dearth. The Egyptians besides believed that the Pharaoh was a godly person because he was a descendent of the God Ra. When Pepi II came to the throne of Egypt he was still a immature male child ( Wilson, pg 97 ) . Around 2200 BC, Egyptian civilisation collapsed for the first clip because the Pharaohs emptied the pockets of the people by desiring to surpass their predecessors. In the twelvemonth 2180 BC, the Old Kingdom came to an terminal after Pepi II died ( Wilson, pg 105 ) , therefore get downing the Middle Kingdom, 2180-1570 BC.

At the start of the Middle Kingdom, the Pharaohs realized that money in the people ‘s pockets and making occupations for them was the best manner to stabilise and prolong the imperium. However, the people of Lower Egypt were non so fortunate to keep their comfortable position. The Hyksos, a people from Palestine, had migrated into Lower Egypt, overthrew the authorities, and began their regulation in Egypt in 1725 BC ( Steindorff, Pg 26 ) , another reverse in Egyptian civilisation. The Egyptian people from Lower Egypt retreated to Thebes, where they planned a countermove. The leader of the onslaught was Kamose, swayer of the metropolis of Thebes, and a adult male who would non portion his imperium with aliens ( Steindorff, Pg 30 ) . However, Kamose was unable to complete off the Hyksos and left the undertaking to his younger brother Ahmose ( Steindorff, Pg 31 ) . Ahomse I succeeded in get the better ofing the Hyksos, liberated Lower Egypt, became the new Pharaoh, and united the state under a individual swayer one time more. In 1546 BC, Ahmose I died and was succeeded by his boy Amenhotep I ( Steindorff, Pg 33 ) , whose reign brought about a new age, the New Kingdom.

In sequence to Amenhotep I and the first swayer of the New Kingdom was Thutmose I, who ruled until 1508 BC and was succeeded by his inheritor Thutmose II. Thutmose II, unluckily, merely ruled for a brief period and was succeeded by his inheritor Thutmose III in 1504 BC, ( Steindorff, Pg 40 ) . When Thutmose III ascended the throne he was really immature, so his stepmother and mother-in-law, Hatshepsut, assumed the duties of Pharaoh ( Steindorff, Pg 40 ) . This was an unusual happening in Ancient Egyptian civilisation for a adult female to govern the state. However, her regulation proved to be good for the people and was one of the more comfortable reigns, “ For the first clip since the prostration of the Middle Period, Egypt enjoyed a period of economic prosperity during the reign of Hatshepsut. Extensive edifice operations were carried on in the capital at Thebes every bit good as in other metropoliss of the land. Brilliant temples were erected, while the sanctuaries which had been destroyed or neglected by the Hyksos were restored and the cults re-established ” ( Steindorff, Pg 43 ) . When Thutmose III was about 30 old ages old he assumed full control of his land. Thutmose III had many military triumphs and as a mark of power to any future enemies he erected obelisks all over his imperium warning those who might desire to subvert him. In 1450 BC, Thutmose III died and was succeeded by his boy Amenhotep II, who in bend was succeeded by his boy Thutmose IV and subsequently was succeeded by Amenhotep III in 1402 BC. Amenhotep ruled the largest, mightiest, and wealthiest Egyptian imperium for 40 old ages. Near the terminal of his life, he became sick and was succeeded by Amenhotep IV. During his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton and brought Egypt to the threshold of ruin ( Steindorff, Pg 81 ) .

Akhenaton had a mentality to concentrate on one thing during his reign, the transmutation of the spiritual construction of Egypt. He wanted to alter the polytheistic faith of the Egyptians to a monotheistic faith, with the sun-god as the greatest of all Gods. In order to guarantee that his new jurisprudence be followed and a success, he withdrew the ground forces to implement his spiritual alteration, which allowed outside forces to recover their militaristic strength. In 1347 BC, Akhenaton died and was succeeded non by his son-in-law Smenkhare, but by his other boy, Tutankhaton, better known as King Tut. King Tut reigned for nine old ages, upon Tut ‘s decease his married woman wrote to the King of the Hittites, Shuppiluliuma, inquiring him to direct her one of his boies for her to get married, since she had no boy and inheritor to the throne ( Steindorff, Pg 241 ) . Harmhab, commander-in-chief of the ground forces of Egypt, was non excessively fond of an outside influence pickings over the state, and killed the boy of the Hittite male monarch and assumes the function of Pharaoh. His reign lasted for 35 old ages and is succeeded by Ramesess I ( Steindorff, Pg 247 ) .

In 1292, Ramses I ascended the throne of Egypt and became Pharaoh, after being appointed by Harmhab. Unfortunately, Ramses I was old when he came into power and ruled for a little more than a twelvemonth ( Steindorff, Pg 248 ) . His boy Sethi I took over for his male parent and set out instantly to recover lands that were lost to Egypt and embarked on a run against the Hittites. Unable to accomplish his end of reconstructing the lost lands of Egypt, Ramses II came into power and continued his male parent ‘s operation and attempted to reconstruct Egypt to its former glorification. A cardinal point in his reign was Ramses ‘ triumph over the Hittites at Kadesh. The Hittite ground forces, massing around 25,000-30,000, was set on scuppering the Egyptian ground forces at Kadesh. Ramses, unaware of this strategy, set up cantonment near the outskirts of Kadesh. When dark came, the Hitties attacked. If it had non been for Ramses ‘ ain intercession, Egypt would hold been lost ( Steindorff, Pg 251 ) .