Structural Design Studies

The chosen design


The split degree auto park was designed to the “mixed use” specifications due to the discrepancy of the clip interval which a user could do usage of the installation. The auto park has a one manner system throughout and has a speedy issue incline which exits onto the side route. There are one entryway and two issue paths, one for the chief volume of the vehicles and one predominately for the users of the handicapped infinites provided on the land floor.


Minimal figure of infinites

The chosen design has 506 vehicles infinites plus 15 handicapped infinites. The design specification would non be fulfilled if the 500 auto lower limit was non satisfied ; nevertheless a auto park design that has over compensated the vehicle capacity would be deemed inefficient and unneeded. The chosen auto park design could be improved if the figure of infinites was reduced to be precisely 500 including 15 handicapped. In malice of this the figure of infinites can non be reduced without lessening the efficiency of the construction.

The site restraints

The chief construction tantrums within the confines of the designated infinite. The dimensions of the auto park are defined by the length and width each auto parking infinite and route. Mentioning to subdivision 7, the country of the auto park is the breadth of 20 auto parking infinites long, and the length of 8 auto parking infinites plus 4 route breadths broad. Allowance for an add-on prosaic construction is included into the computation of the breadth of the construction ; a infinite of width 6 metres broad provides sufficient infinite for building of the lift and stepss.

The types of bays adopted

The size of each bay adopted is 2.4m broad and 4.8m long, and they are angled at 90A° to the route way. This was adopted because by holding the vehicle spaces 90A° to the route surface is the most efficient layout for the parking infinites. An probe could hold been completed to detect which angle was best suited for the size and type of auto park.

Vehicle restraints

A height bound is placed at the entryway of the installation. This height bound is 2.1m metres and is designed. The auto park is predominately designed for non commercial vehicles without any add-ons to the vehicle ‘s tallness such as a roof box. The beams in the installation run parallel to the inclines to supply equal caput room and cut downing the hazard of auto roofs striking the above floor slab.

Vehicle consideration

Type of auto park

The type of auto park is a one manner split degree auto park, the auto park was designed to hold full hunt way by doing the hunt way go past each infinite in the installation.

Split degree

A split degree design was chosen due to the little country which a incline required. The smaller inclines can hold a larger gradient hence cut downing the length to height ratio hence doing them as cost efficient as possible. The decrease in country allows the add-on of more auto parking infinites. The split degree design besides allowed the one manner system to work good by puting the smaller western split degree on the path. The ramp country comfortably replaced the country of 4 parking infinites ; this so did non interfere with the auto Parks construction. By non interfering with the auto Parks construction an efficient construction could be constructed and cost reduced by understating the size of the slab.


The cost of inclines could be reduced by doing them every bit abruptly as possible. Sufficient caput room was available for the users on the inclines because the beams ran parallel to the inclines. An illustration of what could go on if the beam runs perpendicular to the incline is shown in figure 3.1. A tallness of 2.75m between slabs is provided to give sufficient clearance. The inclines allow speedy entree to happen between each split degree. The disadvantage of utilizing little inclines is that the country underneath the inclines can non be accessed and the infinite optimised.

Figure 3.1 – An incident which occurs when unequal caput room is provided for the inclines

The issue incline

The issue incline is situated the at the north east corner of the construction. It can be accessed from the path and so leads out onto the side street. The incline is designed to be inclining for half the perimeter and degree for the other half. This is done to do entree onto the incline every bit easy as possible by supplying sufficient infinite for a user to analyze the flow and to filtrate in. The E curved incline is besides level to let the user to re-start the hunt alternatively of go outing. The filtering procedure can do congestion at peak times. When the incline is full due to traffic the users who wish to entree the issue incline could do congestion for other users who wish to seek along the path for a parking infinite. When the auto park is reaches its maximal capacity more users may wish to re-start there hunt and this would do congestion near the entryway and around the handicapped parking infinites. The country for the re-starting users to filtrate in to the chief flow of traffic is wider than standard breadth to cut down the impact of procedure. The excess breadth allows infinite for the users to wait without barricading the chief flow of traffic or the entryway.

Adoption of the one manner system

To accomplish a full hunt way a one manner path was designed to guarantee each user passed every parking infinite. The auto park was a assorted usage auto park hence auto parking vacancies would look at random around the installation as opposed to a long stay auto park where the user would hold to drive to the terminal of the path to happen a infinite. Another advantage of utilizing a one manner system is the fact that it reduces the overall sum of struggles. The one manner system has merely one junction for the issue for the handicapped infinites and the filtering onto the issue incline. The job with utilizing a one manner system is the issue path can be hard and the breadth of the lanes have to be broad compared with half the breadth of a two manner unit of ammunition. This by and large can increase the floor country of the auto park by coercing new paths to be used for the flow of traffic to go on.

Exit path

The path of the chosen auto park design has to stay by the installations one manner system. The issue path so can affect traveling up onto the following degree to acquire to the issue incline. This system does non do any struggles but is an incommodiousness for the user. To better this state of affairs a 2nd incline could be constructed of to cut down the distance to an issue incline. A simple method to cut down the distance would be do some of the roads two manner, giving them the option to go against the chief flow of traffic to get at the issue incline quicker. Problems would this is that more struggles would happen and besides the breadth of the inclines would hold to be widened to defy the excess traffic capacity cut downing the sum of parking infinites.

Consideration to full capacity

When the auto park reaches full capacity the entryway toll should keep back the sum of come ining vehicles. The user can come in and follow the path unit of ammunition until they locate a parking infinite. The user can wish to re-start back on the bottom floor if they wish or they can go out the auto park. The toll machine should command the sum of vehicles in the edifice at one clip so that there are a sufficient sum of users looking for a infinite, but without doing excessively much traffic congestion.

Adopted Head room

As mentioned above no state of affairs arises where the user would strike the slab operating expense. The inclines have adequate caput infinite to let the tilting of the vehicle and the beams allow suited deepness for a user to drive underneath on the level surface. The filter in subdivision has a deepened beam to let more maneuverability without struggle with the auto Parks construction. The caput room clearance under the beam is equal for the 2.1m height bound. As demonstrated in figure 3.2 the entire clearance besides requires room for services such as lighting and possible airing. The chosen design has an approximative service zone deepness of 0.5m, this deepness is sufficient for needed services.

Figure 3.2 – The needed caput room for a vehicle

Traffic struggles

Traffic conflicts occur at two points in the chosen design. The first point is at the filtering subdivision and the 2nd is near the entryway for the handicapped users issue. The first struggle state of affairs has been improved by widening the country which the filtering procedure occurs.

Possible design betterments

To better the design of the easiness of entree for the vehicles can be done in a figure of ways. As mentioned above the issue path could be improved by cut downing the distance which the user has used to acquire to the issue incline.

Pedestrian easiness of usage

Pedestrian entree

The chief prosaic entryway for the auto park is situated off the side street. There is a lift and steps for the walkers. The prosaic entryway is situated on the side route to cut down the impact on the size of installation. The place of the entryway forces the walkers to walk a big distance to the entryway from the shopping country. When the walker ‘s vehicle is parked on the North West corner, the walker has to walk another big distance ; this is an incommodiousness for the user. A possible solution would be to put a step shaft in the North West corner and give some parking infinites. This solution would dramatically better the installations prosaic entree.

Disabled infinite

The handicapped infinites are situated on the land degree. This is done so that the users can derive entryway to their vehicles without the assistance of the lift, which is non 100 % reliant.


The payment places are situated following to the prosaic entrywaies. The prosaic will be able to pay for the usage of the auto park and on the manner to recovering their vehicle.

Pedestrian paths

The chosen solution has a prosaic country adjacent to the lift and steps. The roads are broad plenty to suit the usage of vehicles and walkers. The inclines which lead to the split degree are non as broad of the chief route and would necessitate walkers walking in the locality of traveling vehicles. To better the prosaic paths infinite should be designated as prosaic waies.


To by and large better the quality for prosaic usage the distance from which the user has to walk could be reduced and the debut of waies for them to utilize.



Reinforced concrete was used for its strength and comparatively low cost. The whole construction can be constructed from concrete at a comparatively low cost compared with other stuffs such as steel. The chief cost of the edifice is the slab hence by adding more beams to cut down the soap span of the edifice greatly reduced the overall cost of the construction.

The grid system

The edifice is based on a grid system which is 3 parking bays broad and 7.8m. By taking 7.8m as the grid length it ensures the maximal span is merely 7.8m. This is the minimal value the beam length could hold been without interfering with vehicle paths. As mentioned above there are 20 bay breadths along the length of the construction and the grid system does non suit absolutely into the length. To work out this four 2 bay span grids were created at each terminal of the constructions length. These excess beams besides supported the incline construction. The grid system allowed the construction to be made every bit simple as possible, leting a consecutive forward building.

The deep beam mentioned in subdivision 3.2 can do uneven flexing minutes in the columns. These uneven bending minutes would hold to be examined to look into that there is no hazard to the construction.

The construction of the issue incline

Another portion of the construction is the issue incline. The slab spans a little span to maintain the cost down and is supported along its parametric quantity by a beam. There is wasted span in the Centre of the issue incline. This infinite does non hold any stuffs but is otiose infinite relation to the whole construction. The incline could non be made any smaller otherwise the radius would be excessively little for the vehicles to turn and at that place would non be sufficient infinite for the filtering procedure to commence.


The Brickwork

The whole construction has a brick wall around the outer border. This provides protection for the users and it improves the aesthetics of the auto park. The brick work greatly improves the visual aspect of the construction by adding texture and coloring material. The forepart of the incline is a compelling construction and opposes the simpleness of the chief auto park.

The sketchy design allows the installation to suit into most environments without overpowering the surrounding architecture. The construction is positioned against the far western and southern edifice, therefore go forthing infinite between the northern and eastern pavings. By positioning the edifice up against the pavings it reduced the aesthetic quality of the edifice ; with the add-on infinite there is equal country for verdure. The extra infinite is a transitional country between the prosaic paving and the auto park.

Lighting and airing

The infinite between the brick wall and the above slab allows airing though the construction. This is of import to cut down the concentration of C dioxide inside the installation and finally cut downing the wellness hazard of the users. The infinite besides allows some natural visible radiation to come in the edifice. This reduces the running cost of the installation by cut downing the sum of man-made visible radiation. The issue incline has a big gap which allows natural visible radiation to come in, top outing at the center of the twenty-four hours.