Nowadays, the generation of domestic waste which is increasing from days to days has become a serious problem for our country, Malaysia. The rapid development of our country and rapid growth of population in our country have caused the problem of increasing domestic waste. It is due to the rapid development of industrial sector in our country, industrial sector has created more and more industrial waste and domestic waste during the industrial process. Due to this reason, our country has to face with the challenge of domestic waste problem in our country.
There was once a study that showed that the generation of domestic waste in our country has been increasing from days to days. Besides, it also showed that each Malaysian produced an average of 0. 8 kilogram of rubbish everyday in usual life. Nowadays, Malaysian produce 19 000 tonne of domestic waste everyday and the amount of domestic waste is predicted to be increased to 30 000 tonne on 2020. Let us imagine the situation if there was 10 000 tonne of rubbish has been produced everyday in our country and we did not carry out the management of domestic waste responsibly.
Doubtlessly , our country would be fulled with the rubbish if we do not carry out the management of domestic waste effectively and responsibly. Do you understand the definition of the domestic waste? Domestic waste is the waste which is produced through our usual life and it is also known as household waste. Next, domestic waste is the factory waste such as oil, toxic waste, factory waste and etc. Domestic waste can be categorized into 2 groups. First group is organic waste while the second group is inorganic waste.
The examples of organic waste are food waste, papers, textiles, rubber, wood and farm waste while glass , tin, aluminum , metal and plastic are the examples for inorganic waste. There are some domestic waste contain toxic substances and the toxic wastes will give negative impacts to humans and affect the environment. Before I explain about the steps to manage the domestic waste responsibly, I would like to explain the reasons of why we must carry out the management of domestic waste responsibly.
First and foremost, we have to carry out the management of domestic waste responsibly because lots of problem and negative effect will appear and thus ruin the environment and living things in the earth if the management of the domestic waste has been carried out irresponsibly. The increasing domestic waste production has caused landfill problem and environment pollution. As an example, there are some irresponsible people who throw domestic waste into water sources like rivers. The irresponsible and irrational way has caused the rivers become more shallow and the rivers flow will be affected.
During raining season, floods will occur more easily in the shallow rivers as the rivers cannot accommodate the big amount of rain water. Besides, the domestic wastes pollute the rivers and then threaten the aquatic life in the rivers such as fishes. Next, there are some people manage domestic wastes through the way of open burning. Open burning of domestic wastes pollutes the air, because it will release poisonous gases which are unhealthy for all the living things. Moreover, domestic wastes such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur may cause soil pollution if the wastes are left on the lands.
The domestic wastes will cause the soil to become infertility and the soil is no longer suitable for the growth of plants. The polluted soil is not suitable for agriculture uses because the toxic substances contained in the soil will harm the plants and other living things which live in that area. Next, the disposal of domestic waste can cause the formation of acid rains. When the sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the domestic wastes have been released into the air, these gases have reacted with water vapour in the atmosphere and thus form sulphuric acids and nitric acids. Acid rains is harmful and it kills plants and aquatic life.
This paragraph has clearly showed that the irresponsible disposal and management of domestic waste disrupt the nature balance of ecosystem and cause a lot of problem. To avoid all the problems and negative effects that have been mentioned above from occurring, authorities has set up a Strategic Plan for Solid Waste Management (Pelan Strategik Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Kebangsaan in Malay). Through the plan, more landfills have been built to manage the domestic waste. Besides, more transfer stations which are well equipped with the complete system have been built to save times and energy in colleting the domestic waste.
The authorities gives priority to the ways which can reduce the domestic waste in our country. The authorities carries out inspection regularly to ensure that the management of domestic waste is carried out responsibly and completely. Besides, the government also set up two separate entities, namely National Solid Waste Management Department (Jabatan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Negara in Malay), as the regulatory and policy making body and Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing (Perbadanan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembersihan Awam in Malay) as the executing agencies in managing the domestic waste and industrial solid waste in our country.
Lastly, the authorities will make sure that the companies and contractors of domestic waste management carry out the management of domestic waste responsibly. They will make sure that only the responsible companies and contractors can get licenses for domestic waste management. Moreover, recycling of recyclable domestic waste is one of the suitable ways to manage domestic waste. Examples of recyclable domestic waste are papers, tin, aluminum and etc. Recycling of domestic wastes actually has been practiced by other developed countries like Japan and Taiwan, but the idea of recycling still new at Malaysia and not many people know its benefits.
Recycling rate in developing countries like Malaysia is 5 percent , while the recycling rate in developed countries such as Japan has reached more than 40 percent. So that, we should take the good example from other countries and practice the habit of recycling in our daily life. Wastes like old newspaper can be reprocessed into papers and tissue papers, while used water bottles can be reprocessed to fill drinking water. Recycling of domestic waste not only can reduce the domestic waste produced, it can also reduce the effect of waste pollution to the environment.
By reducing the amount of waste produced, management cost of domestic waste will be cut down. Next, more landfills can be used for other purpose such as construction. The statements mentioned above have clearly showed that recycling is the responsible way for management of domestic waste, because it will not cause any negative effect to the environment. In addition, technologies of thermal treatment has been used in our country to manage domestic waste. Our country uses thermal treatment in managing domestic waste because it is based on the concept of recycling and able to solve the problems that are related to landfills problem.
Environment friendly plants have been used to dispose the domestic waste produced. The process will not release furan or dioxin. Besides, the process generates energy from the domestic waste and do not release any unpleasant smell during the process. Incinerators have been used in the process to manage the domestic waste effectively and responsibly. The combustion of waste by using incinerator involves the degeneration of waste through oxidation. The process can reduce the amount of domestic waste and the reduction in the amount of waste is 90 percent while the weight will be reduced to 75 percent.
The combustion process can be used to process many types of waste such as industrial waste and toxic waste. The waste will be modified into carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water and ash through the combustion process. Besides, the process is an oxidation process which uses the high temperature to change the organic waste and flammable waste into inorganic waste and nonflammable waste. The process gives the significant effect in reducing the capacity and the weight of domestic waste and it can be used to process the waste that can’t be recycled, reused or disposed in landfills.
This paragraph has showed the importances of incinerators in managing domestic waste responsibly and effectively. The following step to manage domestic waste is composting. Composting is a nature way in decomposing the organic waste such as food waste and farm waste. During the process, microorganisms react with organic substance in wastes. The process is known as composting and the final product is compost fertilizer, the compost fertilizer is used for the growth of plants. Besides, the process of composting can make use of food waste and farm waste instead of disposing them in landfills.
There was once a study showed that the domestic waste which is produced in developing countries is more suitable for composting if compared to other advanced countries. It is because the domestic waste of developing countries contains more organic substances. Although composting is an effective way in managing domestic waste, but not all the domestic waste can be processed through composting. Only the organic wastes such as food wastes and farm wastes can be processed into compost fertilizer. The above statements have explained that composting can manage the domestic waste responsibly and effectively.
Moreover, we do not need to provide a large sums of money in composting of domestic waste and it is easy to be carried out in our usual life. In addition, the step of domestic waste management is based on 3R concept . The 3R concept is reduce, reuse and recycle. Since I have explained the recycling of domestic waste in the fourth paragraph, so that I will continue my explanation about reduce and reuse. Reduce and reuse are actually the suitable ways in managing the domestic waste in our daily life. Reduce means reducing the production of domestic waste in our daily life.
For example, reducing the usage of plastic bags can reduce the production of domestic wastes. Next, reuse means reusing the wastes for other purposes. For example, water bottle can be reused as a pencil box. Since the 3R concept is able to manage domestic waste effectively, thus it should be practiced by all of us in our daily life. The good habit of recycle, reuse and reduce should be practiced by our young generation since they are still young, so that 3R concept can be carried out successfully in managing domestic waste and solve all the problems that are related to domestic waste.
In the nutshell, many problems and negative effects will appear if the domestic waste management is not carried out effectively and responsibly. We should know that the domestic waste problems are complicated problems and they are extremely important for our country. Let us imagine the situation if the authorities do not manage domestic waste responsibly, what would happen to our country which is clean and beautiful now? The cleanliness and image of our country would be affected for sure. Thus, authorities has to carry out all the effective ways in managing domestic waste responsibly before the serious problems arise.
However, all of us must realize that the task of managing domestic waste is not only the responsibility of government and authorities, the responsibility lies on the shoulder of all parties like government and non- government parties (NGO). All parties should cooperate with each other in managing the domestic waste responsibly and strike hard to solve any domestic waste problem. As a responsible citizen, what we should do is support our government’ s effort in managing of domestic waste to make sure our country is always clean and free from any domestic waste problems.