State rivalry and territorial expansion

Territorial enlargement was motivated by competition between provinces.

Discuss with mention to Block 6 and one other block.

Looking at home base 21.2 ( The Open University, 2007, p. 65 ) it could be said that Britain ruled a big bulk of the universe. To make up one’s mind whether this land was acquired as districts expanded caused by competition between provinces, will be analysed utilizing subjects of economic sciences, political orientations and political relations from blocks six and four. By utilizing these blocks, and comparative primary beginnings from the anthology, this essay will concentrate on Africa and cover the Atlantic slave trade and European powers within Africa during the late 19th century.

Although Britain has been mentioned as governing a big bulk of states in the late 19th century, they were non the lone imperial powers who were seeking to get new district and spread out their imperiums. France, Belgium, Germany every bit good as others were all trying to claim foreign lands, and each province holding their ain grounds for making so. This essay will look into the concluding behind territorial enlargement in respects to Belgium and Germany, as newer provinces, and the reasoning’s behind Britain’s enlargement.

To get down, nevertheless, a little debut into the events during the clip. Between 1881 and 1914, larger European powers claimed countries of Africa, in order to procure their economic systems. This was known as the ‘Scramble for Africa’ or the ‘partition of Africa.’ ( Loftus, et al. , 2011, p. 98 ) In 1884, Otto von Bismarck organised a conference in order to chiefly stomp out bondage throughout Africa, every bit good as the underlying aims to procure the economic system and generate new markets. The Berlin Conference, as it is known, began spliting up Africa so each state had no more than seemed sensible, with no respect for the African People. The Congo Free Sate, situated in cardinal Africa, became belongings of King Leopold II of Belgium, who convinced other European powers in attending at the conference that he could supply human-centered backup in respects to the backup of the African slave trade.

Economy can be seen as playing a major function in territorial competition with each state taking to get the most wealth. This wealth was made through trade of natural stuffs or goods, nevertheless non every state was of equal standing.

Germany did non hold an established industrial economic system, and it became indispensable for Germany to increase the industry in trade and industrialism and to cut down the demand for agribusiness in order for it to vie with older and more constituted states such as Britain, and ‘play a portion in modern economic life.’ ( Gibbons, 2007, p. 407 )

Britain on the other manus had an established economic system, merchandising natural stuffs and goods to many different states throughout the universe. This besides included the trading of people in respects to the Atlantic slave trade which will be covered subsequently in this essay.

Whilst many European states claimed countries of Africa, Britain thought economically as to which countries to claim. They required countries which could and would supply them with big sums of valuable natural stuff every bit good as locations which could be used as stop-over topographic points. These countries ran from north to south along the E seashore supplying a unafraid transition through Africa to Asia and India.

Belgium, like Germany, was a ‘new’ province merely being formed in 1830, nevertheless did non hold big economic powers. Belgium was granted the Congo Free State in cardinal Africa which provided political and economic peace between the equaling European powers, guaranting that no 1 imperium was able to claim more than was seemed sensible and protected the trade markets between states. King Leopold II of Belgium claimed this country personally, dividing the Congo Free State and Belgium, he did nevertheless bespeak fiscal aid from the Belgium authorities in order to back up the big area’s economic position ( Gibbons, 2007, p. 431 ) The economic system of the Congo Free State was of personal addition for Leopold II, and was supplying income for his ain private estates.

Economic competition was hence was responsible for the initial effusion of territorial enlargement through Africa, with each state trying to accomplish more land mass in order to get more valuable stuffs to merchandise. In respects to King Leopold II, it can be seen that personal addition from economic science was attached to territorial enlargement in states that did non needfully spread out. This is confirmed by historiographers Gallagher and Robinson, who believe that ‘there was no strategic confederation of political relations and business’ ( Loftus, 2011, p. 31 ) and that enlargement could be seen for strictly economic grounds.

Economic reasoning’s were accompanied by political motivations. Territorial enlargements were influenced by national events such as the Gallic and industrial revolutions which generated each state to suppress their resistances by utilizing their military powers to derive regard.

Germany believed that by spread outing its district it would be able to construct a state in a clip when populations were increasing and different categories divided states across European societies. This can besides be said for King Leopold II, nevertheless as mentioned, Belgium itself did non mean to get new districts against their challengers in order to construct their state, King Leopold II believed that by making so, it would bring forth a stronger Belgium state.

Britain did nevertheless hold a strong state and used territorial enlargements to reaffirm the strength of its state. State instruction was at this clip in topographic point guaranting that kids were taught of the power of their state with colonization supplying the grounds. The settlements along the east seashore of Africa besides provided power over the waterways through the Mediterranean and Africa to Asia, guaranting that travel and trade was controlled by the British Empire.

Expansions by the European powers can besides be seen in ideological footings. Each state believed that with position came illustriousness and that by commanding big imperiums would convey high quality over challengers. This high quality could be seen in race and coloring material, faith and civilization. Europeans believed it was their duty to distribute their faith throughout other states, including Africa and missionaries frequently believed that by edifying and ‘civilizing’ these people they were making the work of God. This can be said of some settlements, nevertheless many people were utilizing these ‘civilizing’ techniques in order to destruct communities and civilizations to enforce their ain and take control. It can hence be seen that non all territorial enlargement throughout the late 19th century was due to colonial competition, but from spiritual competition. This was besides the instance in respects to the Atlantic Slave Trade.

During the Atlantic Slave Trade many people believed that the African slaves were inferior to the white people which owned and used them. Edward Long, a justice in Jamaica, confirms this belief as he described them as being ‘void of mastermind, and seem incapable of doing any advancement in civility or science.’ ( Gibbons, 2007, p. 265 ) Religion besides played its portion in the beliefs of high quality, as it was believed that the bible acknowledged the darker skinned people to be ‘divinely ordained for ageless servitude’ ( Waites & A ; Goodrich, 2011, p. 36 )

Whilst looking at how territorial enlargement can be the consequence of competition between provinces in relation to the Atlantic slave trade, the economic and political facets must once more be looked at. Britain got involved in the Atlantic slave trade for three chief grounds, money, land and power and followed in the footfalls of Portugal and Spain who had already started merchandising this manner. Britain nevertheless took this to a new degree and proverb this as an economic chance. The land they acquired in the Caribbean and the Americas rapidly turned into plantations bring forthing sugar, baccy and rice for financing the investors and proprietors life styles. The chief intent of these trade goods was to do a net income, nevertheless it can be argued that this was non the lone ground behind the abroad enlargement.

Whilst looking back over the slave trade there is grounds that enlargements besides stemmed from military and political powers. In the first blink of an eye the Atlantic slave trade was dominated by the Portuguese in the late 16Thursdaycentury who, shortly after, were replaced by the Dutch. The competition between these two states was shortly adopted by the British and the Gallic in the seventeenth century. The struggle between Britain and France continues non merely in the Atlantic, in respects to the slave trade, but continued across the universe. Britain dominated the slave trade by the mid-18Thursdaycentury nevertheless France had many ports which were endangering to force Britain aside such as St. Domingue, which became Haiti. This competition ended, temporarily, with the Gallic revolution, the slave revolution in Haiti and the prostration of the Gallic power in the Caribbean itself.

The Slave trade as a whole, caused ill will between many different European states throughout the 17Thursdayand 18Thursdaycenturies with many states at war with each other and trying to claim territorial control over slave trading site, transatlantic paths and the slave settlements. This can be linked to economic reasoning’s due to the fact that bondage generated a big part of stuff premium and besides to the ideological motivations that suggest that there was a widespread belief in colonization and imperiums.

Territorial enlargement can non merely be seen when Europeans invaded or colonised abroad states. African provinces frequently captured and occupied neighboring provinces in order to obtain people who they would merchandise as slaves in order to gain economically or politically, whether to other African states or to sing Europeans. ( The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013 ) Again, this can be seen as grounds into single funding, as each leader is looking to increase his ain fiscal state of affairs and with it his power.

To reason, it can been seen that across different centuries territorial enlargement has been justified by the same causes, competition, economic sciences, political orientations and political relations, which are inseparable as each has a connexion to the others. Without the economic grounds, there would be no trade throughout the universe, no state would be able to gain from its industries and the industrial revolution would hold come to a arrest. Without necessitating heater climes for plantations or procuring trade paths through Africa, many points that are common today would non be here for illustration silks and cottons.

Tied to this cause are the political motivations of enlargement. To enable trade with foreign abroad states, each state needed Alliess. The necessity of the natural stuffs or bring forth became of the topmost importance alongside the political security from other states and provinces. Political grounds besides involved society as a whole, carrying the populace to back up and to hold to the colonial involvements of the state. This was achieved by supplying instruction systems, financed by the net incomes, which taught the populace a universal cultured instruction of which the state suggested.

As you can see, without the net incomes from trade, each state or province would non hold been able to learn their societies about the best involvements of their political beliefs about colonial enlargement beef uping the connexion between economic sciences, political orientations and political relations.

Rivalry is connected to each cause, through economic sciences as new land needed to be conquered from the shacking state, and each state wanted to outsource their competition, politically, each state had diverse thoughts on power and how to govern, which leads to each nation’s societies being educated to hold different beliefs refering the benefits of colonial enlargement.

Therefore it can be said that competition can non be held responsible for all territorial enlargement as the competition originates from many different grounds and in some instances going a more dominant factor.


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