Undertakings emerge as a response to the demands of the environment or chances of development. They are characterised by holding a definite agenda to present specified nonsubjective hence involve committedness of resources ( smith 2002 ) . Undertaking direction is hence the act of organizing and directing these resources to accomplish undertaking aims of clip, cost and quality. Multiproject direction on the other manus is a direction procedure of which sought to accommodate, refine and terminal enhance undertaking constructs and techniques to aline with the complexness of multiple bringings, multiple stakeholders, interproject coordination and shared resources ( Pellegrinelli et al 2007 ) .
Stadiums are developed with an aim of increasing match-day gross, remodelling the design features in order to accomplish Iconic position and/or work outing restraints of bing installation ( Aritua et al, 2008, the Political Economy of Football, 2007 ) . Apparently, English premier conference nines have geared towards optimizing the tendency by either building a new iconic bowl or developing their old site ( Aritua et al, 2008 ) . Iconic bowls are structurally and aesthetically complex and today ‘s progressively complex edifice and substructure undertakings demand efficient planning, administration and clip direction accomplishments in add-on to superior proficient know-how ( Burohappold functionary Website ) . As any direction attacks, undertaking direction in presenting iconic bowl has challenges which need to be addressed for effectual bringing of such mega constructions.
The aims of this study were to place project direction challenges and attacks for the bringing of an icon bowl as a individual undertaking ( Emirates Stadium ) and developing guidelines for bringing of a undertaking in a complex multi undertaking set up ( Olympic Stadium Case Study ) A elaborate EIA was carried out and blessings giving by the local authorization before the beginning of the undertaking.
Stadiums are developed with an aim of increasing match-day gross, remodelling the design features in order to accomplish Iconic position and/or work outing restraints of bing installation ( Aritua et al, 2008, the Political Economy of Football, 2007 ) . Apparently, English premier conference nines have geared towards optimizing the tendency by either building a new iconic bowl or developing their old site ( Aritua et al, 2008 ) . Iconic football bowls are structurally and aesthetically complex and today ‘s progressively complex edifice and substructure undertakings demand efficient planning, administration and clip direction accomplishments in add-on to superior proficient know-how ( Burohappold functionary Website ) .
The Emirates Stadium ( 1 ) is an iconic football bowl located in Holloway in the London Borough of Islington and is the current place of Arsenal Football Club. Proposals for the new Ashburton Grove sphere were ab initio announced in 1999 to increase the capacity because Highbury Stadium capacity had eroded from 73,000 in 1935 to about 38000 ( a capacity excessively little for a nine to be competitory at the highest degree ) . In 2004 Sir Robert McAlpine signed a design and construct contract to construct a 60,000 all-seater bowl. ( 4Projects web site ) .
The undertaking besides involved regeneration strategy which included lodging, a new waste recycling works, community wellness attention installations, and nursery, museum and public conveyance betterments. The strategy was estimated to make about 1,800 occupations, over 2,000 new places, and lever about ?400 million into the country, aside from the ?390 allocated for the bowl ( Arsenal, 2004 ) .
1.0 Project Management Challenges identified by the Groups
Designation of challenges for the building of the Emirates Stadium was done by five groups. The saloon chart in 2 below high spots the undertaking direction challenges identified by the groups as respects to the Emirates bowl undertaking and their frequence in groups ‘ presentations.
Assuming that challenges which had a frequence of 3 ( greater than 50 % ) in 2 are cardinal project direction challenges associated with the undertaking, so the key challenges identified by groups were ; Stakeholder Management, Design and Quality, Time, Project Cost, Site Location and Communication and Document Control.
The attacks proposed by the groups to pull off these challenges are summarised in table 1.
Table 1 Key Project Challenges and Group Approaches to pull offing them
Group Management Approach
· Stake holder engagement in be aftering procedure
· Elaborative communicating of undertaking purposes and benefits to the stakeholders
· Collaborative planning
· Document referring of old undertakings
· Choosing Contractors based on past experience
· Design detailing to Client ‘s demand
Control of Project Cost
· Collaborative planning
· Ensure sound communicating between interior decorators and contractor to guarantee each party carries out their occupation suitably
· Ensure regular site meetings every bit good as stakeholders ‘ meeting
· Using ‘Design and Build ‘ Contract scheme or Contract Management
· Ensure the design squad and contractor work together from the start of the undertaking
Communication and Document Control
· Collaborative planning
· Efficient flow of information to vouch the control of design since it is design and construct
· Eliptical form design of the bowl to maximize the triangular form of the site
· Extensive site probe and integrating hazards in the estimations
Established Best Practice to Manage Key Project Management Challenges
Established best pattern discusses patterns ruling in diaries and books as of import in pattern. Harmonizing to these resources project direction challenges are normally important during the formative phases of the undertaking lifecycle ( during undertaking designation and definition ) ( Aritua et al 2008 ) . The challenges include, client direction, choice of procurement path and design direction and stakeholder direction.
Client direction provides a platform relationship between the client and the undertaking squad ( Aritua etal 2008 ) . The president and board of managers who strategically run football nines ‘ personal businesss are the 1s who are defined as ad hoc client in bowl development. The premise is that they are skilled and competitory in running of the football nine as a athletics and concern with small cognition on bringing of building undertakings ( Aritua etal 2008, Bower 2003 ) . A direction solution would likely be developing expected relationships that would guarantee seasonably pass oning client ‘s demands and outlooks.
The choice of procurement path depends on a assortment of factors associating to the undertaking ‘s precedences and the client ‘s features ( Turner, 1997 and Masterman, 2002 ) . Procurement path has an impact on undertaking cost, undertaking clip and the design of the bowl. It has been discovered that design-and-build scheme has been prioritised in bowl building which has been attributed to the risk-averse nature of nine proprietors whose aim is to reassign all hazards to the contractor who deliver concluding merchandise for a predetermined monetary value hence cost driven instead than quality ( Aritua etal 2008 ) . However it is recommended that choice of procurance and design direction should enable the interior decorators to introduce iconic designs.
Stakeholders are persons or groups of people with clear involvement on a undertaking. They are classified as primary if straight involved in be aftering and/or executing of the undertaking or secondary if they are non straight involved in the undertaking ( aritua etal 2008, smith 2007 ) . Stakeholders are besides categorised as positive if they are back uping the purposes and aims of the undertaking ( clients, undertaking director, stuff and equipment provider etc. ) or negative if they are deemed non to wish the undertaking to continue ( in this instance local abode and concern proprietors who were relocated ) . For iconic undertakings stakeholder direction is critical and involves accommodating outlooks of all the stakeholders to avoid break which might compromise clip, cost or quality ( Aritua etal 2008 ) . This could be achieved by collaborative planning and elaborative communicating of undertaking aims.
A important direction challenge in undertaking executing phase is project Monitoring and Control which involves advancement tracking on a undertaking and taking action where required ( Smith 2007 ) . Undertakings which are non monitored exert a hazard of drawn-out clip or over budget outgo. Tools such as earned value techniques are used to scrutinize work advancement and this is achieved by necessary and sufficient papers control and regular undertaking squad meetings.
Critical rating of Groups ‘ definition and direction of undertaking challenges
In measuring the groups ‘ definition of undertaking direction challenges and the suggested direction attack to outdo pattern, it was noted that the groups ‘ treatment on undertaking direction attack did non specify the phase in a undertaking life rhythm when the challenge is encountered. Some challenges which were noted like site location are much aligned to proficient item and are indirectly related to direction.
However, the groups identified major direction challenges that could hold locked the undertaking and collaborative planning was identified as a cardinal direction attack.
Overview of the undertaking and its context
Olympic gamess games are a universe renowned athleticss competition which is held one time in every four old ages. Athletes from all over the universe semen to one metropolis to vie against each other in assortment of athleticss to gain a dream of going universe title-holders. Modern Olympic Games started in 1896 with the first edition staged in Athens, Greece. The popularity of the games has increasingly increased with merely 14 states viing in Athens 1896 to 204 states in the Beijing Olympic games 2008 ( Rosenberg 2008 ) . States have been offering towards hosting this major event because of the economic benefits associated to it such as immense inflow of tourers, building occupations for constructing the substructure, productiveness additions delivered by new conveyance substructure ( to suit tourer inflow ) and urban regeneration and besides the honor of hosting the biggest and esteemed mega event. London won the command of hosting the following edition in 2012.
Sing that this is a immense event affecting a batch of states, a batch of readyings and planning goes into it far in front of beginning. London readyings are underway. This involves building of the large five locales ( Olympic bowl, Aquatic Centre, International Broadcasting Centre, Velo park and Olympic Village ) and transport substructure development to suit the roar of tourer, jocks and functionaries who will patronize the even.
The London Olympic Stadium ( 3 ) which would be the centre piece of the Olympics is located at Marshgate Lane in Stratford in the Lower Lea Valley. It has been designed to hold a capacity of 80,000 of which 55,000 would be demountable seats that would be take away after the games. The 25,000 lasting seats would be transformed into an athletic bowl to host a assortment of featuring, educational and cultural community events. It is besides expected to pull other concern and investing and act as a hub for the communities populating in and around the Olympic.
Construction of the bowl started in may 2008 ( three months in front of agenda ) and completion is targeted by the summer of 2011.
Olympic bowl as portion of a programme
The bringing of the Olympic bowl will hold all the features ( Cost, clip and quality ) of the undertaking. However, it is non expected to present the aim of Olympic bringing in entirety, hence it is a undertaking within a programme direction apparatus. Programme direction is an collection of direction of undertakings rated to some common aim which would non hold achieved if the undertakings were managed independently ( pellegrinelli etal 2006 ) .
As it is in a individual undertaking, there are besides four stages expected in a life rhythm of a programme which are ; designation, definition, executing and closing. Designation is the unveiling of ‘‘the overall objective” for the programme and places in this instance the bringing of Olympic games. At this phase boundary conditions are given to the programme explicating undertaking units what will be delivered ( Haughey, 2001 ) . This is achieved through Programme brief, which should include the programme vision, outline benefits, hazards and issues, every bit good as estimations of costs time-scales and attempt ( lycett etal, 2003 ) . The London Olympic command was done to speed up the much needed regeneration to reaffirm London position as a universe metropolis, to speed up regeneration in East London and to showcase London ‘s and the United land diverseness and featuring art on the universe phase ( London Assembly 2003 ) . This vision was developed into estimations of cost and clip graduated table every bit good as bequest. Definition stage includes the betterment of the programme vision and aims, creative activity of the programme administration and puting up procedures and support constructions required to ease the direction of the programme ( Haughey, 2001 ) . It is at this phase when the Olympic Delivery Authority ( ODA ) was formulated to be responsible for developing and constructing the new locales and substructure for the games ( London-2012 Website ) . During this phase, the inter-dependencies of the undertakings ( in this instance, building undertakings at Olympic Park which includes the bowl and conveyance substructure development ) within the programme were clarified and used as the footing for the high-ranking programme program, which provides an indicant of the sequencing of undertakings ( lycett etal, 2003 ) . At Programme Execution phase the single undertaking directors are expected to run the identified undertakings in a cross functional mode, while the Programme Manager would supervise advancement, buttocks hazards and study on advancement ( Haughey, 2001 ) . Closing phase is a reappraisal phase to guarantee that the programme delivers the planned aims and expected bequest ( OGC 1999 ) . 4 shows a typical life rhythm of a programme.
Conflict between undertakings, is a natural characteristic of a multi-project environment and manifests itself in footings of competition to accomplish high prioritisation evaluations and/or strong competition for specific resources ( Lycett 2002 ) . Recent research suggests that competition between undertakings is non in the best involvements of the programme as a whole. The competition creates a degree of anxiousness that interferes with public presentation ( Eskerod 1996 ) . In an environment of intense competition, undertakings operate so independently and disregard advancement in other ( Moss-Kanter, 1989 ) . Research has shown that undertakings fail because of deficiency of effectual communicating because of deficiency of common involvements and apprehension. Generally, effectual communicating is about interchanging of import information between groups of people with the purpose of act uponing beliefs or actions. Shehu and Akintonye ( 2008 ) stated that communicating is cardinal to any alteration procedure. The greater the alteration, the greater the demand for clear communicating about the grounds and principle behind it, the benefits expected, the programs implemented and its proposed effects. Programme direction is no different ; it is aimed at interchanging seasonably and utile information with the stakeholders or squad. Lack of cross-functional communicating is a major challenge to programme direction ( Bartlett 2002, CCTA 1995, Williams 2006 ) . The undertaking needs a high grade of engagement in coordination to better undertaking monitoring, control and overall public presentation ( Smith 2002 ) .Document control could be fostered to guarantee shared larning between the undertakings and creative activity of supportive unfastened civilization that creates an ambiance for this to go on. The Olympic Delivery Authority is promoting collaborative and intergrated working with its contractors. The authorization has established communicating channels with the chief contractors to ease collaborative working, but has yet to find how best to prosecute with wider supply ironss that will shortly be runing across the building site ( National Audit Office 2008b ) . The Olympic bowl undertaking is expected to use this chance to pull off struggle with other undertakings for the benefit of the programme as a whole.
The complexness of programme control can besides lift if programme direction strive to exert unneeded grade of control driven by inordinate degrees of detailing. Excessive control can cut down flexibleness of the undertaking director and hemorrhoids describing mechanism on the programme director ( Platje etal 1993, Reiss 1996, Gray et al 1999 ) . If a programme director is acquiring inordinate inside informations he/she is exposed to a hazard of failure to understand existent issues that are important to the programme ( Leven and braganza 1996 ) and accordingly a impairment of relationship between the undertaking and programme director would emerge promoting the civilization of blasted game ( Lycett 2002 ) . Olympic bowl undertaking is expected to develop its ain hazard appraisal scheme, albeit, all hazards across the undertakings could be interrelated. The Olympic Delivery Authority is expected to be furnished with information that will enable wider attack of hazard direction and cut down inordinate control on the undertaking. Another issue that is besides frequently raised in a multi undertaking apparatus relates to what programme directors want in order to be satisfied with the iconicity of the bowls and the agencies by which those edifices have been procured. Consequently, it is of import to measure the programme directors ‘ standards, their importance and so seek public presentation to fit the standards.
Undertakings in a programme demand to aline themselves to the altering concern environment ( pellegrini1997 ) . Environmental influence exerts a important impact in the undertaking. The factors include political, economical, sociological, technological, legal and environmental factors. The cumulative effect of the alterations they cause on each undertaking can hold a multiplier consequence on the influences which would other wise easy be managed for a individual undertaking. The Olympic bowl is expected to hold in internal extenuation step for environmental factors. Eventuality allowances in estimations are usually used to cover for environmental effects. However, for the intent of good direction pattern, effectual usage of eventuality will necessitate a balance between seeking to understate the usage of eventuality ( National Audit Office 2008b ) .
The study has discussed that undertaking direction for bringing of an Iconic Stadium has challenges which are emergent within the first two phases ( Identification and definition ) of the undertaking life rhythm. The cardinal issues are client direction, pull offing stakeholder outlook and pick of a procurement path. These challenges are exacerbated when the iconic bowl is being managed in multi undertaking set up because of complex cross functional relationships that exist between the undertakings and the environment.
These challenges nevertheless are best managed by collaborative squad work and effectual papers control which enhances shared experiences and understand between major participants in the undertaking
The political economic system of football ( 2007 ) , new bowls boost club gross, available on hypertext transfer protocol: //www.footballeconomy.com/archive/archive_2007_aug_03.htm ( accessed on 9th December, 2009 )
burohappold official Website, Project Management, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.burohappold.com/BH/SRV_INF_SC_projectmanagement.aspx, ( accessed on 9th December, 2009 )
4Projects Official web site, The Emirates Stadium, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.4projects.com/Page.aspx? CAT=328
Aritua B. , Bower D. , and Turner M. 2008. Pull offing the bringing of iconic football bowls in England. Management, Procurement and Law. MP0. pp.1-6.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.london2012.com/press/media-releases/2009/12/olympic-stadium-raises-the-roof.php
Turner A, 1997, Building Procurement, 2nd edition, Macmillan, London
Masterman J.W.E. An debut to Building Procurement Systems, 2nd Edition, Spon, London
Bower, D, 2003, Management of Procurement, Thomas Telford, London
Pellegrinelli S, etal ( 2007 ) , The importance of context in programme direction: An empirical reappraisal of programme patterns, International Journal of Project Management 25, 41-55.
Rosenberg M 2008 Countries Participating in the 2008 Summer Olympics hypertext transfer protocol: //geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/2008olympics.htm
Platje A, Seidel H. Breakthrough in multiproject direction: how to get away the barbarous circle of planning and control. Int J Project Manage 1993 ; 11 ( 4 ) :209-13.
Pellegrini S. Programme Management: organizing undertaking based alteration. Int J Project Manage 1997 ; 15 ( 3 ) :141-9.
OGC. Pull offing successful programmes. Office of Government Commerce ; 1999.
Haughey D. A position on programme direction. Project Smart Website ; 2001.
Gray RJ, Bamford PJ. Issues in programme integrating. Int J Project Manage 1999 ; 17 ( 6 ) :361-6.
Reiss G. Programme direction demystified: managing multiple undertakings successfully. London: E & A ; FN Spon ; 1996.
Levene RJ, Braganza A. Controling the work-scope in organizational transmutation: a programme direction attack. Int J Project Manage 1996 ; 14 ( 6 ) :331-9.
Eskerod P. Meaning and action in multi-project environment: understanding a multi-project environment by agencies of metaphors and basic premises. Int J Project Manage 1996 ; 14 ( 2 ) :61-5
Moss-Kanter R. When giants learn to dance. London: Unwin Paperbacks ; 1989.
Lycett M, Rassau A, Danson J. Programme Managemnet: a Critical Review, International Journal Of Project Management 2001, 22 ( 4 ) : 289-99.
Payne J. Management of Multiple coincident undertakings: a province of the art reappraisal, International Journal Of Project Management 1995, 13 ( 3 ) : 163-168
Shehu Z and Akintoye A Major challenges to the successful execution and pattern of programme direction in the building environment: A critical analysis International Journal of Project Management 28 ( 1 ) ( 2010 ) 26-39
CCTA. Management of programme hazard. HSMO ; 1995.
Williams D, Parr T. Enterprise programme direction: delivering value. Pelgrave MacMillan ; 2006
Bartlett J. Pull offing programmes of concern alteration. 1st erectile dysfunction. ProjectManager Today ; 2