Roles of a financial manager

Introduction Of The History Of The Function And Qualifications Of A Financial Manager

First we need to understand the term ‘financial director ‘ , Brealey, Myers and Allen ( 2008, p.6 ) referred this term to anyone in an organisation who is specialized in finance and responsible for the company ‘s investing or funding determination, big corporation may call it as ‘controller ‘ , international pudding stones even appoint a Corporate Financial Officer [ CFO ] to be responsible for corporate planning.

History Of The Financial Manager ‘s Function

Ever since 1900s and even after the Great Depression in 1930s, the primary function of a finance people was merely a descriptive subject on bookkeeping which means accurately entering all minutess related to the payment of providers, charge of clients, and managing of hard currency passing through the histories section and publishing periodic fiscal statements. Until late sixtiess increased competition in industries forced fiscal directors to switch their focal point towards measuring investing chances and doing determinations on the pick of assets and liabilities necessary to maximise the company ‘s value. The 1970s and 80s was a period of increased international competition, CEOs became concerned with operational efficiency to get by with the fast turning market, this included the accounting maps which was streamlined and required to make out to going a net income centre for the whole organisation ( Besley & A ; Brigham, 2005, p.6 ) . This transitional displacement was gradual and finance director ‘s functions are no longer lodge entirely to the accounting maps, therefore a new operational tendency brought in a new strain of to a great extent educated accountants profession with MIS preparation and computing machine systems operational capablenesss to convey forth efficiency and truth in direction studies and analysis versus the old accounting systems. Olley ( 2006 ) quoted a survey by the Institute of Management Accountants ( IMA ) [ The Practice Analysis of Management Accounting ( 1996 ) ] which mentioned that since the mid 1980 ‘s, direction comptrollers have transitioned from the traditional function of being a ‘number cruncher ‘ to an internal direction adviser and decision-support specializer. Over the century, finance director has risen to a extremely educated, professional and utile places in the full corporate construction.

Qualification Requirements Of A Financial Manager [ FM ]

In normal pattern, a finance director has to hold ACCA/ HKICPA or degree in accounting or fiscal be aftering academic path record or even a hired accountant making, who may possess a lower limit of 10 old ages experience in accounting and fiscal planning. The traditional calling way towards a Financial Manager was through the accounting clerical ranks, so travel onto being an helper comptroller and comptroller. Other recruiters would prefer one who has been an hearer as this experience allows the person a broad exposure to scrutinizing and larning from different industries, cognition of fiscal state of affairss and how to avoid human or systems mistakes, so that the individual is more flush on how to pull off a smooth dealing flow.

Expectations From Corporations, Job Description And Key Attributes Of FM

Expectations From Corporations

The maps, degrees and Scopess of duties of fiscal directors can be really different depending on the size of organisations. For big corporations, the generic function is extremely focused on strategic analysis while for smaller organisations, the function could merely be more concerned on the aggregation and readying of histories and legers.

Michael Page International, one of the universe ‘s executive enlisting agent, posted a front page headline advertizement in Classified Post of South China Morning Post on 14 November 2009 in the demand of a Chief Financial Manager. The advertizement stated the officeholder will be an built-in portion of the senior direction squad, study to the Managing Director [ MD ] with the ultimate duty for the control of the planetary finance operation of a new venture. The individual will necessitate to pull off the hard currency state of affairs of each subdivision of the concern and exercising the fiscal scheme across multiple locations and will necessitate to construct the necessary coverage, hazard and control models. The individual besides needs to fix analysis and fiscal theoretical accounts and guarantee conformity to corporate policy and national accounting patterns. In add-on to proficient finance advice, the officeholder should possess strong commercial acumen and will work closely with the MD on strategic growing and development programs for the concern, moreover, to intercede with stockholders, cardinal investors and construct relevant banking relationships. The client expected person with experience working within an entrepreneurial environment and expose the ability to be portion of a dynamic squad.

Allicolven, another executive hunt adviser, listed the standards on its advertizement in JobsDB ( 13 November 2009 ) that the applier has to supply value-added penetration into chances and hazards, responsible for finishing the statutory amalgamate fiscal audit for the organisation, every bit good as guaranting the faultless application of planetary accounting policy issues for the company and its subordinates, the development and care of planetary controls environing exchequer and hard currency direction. The client required from the incumbent first-class leading, proven apprehension of regulative capital issues and align with regulators, first-class communicating and bid of English and Chinese. These advertizements include all the standards this paper aims to discourse on and one can easy see the disputing functions of a finance director presents which exceeds the normal accounting maps already.

Job Description Of FM

Typical work activities, stated in the Job Description of a Financial Manager in JobsDB ( 9 Nov 2009 ) , Prospects ( 16 Dec 2009 ) , and Careerplanner ( 16 Dec 2009 ) are summarized below, with each demand saying clearly a criterion that has to be met and how the consequences of the good work would impact the organisation:

Manage and supervise the day-to-day accounting maps to guarantee relevant accounting activities are handled in conformity with the regulative demands and group accounting policies and keep the highest criterion ;

Coordinate and put to death all fiscal related activities in the group ‘s concerns to guarantee the proper fiscal direction and minimise the fiscal hazards ;

Help the top direction to explicate strategic and long-run concern programs ;

Monitor and oversee the month-end shutting to guarantee all direction studies are tendered on clip and with truth ;

Prepare and reexamine monthly fiscal charts for all offices, debrief the fiscal informations and consequences into concern deduction to relevant divisional caputs ;

Compile assorted periodic analytical studies and keep treatment meetings with section caputs seasonably to alarm them of the updated concern public presentation ;

Liaise with external hearers to guarantee one-year auditing is performed swimmingly ; take part in the group internal audits to guarantee proper control processs are in topographic point ;

Monitor hard currency flows, oversee the entire support, predict hereafter tendencies of hard currency and fund direction to optimise the benefits of the company ‘s fund use ;

Establish the one-year budget plan and fiscal theoretical accounts to prolong a smooth and comprehensive procedure ;

Handle revenue enhancement and legal affairs ;

Review and implement efficient and effectual internal control system, do recom- mendations on bing work processs to better efficiency. Put up accounting package to guarantee it meets the corporate accounting demand ;

Oversee the accounting staff locally and guarantee the histories section is good managed, intercede with abroad accounting caputs to do certain appropriate counsel and waies are given. Help in appropriate enlisting and supply coaching and preparation plans to staff members and behavior public presentation reappraisal for them ;

Work independently, when applicable, take the enterprise to supply input on procedure betterments as it relates to rapprochements ;

Develop web and relationships with community and external contacts, such as clients, hearers, canvassers, bankers, agents, creditors, insurance companies and statutory organisations. Supply aid and solutions to them whenever necessary ;

Analyze and maintain updated of alterations in statute law, fiscal ordinances, rivals move and market tendencies, research and study on factors act uponing the organisation ‘s concern public presentation and rede the direction consequently.

The Key Attributes And Competencies Required For FM

It is about a requirement for a professional finance director to be analytical, rational, cautious and punctilious yet possessing a macro position of the whole accounting image, ethical, hazard sensitive and speculative to observe fraud in any countries in the organisation. General personal properties such as being hardworking, independent with inaugural, responsible and accountable, good organized, efficient, seasonably, cost-efficient, self motivation, willing to work under force per unit area are expected. In add-on, direction accomplishments to heighten productiveness of the accounting squad, interpersonal accomplishments in proactively pass oning the fiscal facts and findings to the direction, organizing with other section forces and determination shapers, and being a squad participant would be most appropriate and eligible to be a finance squad leader.

Typical Accounting Roles Of Financial Managers And The Critical Aspects

Gitman ( 1992, p.8 ) defined that fiscal direction is in the sphere of concern direction, dedecated to a careful choice of beginnings and prudent usage of capital, with the purpose in enabling a disbursement unit to travel towards the way of making its ends. The responsibilities and duties of fiscal directors vary with their specific maps and place rubrics in different organisations, this includes being a accountant, financial officer, recognition director, hard currency director, internal hearer, revenue enhancement director, hazard and insurance director. Each of these maps has their critical facets and premier aims.

Function As A Controller

Accountants direct and compile the readying of fiscal analysis studies reasoning and calculating the organisation ‘s fiscal position. These analyses include income statements, balance sheets, continual reappraisal of gross and disbursal tendencies and analysis of future net incomes. Accountants provide periodic digest of concern rhythm calculating statistics and periodic computation of a standard set of ratios for corporate fiscal public presentation and regulative governments. Accountants make funding determinations typically including should the company raise financess by borrowing short term or long term debt or by selling stock and equity, clocking to pay dividends and clocking to sell the debt and equity. The long scope program should include a listing of capital investings required and cipher the economic benefits to achieve the gross and net income aims. Brigham & A ; Ehrhardt ( 2002, p.502 ) mentioned clearly that effectual capital budgeting and support allotment including hard currency direction, budgeting, sourcing and demand can better both the timing and quality of plus acquisitions, all of these determinations affect the investing profile of the company hence impact the stockholders ‘ value. It is common that accountants oversee the accounting, audit and budgeting, logistics sections and are responsible to pass on any fiscal discrepancies and inauspicious tendency consequences to direction, along with recommendations for betterment.

With respects to budgeting, Mason ( 2007, pp.121-123 ) briefed that a accountant should find assorted budgets on gross revenues and gross, gross outgo, net income and loss, capital outgo and hard currency budgeting. The premier intent of budgetary control is to keep disbursals to be spent within the bounds of income. As the budget is set, a accountant must command costs and direction operating expenses and allocate the costs consequently. Figure 1.0 illustrated basic elements of direction operating expenses, naming clearly existent disbursals versus the budget assigned.

Function As A Treasurer

Treasurers are responsible to supervise the organisation hard currency, execute capital-raising schemes to back up enlargement of the company. Basically, as Brealey et Al. ( 2008, p.6 ) mentioned, financial officers look after the investing of financess and manage associated hazards, oversee hard currency direction and trade with meeting and acquisition activities. To guarantee undertakings to be decently processed, they need to keep relationships with bankers, shareholder and other investors keeping the company ‘s securities. An illustration of Allied Air Products, given by Besley & A ; Brigham ( 2005, pp.690-691 ) which issued different categories of securities because the finance squad was cognizant that different investors had different hazard and return trade off penchants, so to appeal to the broadest possible market, Allied offered securities to pull as many different types of investors as possible. Besides, different securities are more popular at different points in clip, the company can publish whatever is popular at the clip they need money. A wise scheme that takes advantage of market conditions can take down a company ‘s overall cost of capital.

Function As A Credit Manager

Recognition directors have to orient do recognition understandings that concerns the liability bounds, evaluate the recognition appliers, guarantee that the company maintains a fixed sum of working capital to cover the company ‘s operating hard currency demands. Chiefly, they monitor the company ‘s issue of recognition, develop recognition evaluation standards and find the ceilings, set up an accounting system for the interest of banking minutess ( Van Horne, 2002, pp.449-459 ) . Furthermore, they are responsible to reexamine the aggregation studies, position of outstanding balances, so arrange to roll up debts of past-due histories or subject the delinquent histories to canvassers or outsourced bureaus for aggregation. This function ensures the company to hold valid financess for the operation and set up new beginnings of finance for a company ‘s debt installations.

Function As A Cash Manager

Cash directors monitor and control the flow of hard currency, control cheque stock, signature home bases, separate the duty for the hard currency grosss and bank rapprochement maps, procedure all histories collectible and receivables, and hard currency application minutess in conformity with stiffly defined processs. Petty hard currency mandate and use is to be supervised, entering incoming hard currency payments and verify sum of hard currency price reductions taken. All above steps have to be scrutinized to guarantee proper hard currency in-flow record and use to run into the concern and investing demands of the company and avoiding the hazard of perpetrating fraud if the operations are non monitored good. Least to advert, hard currency flow projections are required so that the direction needs to find if external loans are needed to run into the hard currency demands or if excess hard currency can be invested in other interest-bearing instruments.

Cost accounting and Inventory accounting is another major function of Cash Managers, they need to carry on occupation or procedure costing and verify the stock list rating, because stock lists form a nexus between production and sale of merchandises. Van Horne ( 2002, p.463-465 ) explained that hard currency directors measure the benefits of stock list versus the cost, like history receivables, stock lists fudging should be increased every bit long as the ensuing nest eggs exceed the entire cost of keeping the added stock list. Other than paper work, hard currency directors have to organize periodic physical stock list counts, audits and allotment methods, and supply periodic digest and rating of the stock list costs.

Function As An Internal Auditor And Coordinator With External Hearers

The programming and direction of periodic audits within the company lies upon the shoulder of the Internal Auditor. The readying of audit studies and pass oning the findings and recommendations to the direction and board of managers is indispensable. Without stating, they are responsible to help the one-year external auditing. Auditing for fraud particularly for little scale transactional fraud is hard, so by detecting the environment, the pull offing individual ‘s answerabilities and employee life styles may assist in observing unobtrusive deceitful act. American and European based corporations have their ain internal hearers who perform ad hoc scrutinizing within the corporation worldwide at least one time or twice a twelvemonth.

Function As A Tax Director

The coverage demands of all governmental governments have increased significantly and go more complex, so it becomes compulsory that companies comply with the altering federal and local revenue enhancement Torahs and ordinances. Tax directors handle the revenue enhancement filing and studies for the organisation so they must be familiar with revenue enhancement Torahs and study seasonably to the Inland Revenue and revenue enhancement governments. Profound cognition of and experience in international concern and personal revenue enhancement Torahs will assist in this function although company may engage external revenue enhancement adviser or revenue enhancement lawyers. Tax directors should reexamine the one-year and strategic programs to develop the revenue enhancement legal power and liabilities for each period, develop revenue enhancement shelter policies, research the foreign revenue enhancement effects of the concern program, urge actions refering all revenue enhancement accommodations and at times, defend the company in regard to disputed revenue enhancement affairs. Eun & A ; Resnick ( 2001, pp.475-486 ) recommended some steps to be taken by revenue enhancement directors, such as speed uping tax write-offs which involve depreciation, doing usage of local and foreign states ‘ revenue enhancement credits, avoiding non-allowable disbursals, increasing revenue enhancement recesss and obtaining revenue enhancement exempt income to utilize the extra revenue enhancement nest eggs in other signifiers of investing. It is critical that the application of revenue enhancement Torahs must be considered in many daily operating determinations, puting up concern operations overseas, utilize revenue enhancement oasiss, see personal revenue enhancement state of affairs when engaging exiles which will assist to avoid paying extra revenue enhancements by the company or persons.

Function As A Risk And Insurance Manager And Liquidity Crisis Manager

Hazard and insurance directors oversee the operations, undertakings and production plans to minimise hazards and losingss that may originate from fiscal minutess and concern operations. They need to pull off the insurance budget, analyze and step hazards of the investings, direct operations of securities firm house which were commissioned in purchasing and selling securities, insurance dialogues, and eventually choose the insurance agents and bearers. Establishing processs for detention and control of assets, records, loan collateral, and securities, reappraisal studies of securities minutess and monetary value lists is critical to guarantee safekeeping and analysing the market conditions. Rowe et Al. ( 1994, pp.383-386 ) suggested hazard directors to work on the capital cost overproductions, nationalisation of installations as some states may nationalise certain industries with small or no compensation to the old proprietors, ecological costs notably in the asbestos and baccy industries, gross revenues fluctuations, market growing rate, company ‘s market portion, investing required, cost of production, natural stuff scarceness, impairment of borders for viing merchandises, and technological progresss. They would place the key variables that have impact on the concern determination, after all, a long scope program should include an in-depth appraisal of the hazards that may happen as a consequence of the concern program. If at hand jobs are predicted, company can avoid traveling into nonvoluntary settlement.

Functions Specifically Required In Financial Institutions

Fiscal directors who serve in fiscal establishments, such as commercial and investing Bankss, finance associations and recognition brotherhoods, oversee a assortment of maps, including loans, trusts, mortgages, hereafters, lines of recognition and investings. They must be extremely familiar and operate in conformity with the State Torahs and investing regulative regulations and ever maintain abreast of the fast turning array of fiscal services and merchandises. Arnold ( 2005, p.627 ) suggested that directors have to measure and analyze application, O.K. or reject, lines of recognition and commercial, existent estate and personal loans, they besides need to be cognizant of, and assess the international hazard that arises due to foreign currency exchange rates and rising prices rates, economical and political state of affairss which may impact the local and foreign states bonds requisition.

Liability Responsibility

Fiscal director, irrespective of the maps above, should supervise the accumulations, take a standard reappraisal of client progresss in the shutting process if the company regularly trades with a big sum of client sedimentations. They should be after the current and long-run liabilities, such as accrual for fillips, committees, belongings and income revenue enhancements, royalties, unpaid rewards and holiday wage, guarantee claims, by period, in add-on, they can analyse each manner to cut down the company ‘s duty such as utilizing just-in-time stock list methods to cut down histories collectible and arrange for a good payment footings for merchandise or stuffs purchase and update the jutting debt position to the year-end shutting ( Spiceland et al. , 2009, p.358 ) . A cautious process and watchfulness will help the company ‘s growing with small draw back.

Organizational And Strategic Roles Of A Financial Manager

As computerized systems are nem con used in corporations, so finance directors can use more clip in set uping schemes and implementing the short and long term ends for their corporations.

As Part Of Management With Management Skills

A Financial Manager ‘s map can be really distinguishable and like any other section director, a finance director demands to hold general direction accomplishments such as A ) Planing on what work is to be done and the completion agenda in the accounting section, particularly in the timely processing of minutess and steering the budgeting procedure ; B ) Forming the fiscal undertakings, office direction, and package, hardware use ; C ) Directing the section work to guarantee it operates in an orderly mode ; D ) Measuring the public presentation of all cardinal facets of the section to guarantee that public presentation meets or even exceeds the criterions set ; E ) Delegating work to accounting subsidiaries and F ) Process commanding and changeless reviewing if assignments are completed with truth and within the clip frame ; F ) A finance director must hold a good cognition of both company and industry operations in order to cognize how they impact the operations and new strategic move of the organisation.

As A Strategic Business Partner

Any concern determination, in peculiar the important strategic move, can non flit in front if without measuring the fiscal deductions. This extends the sphere of a finance director to be involved in strategic concern direction. To vie successfully, a company must analyse its cost place relation to that of rivals, finance director will play a strategic function here to supply competitive-cost analysis, if all rivals ‘ costs are researched, the company can project future monetary value degrees, anticipate rivals ‘ moves, prepare counterattacks, and measure the potency of its schemes for success. Van Horne ( 2002, p.199-200 ) interpreted competitive-cost analysis begins with an analysis of strategic cost-driving factors which determine a company ‘s comparative long-term place. The initial inquiry is to find which costs are relevant in a strategic sense, should the company ‘do the things right ‘ by cutting costs in the short tally or ‘doing the right things ‘ to place the organisation for long term cost advantages by working chances for extra returns. Rowe et Al. ( 1994 ) had a good penetration by raising a figure of inquiries while uncovering the fiscal analysis, the director should inquire if the new scheme is appropriate given the company ‘s current fiscal place in the industry, do we hold the fiscal resources to originate the scheme, are fiscal resources being allocated right in order to accomplish the strategic end, should acquisitions be considered, should outsourcing be considered.

Finance director can assist in company ‘s growing by finding a wise usage of the strategic financess ( which is entire financess available minus the baseline financess ) for purchase of new touchable assets such as installations, equipment, and stock list, to increase working capital, and to fund direct disbursals for research and development, selling, advertisement and publicities and even for amalgamations and acquisitions.

As Corporate Policies Writer And Evaluator

Bing cautious and versatile in the fiscal rules and subject, cognizing a thoughtful planning would impact the schemes of the company, finance director should originate the inside informations of all processs, the mandate and restrictions of people ‘s act, irrespective such act is aggressive or nescient, into written constabularies and processs. Such policies can include the operation of the accounting systems and statements issue, the stock list purchase and control, capital and plus investings, human resources compensation programs and disbursals, capital rating and scrutinizing control steps must be enacted into a procedural manual for all divisional directors to follow suit. Besides, mandate and processs of recognition and aggregation policies, dividend constabularies with respects to the dividend sum and payout timing must be exhaustively documented and regulated because rightful procedure allow less human mistake or falsified moralss, avoid paying extra revenue enhancement which would overall influence the degree of a company ‘s histories receivable. A good policy and patterns impact the quality of the trade histories, increase the company ‘s stigmatization and competitory border in the market.

Handle Mergers And Acquisitions And Consolidations

Fiscal directors have an indispensable map in amalgamations and consolidations, in planetary enlargement and related funding. The primary motivation and intent of unifying two companies is to increase the value of the combined endeavor. State if company A and company B merge to organize a company C, and if C ‘s value exceeds that of A and B individually, so synergy exists and such amalgamation should be good to both A ‘s and B ‘s stockholders. A recent headline is Bank of America ‘s [ BA ] 2008 acquisition of Merrill Lynch which made BA the universe ‘s largest wealth director. Both Brealey ( 2008, p. 883 ) and Brigham & A ; Ehrhardt ( 2002, p.970 ) cited on the same record interrupting illustration of AOL passing a important sum of USD156 billion in geting Time Warner, aimed to make a company which offer consumers a comprehensive bundle of media and information merchandises. Fiscal directors possess extensive and particular cognition in the countries of hazards decrease, valuing the targeted house, conformity of amalgamation ordinances, international foreign exchange, revenue enhancement considerations, analysis of the company ‘s current excess financess, amalgamation analysis of benefits of the complementary resources of income, and last of all provide a post-merger study. Without the amalgamation analysis by fiscal directors, these amalgamation and acquisitions and consolidation in the market would non hold been active worldwide, particularly in the USA.

Maximize Shareholders ‘ Value

A competent finance director should move in the involvements of the company ‘s proprietors and stockholders, maximise current wealth and net income of the organisation by increasing the company ‘s market value. To make so, supervising the equity of the organisation in footings of debt and recognition is of import, because investors expect a high return on the capital invested in footings of dividends, minimized liabilities and a maximized stock monetary value. Brealey et Al. ( 2008, p.22 ) explained that the existent assets of the organisation demand to bring forth sufficient hard currency to fulfill banker ‘s debt, so the capital budgeting duty of the finance director plays an of import function to cipher how much money the company can put and into what sort of assets that could be predicted to gain the most and fastest, and spread all concerned hazards. This step is to guarantee adequate flow of money from investors into the company is good utilised and so maximise the return back to them to fulfill the stockholders.


With any and all of above accounting and organisational maps that Financial Managers have to execute and carry through, it is about imperative that they should take the enterprise to rede, do recommendations for betterment to the direction on all fiscal related affairs. Acting as a counsellor and invigilator of senior direction is critical and impact the endurance of the company. Prince ( 2005, p.15 ) quoted an illustration on the CEO of Kmart who exercised extended high disbursement manners, extravagancies and received inordinate executive compensation in the cost of the corporation eventually led to the bankruptcy of the company in January 2002, now became a subordinate of Sears Holdings Corporation. Likewise, General Motors Company [ GM ] which was ranked as the largest United states car manufacturer, filed for settlement in June 2009, eventually assisted by US “Government ‘s Troubled Relief Program ‘ and commenced its reorganisation since July 2009. On the other manus, the low resource use mode of Murdoch ( Prince 2005, p.15 ) was advised to utilize the high value assets to countervail News Corporation ‘s debt, finally, the company was spared settlement due to the fiscal attack.

Nowadays Financial Manager Versus Traditional Accounting Manager And The Challenges Accompanied With This Role

There is a turning realisation that a Financial Manager is no longer called on merely to treat accounting minutess and publish fiscal statements when these undertakings require elaborate proficient cognition but no considerable direction or analysis accomplishment. Alternatively, the modern finance director or accountant must exhibit extra command of a battalion of direction accomplishments, so that the histories section runs in an efficient and effectual mode, offers a elaborate analysis of fiscal statement consequences, recommends betterments, and proctors the activities of other sections and possibly even manages the computing machine systems in a smaller organisation. They should no longer concentrate on the paper driven studies, so modern finance directors need to radically alter the finance study manners and to be expeditiously generated by the computerized systems.

Fiscal directors need to get by with the competitory advantage, add values to the corporation, and progress into the usage of electronic spreadsheets for fiscal analysis, mark costing, catastrophe recovery planning, fraud bar program, inventory rating, activity-based costing and budgeting, outsourcing information systems security and package bundle integrating. Nowadays finance directors should use the analyzed information to strategize programs to maximise net incomes and act as concern advisers to exceed direction.

Global Expansion And International Financial Management

Globalization is a tendency where concern endeavor can seek for lower production and labour costs complemented with high quality ware and production efficiency, companies may hold a demand to broaden the markets, seek for natural stuffs and new engineering. Kim & A ; Kim ( 2006, p.4 ) defined globalisation agencies incorporating the universe market place and making a “borderless world” for goods and services. In the epoch of heightened planetary competition, international finance directors have to be a strategic spouse by get downing off to see the external environment in footings of economic state of affairs, the current and future phase of the concern rhythm, entryway of the new rivals, political and societal state of affairss. To run globally, Brigham and Ehrhardt ( 2002, pp. 1018-1019 ) further recommended the direction to see the different currency denominations and fluctuations of exchange rate, foreign authorities ‘s function, political hazards, the legal branchings, and cultural and linguistic communication difference, and these factors complicate fiscal direction. Therefore the strategic program constructed by the accountant has to be in the countries of comparing to the anterior twelvemonth program, the growing scheme, the concern ends, net income programs for the bing concern, resources and financess for new concern development, standardising the operations in one or more of the corporation ‘s fiscal and functional countries, and last of all stamp the fiscal sum-ups of major factors and return on assets.

Change Management And Contingency Planning

Change within the section, the organisation or changeless alterations from external are inevitable in the concern universe. A positive alteration is to reorganise the company to prolong efficiency, better procedure control and cost nest eggs. Rowe et Al. ( 1994, pp. 627-664 ) and Middlebrooks ( 2006 ) both illustrated the demand for internal reorganisation alteration by mentioning to American Airlines [ AA ] in 2006 which adopted a reorganizational alteration in ask foring all senior, in-between and junior direction members to organize a forum group in the hope that each accepts partnership engagement, ownership and answerability in salvaging the company from fiscal bankruptcy. The fiscal director, being portion of the maneuvering group had to be unfastened to uncover the fiscal state of affairs, persuade others on the emergent demand, accepted alteration, empowered other representatives, listened to thoughts and squad up with all colleagues. AMR Corporation, the parent company of AA, supported with increased flexibleness for funding and investing. Ultimately, engagement by all members nem con assisted the company to germinate from the joint creative activity of new thoughts, such as spread outing the air-hub connexion metropoliss and routing enlargement.

Whereas the negative alteration that finance directors have to face is bankruptcy, when a concern becomes insolvent, intending the company does non hold sufficient hard currency or plus to pay off the debts, finance directors have to declare all the current and future liabilities and fade out the organisation through settlement.

To forestall settlement happens, a eventuality interim fiscal planning by finance directors should be good arranged to include appraisals of debt warrants and all eventuality militias in the monthly shutting process. Ever since the international terrorist action in 2001 in New York, transnational companies have constructed Business Contingency or Business Disastrous Plan and Procedures which became peculiarly utile in the Far East in the fatal SARS epidemic clip in 2003. Not merely does the program aim to salvage people ‘s lives, it includes fiscal director ‘s input on how to salvage the company by reactivating and resourcing the stock lists and plus of the company, re-starting the production, how the fiscal modesty would be activated and to what extent and timing should the company be concluded collapsed.

Corporate Social Responsibility, Especially In Environmental Protection

Nowadays environmental harm, brotherhood drastic actions, hapless stigmatization or promotion would finally project a monolithic negative impact onto the organisation ‘s returns of capital and portions value. In the growing of a corporation, company must non foul the air and H2O during production but such societal duty has costs. For such, a finance director should grok on the political, environmental and societal clime in whichever and the whereabouts the corporation operates. As recent as 2002, Starbucks responded to consumer demands, guaranteed to make concern merely with plantations that provide a sensible pay to the plantation java worker, and had benchmarked a good environmental stewardship. This act affected Starbucks bottom line but the hazard was deserving investment and good will was gained tremendously ( Besley & A ; Brigham, 2005, p.16 ) .

Fraud Prevention

A fiscal director should guarantee company ‘s resources are non misused or any single committing defective fiscal studies. One would non bury the “Enron Scandal” in late 2001 which was the universe ‘s largest bankruptcy until it was surpassed by the prostration of Lehman Brothers in 2008. Enron instance was due to wilful corporate fraud and corruptness with irregular accounting processs, distorting that the company looked more profitable than it was really by concealing the losingss and blindfolded the investors. The prostration of Enron even caused the disintegration of Arthur Andersen, Enron ‘s accounting house, thenceforth, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was formed in 2002 to get the better of corporate fraud. Gyopos ( 2009 ) called for direction to be cautious on increasing employees fraud in the workplace in times of economic downswing so if direction and finance directors conduct more regular and ad hoc reappraisals in the systems, procedure and operation, companies can cut down more loss.

Possess Soft Skills And Self Improvement Attitude

In order to get by with all sorts of alterations, one has to stay positive, particularly fiscal people who need to provide with copiousness of work tonss and work force per unit area. The success of a company does non depend on the work of the finance squad entirely, therefore finance directors need to maintain abreast of and larn updated accomplishments and cognition to an optimal degree so as to stay competitory. This includes cognition and procedure of concern theoretical accounts, such as ISO and Six Sigma for quality betterment intents, Balance Scorecard for entire operation for the interest of bring forthing higher gross through departmental coaction. With respects to people direction, finance directors have to larn and pattern Performance Management system [ PMS ] for mensurating people ‘s public presentation, Talent Engagement, Retention and Succession Plan for retaining competent staff. And Work-Life-Balance for employees ‘ public assistance. Above all, networking, teamwork, presentation accomplishments, interpersonal accomplishments are relevant to pass on with and understanding of people inside and outside of the organisation. If finance directors keep larning from developing plans, emerge from a stand-alone cognition worker to a squad worker, they can take and actuate oneself and construct a stronger knowing and cohesive work force.

Even after documenting the histories section ‘s work flow, positioning employees in the correct occupations, and puting them up for the appropriate preparation plans, the accountant may use the Best Practices thought by comparing one ‘s work to the accounting staff of many other organisations which would let the accounting staff to bring forth more work with an equal or less sum of attempt. When a changeless watercourse of invention comes out of different companies, there is no terminal of the figure of best patterns one can implement, for such, accountant should maintain an oculus on diaries and periodicals.


A new accountant does non last, he or she has to boom for invention in good or bad times. Applegate ( 2009 ) commented that concern entrepreneurial leaders, including finance people should look for new resources unrelentingly, breakthrough the inventions and pursue chances. The functions of fiscal directors have emerged and evolved from being an accountant old ages ago, with their wise fiscal ace, they can turn around the losing phenomenon of the corporation in the sloppy economic system. They have now become strategic contriver and concern spouse, and their functions have hence become solidly indispensable towards the growing and profitableness of the corporations. This explains why corporations have non stopped hiring and are still hankering for experient fiscal professionals even in the epoch of economic downswing.


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