Risks And Uncertainty In Entering New Markets Finance Essay

No 1 can deny that expand the concern activity and come ining new market every bit much as holding new market for its resources is valid to last

This determination face obstruction which has assortment of importance degrees, some of them are making a degree of hazards and other stay at uncertainness degree and have to be considered in order non to make the higher hazard degree

The word ‘uncertainty ‘ agencies that a figure of different values can be for a measure and ‘risk ‘ means the possibility of loss or addition as a consequence of uncertainnesss. In this study we will discourse the instance of hazard and uncertainness in Syrian instance


Whenever a purchase or sale is made there is a degree of hazard this hazard can be progress from uncertainness to high hazard ; in order to to the full analyze the type of hazard and uncertainness influence on the international concern we have to categorise it harmonizing to country of impacting here we will discourse those thoughts harmonizing the undermentioned agreement:

Systematic Risk which include the political Economical and Exchange Risk in general and in Syrian market in specific

Market hazard which discuss Specific Risk

Besides in this essay we will discourse the Uncertainty and how we can pull off it in order non to return to hazards after discoursing the type and the different it and the hazards.

Systematic Hazards:

Political Hazard:

Political determinations can impact on many critical countries for concern such as the instruction of the work force, the wellness of the state and the quality of the substructure of the economic system

It is imperative to measure the possible degree of hazard by utilizing several different attacks and techniques, these attacks fall into several general and common classs:

Systemic hazard:

It is Risks faced by investors as a consequence from displacements in public policy. New political leading may follow policies that differ from its predecessor ‘s.

For illustration, Syrian released new ordinance at the beginning of 2010 the new function assume that each Commercial Invoice non legalized organize the Syrian Embassy of the exporter state is non trusty ; hence each exporter to Syrian market has to acquire a papers from the Syrian embassy to attest that the Commercial Invoice value and information of this goods is important ; this new processs severely affect any dealing related to export to Syria because non all embassies substructure is good plenty to set up all that type of legalisation and paperss ( the size of work are related to the exportation volume to Syria from that state the most confusing state of affairs was in Syrian embassy in China ) which mean that the goods has to be wait at the port of discharge or the port of ladling harmonizing to the type of goods, which mean increase the cost of demerge for goods in boards every bit good as the disagreement of Bankss if the exporter choose the Letter of Credit as a payment term, fortuitously this new ordinance life period was short and they stop work on it after one month which create another confusing for international trade. A really unsure political and economic mentality and a concern environment with many troublesome failings can hold a important impact on corporate payment behaviour. Corporate default chance is high.

Procedural hazards:

Political intercession in processs to use specific policy this policy can impact the economic system in general. it Created by one motion of people, merchandises and financess that move from point to indicate in the planetary market between the units involved, whether units of a company or units of a state.

This state of affairs appeared in Syria in the center of 2006 when the authorities decides to exchange from the Oriented Economy System to Social Market Economy

The inquiry arise here how it can impact the purchase or sale internationally and how it impact the companies which decide to login the Syrian market? In fact this policy displacements can make chances for some of foreign investors and some local investor as good, since the authorities use a batch of installations and low revenue enhancements for specific sectors like trade and touristry on the other manus it will severely impact the other economic system sector such as the industries, agribusiness and public assistance.

On the other manus the docudrama hazard is the chief ground behind slow or non-payment in the international trade most of job is related to the papers falsely readying, this papers is required to finish the dealing, Cross-border minutess involve many paperss, yet merely one losing papers or a disagreement in a papers can halt a payment temporarily or for good, for illustration in the Syrian ordinance information and casts mentioned on the Commercial bill has to fit the one on the Certificate of Origin in instance of manufacturer and goods description while the Bill of Ladling information has to fit the information on the Certificate of Origin in instance of carton figure, weight and the H.S. Codeaˆ¦ etc.

Some of the more common papers jobs are caused by

Letterss of Credit, some information do n’t fit the unfastened LC status like the day of the month of cargos and the port of ladling nameaˆ¦ etc.

Certifications such as certifications of beginning, the information on it do n’t include the H.S. Code and other information required in host state imposts.

Customss paperss: like existent packing list or any specific papers required harmonizing to state policy ( in Syria if CI do n’t bear the paragraph which certify that this goods do n’t hold any Israeli stuff of labour activity may halt the declaration procedures harmonizing the Syrian jobs with Israel )

Transportation system paperss, BL may non bear the H.S. codification or the consignee party does n’t fit the name of registered name of the company which receives the paperss.

Most of import set of paperss in Syria is Certificate of Origin, Commercial Invoice, and Bill of Lading, those paperss may non hold the same precedence in other states harmonizing to that state Torahs. Recently most states start use the digital universe features to ease fixing these paperss, specially CO and other type of Certificates such as Health Certificate and Certificate of analysis for certain type of goods.

Any mismatch between this information will increase the cost of declaration, detain the payment and may halt the import processs in all.

It is of import to pay more attending to the Procedural hazards since the usage and pecuniary system is Syria is non flexible and have a batch of punishments in instance of any error in the paperss caused by the misgiving between authorities and bargainer, nevertheless the procedural hazard can be avoided by covering with local observer bureau which moderate this sort of hazards.

Distributive hazard:

Distributive political hazard reflects alterations in such points as revenue enhancement codifications, regulative construction, and pecuniary policy imposed by authoritiess in order to capture greater benefits from the activities of foreign houses. The new universe system in this instance is to utilize the H.S. Code to categorise the goods type and use the revenue enhancement consequently that in instance of trade as import and export ; another instance is to put in a foreign state the moral force of distributive political hazard is crawling expropriation, a gradual riddance of foreign company ‘s local belongings rights. As the concern grows more successful, functionaries may oppugn whether they are having their “ just ” aˆ-share of the turning net incomes. Most of foreign investor in Syrian market has a good status and average revenue enhancement rate comparing with neighbor states but they ca n’t have the land they work on it, but normally the corporate funding information frequently non available and when available normally indecipherable Debt aggregation is unpredictable. The institutional model has many troublesome failings. Intercompany minutess run major hazards in the hard environments rated C harmonizing to COFAC the company who is specialised export recognition insurance, pull offing its ain merchandises and State warrants for Gallic exports.

Catastrophic hazard:

Catastrophic political hazard includes those random political developments that adversely affect the operations of all houses in a state ; this type of hazard can lay waste to companies and states every bit good. It includes political developments that adversely affect the operations of every company in a state, late civil upset has appeared which make problems the trade in general that affect the.

POINT-COUNTERPOINT: Political Hazard Management

POINT- ACTIVE POLITICAL RISK MANAGEMENT: Active political hazard direction grounds that if one measures the right set of distinct events, one should be able to cipher the grade of political hazard in a state and gauge the likeliness that politically hazardous breaks, will happen ( e.g. , civil discord, terrorist act, government alteration, cultural tensenesss, contract renunciation, fiscal controls, dealing hazards ) .

In Syria instance the political hazard can be predicted since the scene political policy is same since last decennary and aggressively alterations are unlikely for the following decennaries if the catastrophic job which starts late become governable by authorities so the other hazard will be acceptable and can be managed easy.

COUNTERPOINT- PASSIVE POLITICAL RISK MANAGEMENT: Many houses choose to handle political hazard as an unpredictable jeopardy of international concern. They adopt a strategic response by happen a cost-efficient manner to minimise the hazards like buying insurance for each of its operational activities which mean increase the cost of set uping of lunching the new market

Economic Hazard

Economic hazard can sometimes be forecast but is frequently wholly out of the control in both the purchaser or marketer sides. Buying dealing insurance is indispensable for a purchaser to minimise economic hazard.

In order to to the full analysis the economical hazard we will hold a deep expression at the Syrian Macro Economy act by analysis the undermentioned points:

exchange rates

Foreign exchange hazard occurs when the rate of exchange between the marketer ‘s currency and the purchaser ‘s currency changes dramatically between the clip the order is quoted and the clip the concluding payment is received, normally this hazard appear when the political policy is non clear, in Syria the political policy stableness add more stableness to the exchange rate and add more trust to foreign investor.

Trade Burden size CAD/GDP 2009:

Harmonizing to the World Bank data we can cipher the followers:

CAD/GDP= -1.1 % it is greater than -2 % and that a good index for low hazard

Debt service ratio 2009:

Relates the cost of refunding foreign debt to the sum being earned by exports. It can be calculated as followers:

DSR= Total Dept Service/ Export X Total Export/ Export Goods & A ; Servicess

DSR= 3.1 X 11,817/18,351= 1.996

It is less than 20 % which is really good index for low hazard

Import Reserve Ratio 2009:

To analysis how state can counterbalance its imports we will cipher the IRR

IRR= Reserves / Total imports X12

IRR =6512 / 16121 X12 = 4.85 months since it is more than 3 it consider good

After old ages of autarchy, Syria still barely unfastened to the universe, but this policy protect it from the bad effects of the economic system crises 2009 and we can recognize the booming in the existent estate sector, besides the oil production of state support the currency and authorities policy, the authorities installation for foreign investors every bit much as the handiness of natural stuff and great location of Syria make the investing in the agribusiness and transit is good pick. CAD/GDP, DSR and IRR ratio is non the right index to measure any economic system but it can rede us a background of general image of that state economic system.

POINT-COUNTERPOINT: Economic Risk Management

POINT- ACTIVE ECONOMIC RISK MANAGEMENT: some company prefer to see the Economical Risk direction as portion of market analysis research which mean that each consequence will be accompany with other grounds and can hold a good research consequence as a consequence to hold the right determination.

COUNTERPOINT- PASSIVE ECONOMIC RISK MANAGEMENT: see the Economic Risk analysis as a first index can give you a first sight at the mark market and harmonizing to the consequence some companies prefer to predate the market research, but those companies have to pull more attending that sing the Economical hazard analysis entirely as a first measure will allow company loss a batch of good chances because normally the greater economic system in the universes can hold high hazard in some points such as CAD/GDP which has high hazard in USA but it still have the best FDI opportunity since they support the FDI by good installations offered to foreign investor.

Specific Hazard:

Which besides can name Market hazard

Choose the incorrect industry?

Choose the incorrect placement?

Different types of Strategy..



Who is responsible for what?


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