Reviewing The Article The Presuppositions English Literature Essay

Adorno, in an article titled “ Presuppositions ” , underlines the demand of lingual looks ‘ being split from constructs, since “ the definitions are themselves the consequence of a hypostatization, a forgetting ; they are ne’er what they would so wish to be ” ( 100 ) . Adorno draws our attending to the fact that because of its kinetic character linguistic communication itself excludes fixed significances. It is the paper Bloom reads while digesting and rubs himself, or the newspaper he hides his love missive in it and lays under his articulatio genus while flexing down to pray. Hence what is deserving analysing are the associations, the connexions of constructs with each other and things. A work of art uncovering these associations gives the construct a sense of traveling. As for Joyce, Adorno suggests that through built-in associations “ an nonsubjective countenance of words is linked [ aˆ¦ ] with the beat of the whole ” ( 101 ) . Obviously the revealed integrity is rather different than the rapprochement Hegelian dialectic suggests. As Adorno provinces in Minima Moralia “ the point should non be to hold perfectly right, incontrovertible, water-tight cognitions-for they necessarily boil down to tautologies, but penetrations which cause the inquiry of their rightness to judge itself ” ( 71 ) . Joyce ‘s Ulysses, in that sense, is an illustration par excellence of Adornian negative aesthetics.

Since The Tempest is a drama of rapprochement I will compare it with Ulysses in the visible radiation of Beethoven, instead than Schoenberg, or Berg, or another modern composer. The piece I pick as the motive of my analysis is the Piano Concerto No. 5 in E level, Op. 73. By making so I hope to uncover a charming fast one common in both music and literature. In the instance of Ulysses, instead than suggesting general statements about the whole work I will concentrate on “ Scylla and Charybdis ” episode. For, beside its being full of allusions and direct mentions to Shakespeare, it is this episode where Stephen gets truly close to what he looks for, in one of those truly rare minutes.

The Gravity of the Rabbit Hole

The gap chord of the concerto is supposed to be E level major, which consists of E level, G, and B flat. However Beethoven omits B level, and contrary to classical harmoniousness he does non present it for a piece. George Grove discriminates this Concerto, along with the 4th Concerto, from the old concertos by stressing its “ glorious gap ” : “ fortissimo-pedal down-grand arpeggios winging all over the keyboard-ad libitum-espressivo-everything that can give the grandest consequence! ” ( 173 ) . With a turning charming and daring, admits Grove, “ the forte-piano makes itself felt as the kept woman of the state of affairs ” ( 173 ) . After the prelude-like gap, the initial subject is introduced foremost by the strings, which is instantly taken up by the clarinets. Rather than presenting the 2nd subject in the antecedently omitted B level chord, Beethoven prefers foremost “ staccato in E level child in the strings and so legato in E level major in the horns ” ( Grove, 173 ) .

By impeding B level Beethoven prepares the audience for a more dramatic rapprochement. In comparing with a proper E level major, the gap chord of the concerto makes us experience a sense of deficiency, “ high deficiency ” if you will. Such a feeling is full of great possible, in so far as the terminal waiting for us is still indistinct, if non cryptic. For Beethoven keeps the hearer in great exhilaration by suspending the dominant until millimeter. 151. Even to the extent that piano expoundings following the development subdivision of the orchestra bend around the dominant within an enharmonic relationship ( Lindeman 19 ) . We hear a fantastic version of the 2nd subject given out by the piano in C level major, which is followed foremost by a joyous but short melody and so by a cryptic version of the subject in forte-piano in B child. This rocking to and fro within the enharmonic circle, which is already turned out to a battle between the piano and the orchestra is eventually be resolved with the debut of B flat in a march-like figure given out by the orchestra in millimeter. 167-174.[ 1 ]At this charming minute, when we find what was missing, what was lost, or what was taken off from us, Beethoven makes us experience that the thing we have been looking for was ever at that place, in our custodies. This is the thaumaturgy, happening what we look for in ourselves.

Colliding Plots

The Tempest consists of different secret plans crossing each other. By the term “ secret plan ” I mean “ narrative ” , or “ tale ” , derived from storytellers ‘ pre-histories, and determined by societal conditions in general and single will and want in peculiar.

The first secret plan, or the tonic key of the work is that of Prospero, which besides contains Miranda, Caliban, and Ariel. Prospero begins his narrative by pacifying Miranda in Act 1 Scene 2: “ I have done nil but in attention of thee, / Of thee, my beloved one, thee my girl ” ( 1.2.16 ) . Taking the chance of Miranda ‘s wonder, Prospero absorbs her into his narrative by crying “ The hr ‘s now come ” ( 1.2.36 ) . Miranda, who works as Prospero ‘s scruples throughout the drama and is unable to retrieve how they came on to the island, opes her ear and obeys his male parent. She demands but her yesteryear with an account for her male parent ‘s pique, and Prospero meets her demands with the art of rhetoric. His narrative represents a uninterrupted signifier interrupted merely by Prospero ‘s inquiries necessitating consent and Miranda ‘s exclaimings, which mean how she progressively accommodates herself to her male parent ‘s narrative.

As for Ariel, who would hold been cited as Prospero ‘s alter self-importance if Prospero had been a patient of a modern head-shrinker, the tonic key subsumes him every bit good. At first glimpse Ariel seems bounded by Prospero ‘s narrative more than his maestro, since he recounts the shipwreck with great passion as if it is his ain thought. However, he dares to demands his freedom, and Prospero prevents this mutiny with the art of dialectic. That is Prospero inquiries Ariel boulder clay he finds the truth himself and obeys his maestro. Whereas in the instance of Caliban, who wants retaliation and to subvert the tyrant, the art Prospero uses is political relations. He accuses Caliban of merely being what he is, and by endangering him with anguish Prospero manages to maintain him bounded by his secret plan.

By indurating his narrative Prospero braces himself for absorbing outcasts into his secret plan. However, every bit shortly as he launches the conquest, two pillars of his narrative will interrupt off to their ain secret plans: Miranda-when she meets Ferdinand, that is instantly after meeting some more good-humored rhetoric than her father provides-and Caliban-who no Oklahoman allies himself with Stephano and Trinculo than he revolts-split from Prospero ‘s secret plan, non unlike Pallas Athena springs from Zeus ‘s caput.

In an article titled “ Prospero and Caliban ” Peter Hulme topographic points Prospero someplace between a dramatist and a stage-manager. Admiting other characters ‘ moving “ harmonizing to their ain will and will ” , Hulme suggests that Prospero does non hold entire control over his “ drama in the drama ” every bit much as a author would hold. On the other manus, asserts Hulme, since Prospero manages to motivate Sebastian and Antonio, in a province of reverie, to cabal against Alonso his “ existent control ” should non be underestimated ( 116 ) . However their ability to remain awake while the remainder of the tribunal party autumn asleep may besides be read as a opposition to Ariel ‘s intercession by virtuousness of their strong desires and volitions. In his “ From Tempest to Epilogue ” James Walter divides the drama into different secret plans, although the music directors of these secret plans are Ferdinand instead than Miranda, and Stephano instead than Caliban ( 66f ) . For Walter bases his analysis on Augustinian fable, notwithstanding his accent on characters ‘ ability to follow their ain desires, each secret plan relies on an effort to make “ a new society based on a new adult male, ” which he cites as the unitive subject of Tempest ( 66 ) . Although, harmonizing to Walter ‘s reading each figure is related to its ain sense of “ new adult male ” , anchoring contradictions on an indistinguishable root would switch the significance from being relied on transforming persons to fixed, contradicting constructs.

Throughout the first act we observe a sort of interior conflict at the terminal of which Prospero oppresses his oppositions. However the contradictions presented here are still far off from a possible rapprochement. When the first act ends Shakespeare leaves us at the border of a entire disintegration. The lone possibility of rapprochement, the booming love between Miranda and Ferdinand, is avoided by Prospero warning Miranda in “ Speak non you for him ; he ‘s a treasonist ” ( 1.2.461 ) and the shutting phrase of the act “ speak non for him ” ( 1.2.503 ) .

In the 2nd act Shakespeare introduces to us the Sebastian-Antonio secret plan and the developing part of Caliban ‘s narrative. Insofar as Alonso and Gonzalo are deprived of a combination of will and want, they can non make their ain narrations, and in the undermentioned scenes we observe a awful clang of the four secret plans seeking to subvert each other. In this battle Ariel, and Prospero, seek to pull strings other characters with music. Curious plenty, although Caliban ‘s squad is by and large considered as a group of buffoons, merely they try to defy Ariel ‘s intercession by intoning their ain melody. Despite the simpleness of their libretto and Ariel ‘s inevitable intervention in their tune, they give it a attempt on a more “ sensible ” land.

In Act 4 the drama seems to make a rapprochement, where most contradictions come to a integrity, with Prospero ‘s consent “ If I have excessively austerely punished you, / your compensation makes damagess, for I / Have given you here a 3rd of mine ain life ” ( 4.1.0 ) . Not unlike Beethoven, Shakespeare wants to do the rapprochement singular. Thus Ariel presents us a charming mask. However, at the terminal of this charming theater the shutting danger of Caliban ‘s putsch d’etat and Prospero ‘s warming pique move us off from a peaceable integrity and leave us in a province of incompatibility with Miranda and Ferdinand both shouting “ We wish your peace ” ( 4.1.160 ) .

What is waiting for us now? Merely a few seconds after being shown a charming, glorious integrity we are now in a cave smelling all Equus caballus urine in great outrage as Trinculo admits. In Stephano ‘s words: “ There is non merely shame and dishonor in that, monster, but an infinite loss ” ( 4.1.209 ) . Are we acquiring lost in an infinite loss? On the contrary, this lessened scene is but a chromatic colouring. Through these go uping and falling provinces of head Shakespeare prepares us for the concluding rapprochement of contradictions, which would besides recapitulate all secret plans and drive them into integrity, and do us to happen ourselves “ when no adult male was his ain ” ( 5.1.213 ) .

To and Fro

In Homer ‘s Odysseus, after Odysseus and his work forces return to Circe ‘s island from Hades, Circe proposes him two ways, every bit unsafe, to put canvas for his place. Odysseus chooses one, which is a transition between Scylla ( “ a six-headed monster [ that lives ] on a crisp mountain extremum ” ) and Charybdis ( a vortex ) . If he takes the Scylla ‘s side he must give one adult male for every esophagus. However, taking Charybdis bears the hazard of being engulfed wholly ( Gifford,192 ) .

In the “ Scylla and Charybdis ” episode we find Stephen in a treatment on Shakespeare with a brace of bibliothecs. One of them, “ the Friend librarian ” John Eglinton is an complete Platonist, who is interested non in Shakespeare as a historical figure but in the words of his supporters, Hamlet for case. Per Contra, Stephen, an complete Aristotelean, attempts to uncover the significance latent in Hamlet by looking at Shakespeare ‘s dealingss with his boy Hamnet, his lovers, and even the street he walked from his house to the Globe Theatre. Throughout the episode Stephen sways to and fro between Scylla and Charybdis. What is the right move? Prosecuting merely in rational surveies, or prosecuting in secular things: being un homme de lettre, or un homme de terre. Is at that place a in-between manner? Is at that place anything common between the two?

These are Stephen ‘s life-long inquiries. While sailing into Shakespeare he discovers himself. He mournfully remembers Cranly whose friendly relationship he sacrificed, although he states, “ A adult male of mastermind makes no errors. His mistakes are volitional and are the portals of find ” ( 9:228 ) . However, from such a hollow averment he would switch to the demand of being with a adult female, or holding an inheritor:

Marina, Stephen said, a kid of storm, Miranda, a admiration, Perdita, that which was lost. What was lost is given back to him: his girl ‘s kid. My beloved married woman, Pericles says, was like this amah. Will any adult male love the girl if he has non loved the female parent? Will he non see born-again in her, with the memory of his ain young person added, another image? ( 9:420 )

What we have here is no less than a conflict given by Stephen against himself. These interior contradictions are besides related to the environment. While talking to the bibliothecs he uses Gallic phrases. When Buck Mulligan joins the party we begin to hear more citations in Latin.

Beneath this helter-skelter nebula of contradictions we find Stephen sailing on his manner: “ Do you cognize what you are speaking about? Love, yes. Word known to all work forces ” ( 9:429 ) . The on traveling battle immediately reveals a point of rapprochement. Though he instantly shifts from that point back to the contradiction, he would subsequently come to another point of rapprochement, paternal love, when Bloom, his religious male parent, joins the image. Erotic, paternal, or rational love: the word is known to all work forces. It is the most earthly thing, and besides the most surpassing. It is this feeling of being mediate that makes the rapprochement possible. However if we want to uncover the lines where boundary lines are drawn we need to acquire beyond these boundary lines. Or as Stephen puts it: “ there can be no rapprochement, if there has non been a sundering ” ( 9:397 ) .

Contradictions are derived from what are missing. By keeping up the dominant key, or by driving the characters into lunacy through rise and falling provinces of head, or by puting transcendentally indistinguishable constructs in gesture through uncovering their associations the creative person creates a charming sundering. In plants like Ulysses, notwithstanding the work ‘s instant nisus for a integrity as a whole, palingenesis does non attest itself by returning to a aboriginal province or through its cases ‘ being assimilated into each other. Therefore uncovering the latent integrity of the work is possible through either a deep analysis of each case and infering their integrity or picking up an appropriate variable and making the nucleus of a group of united cases. The latter procedure would be a combination of deductive and inductive methods. Such an attack would crystallise the boundary lines hiding the latent integrity, which consists non of a fixed tonic order but of a consecutive mutualism.