Akhism which is an organisation founded by the Turkish people in Anatolia, is an of import club system for the Ottoman State when we take its regulative function ( of the societal order ) into consideration. In this paper, I will give elaborate information about Akhism until its remotion, including its beginning, its importance, its guild organisation, its norms and its functions in the society.
Akhism ; being an Arabic word which meant “ brotherhood ” , was the name given to the brotherhoods of craftsmans ( esnaf ) and craftsmen ( zanaatcA± ) between the 13th and twentieth centuries. Akhi organisations were the associations which have been developing their ain trade members, which have been forming and commanding the economic fundamental laws of the society ( CaAYatay, 1989:1 ) and as in all pre-capitalist societies, in Ottoman State, production was organized within the club organisation which had four degrees as “ errand male child ” ( cA±rak ) , “ learner ” ( yamak ) , “ qualified workingman ” ( usta ) , and “ maestro ” ( Belge, 2005:312 ) .
Western orientalists say that the beginnings of the Akhism go back to the Islamic Futuwah tradition. The Arabic word Futuwah means vernal qualities. These vernal qualities are bravery, generousness, cordial reception and being skilled in all sorts of physical exercisings ( CaAYatay,1989:2-3 ) .
Although some Western societal scientists think that Futuwah and Akhism have the same significance and the same function, Azanal & A ; Guclu ( 2007 ) think that they are different. They say that although Futuwah is more autocratic and more faith based, Akhism is an organisation which regulates the on the job conditions and every sort of demands of the craftsmans ; and which is bing within the society, non being separated from it. Akhi organisation which is based on the regulations put by Islam bookmans tries to supply ethical and well behaved life style to the craftsmans ; and to better their trade degree to a certain grade to protect standardisation. Akhism is seen as the effect of the service deficiencies of the province such as providing security to the persons, to their belongingss and to their award ; changing communicating and instruction system, and supplying equality of rights where there is non a strong juridical system.
It is said that in Anatolia, Turkish people shaped and developed Futuwah organisation and formed Akhism which is more different than Futuwah and which is proper to Turkish people. Although Futuwah tradition was more autocratic about faith ; and was commanding to the craftsmans to obey to the Islamic authorization ; Akhis had a large trade at the issues of economic system and political relations besides the morality. While Futuwah tradition gave more importance to the single virtuousnesss and military features ; Akhism was an organisation which helped Ottoman State to set military and administrative establishments in order and which constituted craftsmans and craftsmen corporations ( CaAYatay, 1989: 1 ) . The part of the club system in the Ottoman State ‘s foundation period may non be despised ( Belge, 2005:312 ) .
In Anatolia, the foundation of the Akhi organisations was the consequence of political and socio-economical necessities. At the thirteenth century, Turks who arrived in Anatolia from Turkestan for get awaying from Mongolian invasion formed trade and commercial organisations among themselves to protect their solidarity and to last amongst the native Byzantine craftsmen. They thought that they could be merely if they sell high quality and standard goods, in a sense by bettering their ain trade and commercial organisations. The organisations adopted the futuwwatnamas ‘ spiritual and moral regulations as their Torahs and this led to the foundation of Akhism with the leading of Akhi Evran and Abul-Hakaik Mahmud. Later, Akhi organisations were divided into 32 chief subdivisions of trade or art and fixed 740 Principles in their futuwwatnamas to organize the moral and spiritual life. Every Akhi had to cognize 124 necessary Principles ( Cagatay, 1989:48-51 ) .
Harmonizing to Koprulu ( 1984 ) , the craftsmans who were members of these organisations had to obey to the rigorous moral regulations. There were strong moral and solidarity ties among the members. Besides to protect their common involvements, they were organized to supply moral control to each other in their all sort of secular activities ( economic, societal ) . This statement shows us that Akhi organisations were of import commanding mechanisms.
Every subdivision of trade which was joined to an Akhi organisation was acknowledging a superior Protector and was accepting a concatenation of Defenders for the trade ( for the shopkeepers ) . The organisation of Akhi was set up independently in each town and small towns. But, they maintained their relationship with other towns and other small towns. In each subdivision of Akhi organisation which is a guild organisation, Akhi Baba was the president of craftsmen of the clubs situated in the part ( CaAYatay, 1989: 201 ) .
Fuat ( 1977 ) said that in fourteenth century, as Akhi organisations played a portion in structuring military and administrative establishments of Ottoman province and in forming societal life within the society, to be a member of these organisations was accepted to be honored. There were besides grand Turks who were Akhis such as Orhan Ghazi, Sultan I.Murat. Ottoman province was back uping Akhis and was supplying them some privileges.
In his book of “ Ahilik nedir? “ , CaAYatay ( 1990 ) mentioned that Akhism was a multi-dimensional societal organisation. Its societal functions may be grouped as below ;
To set up a hierarchal order based on four phases such as “ errand male child ” ( cA±rak ) , “ learner ” ( yamak ) , “ qualified workingman ” ( usta ) , and “ maestro ” in workplaces. Members have to be stayed a definite clip in each phase to be educated. The ties between the members have to be sincere as the relationship of male parents and boies and the trade has to be based on strong moral and occupational footing
Manufacturers ‘ and consumers ‘ opportunisms and relationships have to be organized in a manner which will non do any job between them
To set up an organisation which provides meeting and invitee houses in all metropoliss and all small towns.
Fuat ( 1977 ) mentioned that Akhi Baba who was the president of the craftsmen ( of the club ) of a part and who was democratically elected by the members was responsible of doing the zawia built. His bids and his warnings had to be obeyed. They had the disposal power where the Sultan was absent. Zawias were topographic points where spiritual and moral books were read, where Akhis were basking with dance or music. This shows that Akhis were non merely spiritual peoples.
Harmonizing to CaAYatay ( 1990 ) , Akhi organisation which was faith ( Islam ) based was a solid occupational and moral system. Their solidarity and their assisting each other within the Akhi organisation caused their high quality over the non-Muslims craftsmans and craftsmen. This state of affairs continued until the 2nd half of the fifteenth century. Belge ( 2005 ) said that when the society began to set its ain regulations ; clubs had been transformed to societal strata and they had lost their liberty and authorization ; and they became limited to the production map. CaAYatay ( 1989 ) mentioned that Fatih Sultan Mehmed eliminated their political and moral power in the metropoliss because of their expanded authorization in the imperium. The original Akhi spirit has been lost among the Ottoman craft-guilds by the terminal of 16th century, and they became occupational organisations which impose subject to craftsmans and craftsmen. They lost their liberty and became edge to the local representatives of cardinal authorities ( qadis ) and so, qadis had the authorization to take Akhi leaders ( Akhi Babas ) . Harmonizing to Sencer ( 1999 ) , although they hold some economic privileges and a grade of control over their members and production, they lost their liberty and their administrative power. CaAYatay ( 1989 ) said that some trade subdivisions rejected heavy ordinances of the province and province tolerated some of them because of their importance to the economic system. Thus, some craft-guilds such as leather and shoe trade could go on their business and they preserved their regulations and their Akhi Baba tradition. So, we may state that when the province guaranteed its power, took the authorization back from the Akhi organisation and this caused the terminal of the privileges of Akhism.
Guild was a typical medieval organisation system ; it was a conservative organisation with its ain logic. As their production was demand based, they had non a market job. They had non an purpose to spread out their market. Although it was acceptable to hold some qualified workingmans ( usta ) who were seen as better and who were preferred for some demands ; guild organisation and logic behind it was forestalling competition between craftsmen, particularly in economic issues. This equality was working as jurisprudence thanks to the fright of being opposed to the ethical regulations which were accepted to be represented by their pir ( who had started their trade work and who is thought to be a prophesier ) to whom they had a strong committedness ( Belge, 2005:313 ) .
Esnaf ( artisan ) was the plural of the word category. At these times, in every war and expedition, there was a group of craftsmans and cocottes who were traveling with the ground forces for logistics and some services. Evliya Celebi who had the best Hagiographas about the Ottoman clubs said that in seventeenth century ; there were besides thief and cutpurse clubs. He explained that this state of affairs was non amazing by stating in pre-capitalist times ; Ottoman State was telling people to be a member of an organisation, to be in solidarity with the other members in this organisation ; and to be under the surveillance of this organisation for holding the right of free circulation in the metropolis ( Belge, 2005:313 ) . This shows us that Akhi clubs had a duty to determine societal life in metropoliss by taking control of their members.
After the seventeenth century, as Ottoman Empire was spread outing to the new lands and as the non-Muslim population was increasing, the figure of non- sectarian occupational organisations augmented. In this state of affairs, Ottoman province wanted to wipe out the differentiation between Muslims and non-Muslims. By a reform in 1727, clubs became reorganized within a new system called gedik which was non so different than the Akhi occupational organisation in footings of the working procedure. But, what was different was that in gedik, there was non spiritual distinction. Gedik meant monopoly and privilege. State had taken the authorization of electing the individual who would be the president of the club. Therefore, clubs had lost their enterprises outside the province. Therefore, club was taking the campaigners and the province was electing them ( Belge, 2005:313 ) . Harmonizing to CaAYatay ( 1990 ) , province began to repair the figure of Masterss within all trades ( meslek ) . Person outside the gedik could non execute the same trade of this gedik independently or could non sell the goods produced in these gediks harmonizing to the regulations of the province. The province took the authorization of giving command licenses from the club. State established gedik system for increasing cardinal authorization over the clubs. As the Muslim character of the clubs disappeared when the clubs became unfastened to the non-Muslim craftsmans, the meeting topographic point of the guild members of the Akhi organisations which was zawia was no more a meeting topographic point for guild members. In these times, when non-Muslim could set up their ain clubs, the new meeting topographic point became lonca.
Gedik type work organisation which began in seventeenth century continued until 1860. As there was a monopoly regulation at gediks, without a necessity, the figure of workshops was non changed by the province. This meant that the figure of workshops was stable at a figure decided by the province. In gedik system, cipher could open a store without acquiring his command license from the province and besides, they could non execute their accomplishments. Monopoly regulation ‘s purpose was to forestall alterations in Numberss of craftsmen at the metropolis, to blockade the renters to increase the rents, to hinder the public presentation of trade outside the gediks and to protect the system of being educated in the gedik, get downing as errand male child ( CaAYatay, 1989:111-118 ) . So, province took the control wholly.
In the nineteenth century, after the declaration of Tanzimat Command in 3 November 1839, Ottoman State made trade pacts with foreign states. Broad economic system of the foreign states based on laisser-faire obliged Ottoman State to extinguish traditional monopoly over the trade and the trade seeing that monopoly regulation was damaging the development of trade and trade and besides, was doing province ‘s increased economic dependence to the Europe. Thus, the gedik system and all monopolies were abolished in 17 June 1861 with the bid of Abdulmecit. The traditional craft-guilds continued until the Second Constitutional Monarchy period next to the freshly established modern occupational associations. As the capitalist economic system gained entree in Ottoman State, traditional craft-guilds lost their all power and Ittihat & A ; Terakki regulation let this organisation to make modern Chamberss as esnaf odalarA± in 1910 ( CaAYatay, 1989:216-217 ) .
The Akhi organisation is considered to be the footing of today ‘s some establishments such as Esnaf Chamber ( Esnaf OdasA± ) , Trade Chamber ( Ticaret OdasA± ) , labour brotherhoods, BaAY-Kur, Turkish Standarts Institute ( Turk StandartlarA± Enstitusu ) and municipality ( A-zturk, n.d ) .
Looking Akhi ‘s manner of dressing, harmonizing to CaAYatay ( 1989 ) , they were non have oning silk apparels ; they were non utilizing gold decorations. Because, in Islam, silk and gold were forbidden for work forces to utilize. Their turban ( sarA±k ) was 5-6 meter. Their apparels were at the colourss of bluish, white, black and green. In zawias, guild members were larning Koran, Sufism, the linguistic communications Turkish, Persian, Arabic ; they were covering with history, literature ; and besides, they were larning how to cook, how to play game, how to play an instrument. Every Akhi organisation had its ain flag. In every craft-guild, there was mutevelli who was taking attention of every sort of jobs about their trade. He was commanding private and occupational life of the members ; he was forming ceremonials of “ errand male child ” , “ learner ” , “ qualified workingman ” , and “ maestro ” .
CaAYatay ( 1989 ) said that every trade club had 2 sorts of members such as internal ( dahili ) and external ( harici ) . Externals were retired and handicapped members. Internals were divided in to 4 groups:
Errand male child: He has to be younger than 10 old ages old. His presence to work had to be provided by his male parent or his defender ( veli )
Apprentice: After working for 2 old ages without pay, errand male childs were promoted to the apprentice place with a prepared ceremonial. In these ceremonials, maestro was adverting his solidarity and endowments. The president of the ceremonial was giving advices to the kid about non lying, non go forthing his ritual worship ( namaz ) and go oning his solidarity to the store, being respectful to his parents ; to his qualified workingman and to his maestro. Chairman was make up one’s minding a hebdomadal pay to be given by his maestro.
Qualified workingman: He has to be apprentice for 3 old ages. Ceremony was done in craft-guild. This twenty-four hours, he was have oning for the first clip the apparels belonging to his trade subdivision. His maestro and other 3 Masterss were witnessing about his good morality. Chairman was giving necessary advices.
Maestro: He had to be qualified workingman for 3 old ages. There should n’t be any ailments about him. He had to be cranky about educating errand male child. He had to hold good dealingss with learners ; he had to hold a strong committedness to his trade. During his ceremonial of being maestro, president was adverting which prophesier was the pir of their trade, and he was giving advices about making the trade candidly, being respectful to other craftsmen and clients and being merciful to the populace.
At these times, instruction was non the duty of the province. Therefore, at these times, spiritual regulations were the footing of the society. In Akhism, faith was the chief point. Akhi organisation was seeking to do adopted a well behaved ( ahlaklA± ) life to the craftsmen. Akhis were stating that if in this universe, they would hold a well behaved life style, in the other universe ( in ahiret ) , they would be rewarded by the God, by indicating Koran. In Akhi organisations, it was learned to derive money candidly without doing any slippery act. It was learned that the money which they have been deriving had to be allowable ( helal ) . Craftsmans had to give precedence to his trade more than everything. Craftsmen believed that their pir who had foremost started their trade was a prophesier. That ‘s why, on every store ‘s wall, there was this pair ( CaAYatay, 1989:157 ) :
“ Her seher besmeleyle acA±lA±r dukkanA±mA±z
Hazreti aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . dir pirimiz, ustadA±mA±z ”
Important Akhi regulations
What they have to make
Eli acA±k olmalA± : He has to be generous
KapA±sA± acA±k olmalA± : His door has to be unfastened
SofrasA± acA±k olmalA± : His dining tabular array has to be unfastened
What they should non to make
Gozu kapalA± olmalA± : He has non to be schemer
Dili baAYlA± olmalA± : He has non to state any bad words
Beli baAYlA± olmalA± : He has non to disgrace anybody
Harmonizing to Cumbur ( 1975 ) cited in Turk Esnaf TeAYkilatA±nA±n kuruluAYu ve Denizli, Akhism had four rules such as:
Kuvvetli ve galipken affetmek
Hiddetliyken yumuAYak davranmak
DuAYmanlA±AYA± dostlukla, kotuluAYu iyilikle karAYA±lamak
Kendi ihtiyacA± varken elindekini baAYkasA±na vermek
In this undertaking, my topic was Akhism as a club system in the Ottoman Empire. I tried to reply my research inquiry which is “ the effects of the guild organisation ‘s norms to the craftsmen ‘s procedure of production ” . Firstly, I defined the universe Akhism and its beginnings. Than, I mentioned its function and its importance in the society, I talked about its foundation, its development, and its weakening grounds. I stated its control mechanisms and the grounds of the diminution of their control in the society. I expressed the grounds behind the alteration of the system ( gedik ) . I indicated its work organisation ( errand male child, learner, qualified workingman and maestro ) , the norms within the organisation and the effects of the norms to the clubs ‘ production procedure ; and in conclusion, I besides denoted why Akhi organisation was removed. I think that I could reply to my research inquiry. In this undertaking, my statement was that the norms of the guild organisation were chiefly shaped by faith. I saw that my statement was true. Because, in Akhi organisations, faith was the chief point and the norms were based on futuwwatnamas ‘ spiritual and moral regulations ( Islamic Futuwah tradition ‘s Torahs ) ; and besides, a well behaved life style was ordered to craftsmen to be rewarded in ahiret by the God.
To sum up, in this undertaking, with the purpose of analysing the effects of the guild organisation ‘s norms to the craftsmen ‘s procedure of production and with the purpose of verifying my statement, I made a literature reappraisal on Akhism. I gave detailed information about Akhism get downing from its foundation until its remotion, including its importance, its organisation, its norms and its functions in the society.