Peloponnesian Civil And Revolutionary Wars History Essay

The Peloponnesian War, the American Revolutionary War, and the American Civil War have many similarities and differences. Among these include causes of the wars, chiefly political and based out of fright, contending methods and arms, every bit good as naval forcess and results. Throughout the three wars, there were many analogues, such as likewise in causes, declarations, and military tactics, every bit good as the fact that human nature leads to build up struggle in many state of affairss ; It is evident that war has non changed much in the 2,000 old ages it has been since the Peloponnesian War.

The Peloponnesian war was a war between Athens and Sparta, fought from 431 to 404 BC. It went on for 27 old ages and was recounted by Thucydides. Thucydides history was one of the first existent histories of a war. The war began because Athens was commanding, and was seeking to do the other city states democratic, which caused a batch of tenseness between Athens and Sparta. The Spartans finally invaded the Athenian farming area, which began the Peloponnesian war. The Athenian naval forces attacked Sparta ‘s Alliess and was driven back by human deaths. In the terminal, Sparta and Persia blocked Athens ‘s nutrient supply, and Athens eventually was forced to give up.

The American Revolutionary War was a war between the 13 original settlements of America and Great Britain. It began because the settlers were rejecting the Parliament of Great Britain to regulate them, believing that they did non hold a proper representation in Parliament. The settlers besides believed that Parliament was commanding them excessively much. They believed that they should hold the full democratic rights of Englishmans like those populating in Great Britain. ( Lancaster, 25 ) The British believed that the settlements were merely settlements, and could be used nevertheless best suited Great Britain, intending they could revenue enhancement and command them nevertheless they wanted. The inconsistent positions caused war to interrupt out between the settlements and Great Britain. The war lasted for nine old ages. Finally, in 1783, the Treaty of Paris and Treaty of Versailles were signed and the war came to an terminal, go forthing the settlements free to be their ain state, have their ain authorities, and govern themselves nevertheless, they chose to make so.

The American Civil War was a war to “ continue the Union of the United States of America. ” ( McPherson, 26 ) It was between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists ; the Federalists believed that the federal authorities should keep their power for the endurance of the Union. The Anti-federalists on the other manus, believed that the United States should keep their sovereignty in the new state, believing that each province should find its ain Torahs within its boundary lines. They believed they should non hold to follow the federal authorities ‘s Torahs. There were many statements over revenue enhancements, internal betterments, military and bondage. Eleven of the Southern States seceded from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. After a five-year conflict, the Union States won the war, and abolished bondage for good, every bit good as strengthened the cardinal authorities.

Causes and tactics

One major cause of the Peloponnesian war was that the Spartans were fearful of the Athenians power, growing, and wealth. ( Hanson, 9 ) They were besides upset over the thirty-year peace they had agreed to between them. Harmonizing to Thucydides, the Athenians so became “ power hungry ” ( Hanson, 9 ) and wanted to corroborate their power on the mainland of Greece. Pericles had combined Athenian resources, and made Athens ‘ navy stronger, every bit good as formed an confederation with Corcyra, another strong naval power and one of Corinth ‘s major enemies. Athens besides improved confederations with states in the West.

The nutrient supply was in danger, because Athens was endangering a monopoly of seaborne trade. The Peloponnesian war was largely a trade war. Corinth encouraged Sparta to assail. The Spartans were besides ready to get down a war, and they were merely waiting for an chance to assail Athens. The Spartans refused any dialogues offered by Pericles and sent an ultimatum that would hold destroyed Athenian power had they taken it. Pericles advised his people to decline and Sparta declared war with Athens ( Martin, 56 ) . This war so lasted for 27 old ages.

The Corinthians were besides angry with the Athenians for back uping Corcyra, their enemy. The Spartans feared that Athens would utilize their advantage to destruct the Spartans control over the Peloponnesian conference ( Martin, 56 ) . The Athenians believed that the Gods would prefer them in the war for holding followed all of their duties. ( Martin, 124 ) Had Sparta non been so eager for war, so peace likely would hold lasted between Athens and Sparta, but because Sparta was so eager for war, the Peloponnesian war began and lasted for 27 old ages.

Large motions and extended combat took topographic point from Sicily to the seashore of Asia Minor, and from the Hellespont and Thrace to Rhodes. The Peloponnesian war was the first war in history to be recorded by an eyewitness historiographer, Thucydides. The war began on the 4th of April 431 BC and did non stop until the 25th of April 404 BC. ( Martin, 147 )

“ The existent cause I consider to be the one which was officially most kept out of sight. The growing of the power of Athens, and the dismay which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. ” ( Thucydides, 12 )

In comparing, the United States Civil War began with economic and societal disagreements between the North and South. “ The Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865 and led to over 618,000 casualties. 94,000 Confederates of about 1,300,000 died in 48 major conflicts of the four-year war and about 110,000 out of 2,900,000 Union Soldiers. The higher casualty rate of the Confederates is explained by lower rates of abandonment and more frequent committedness of units in a smaller ground forces to action. It is estimated that 400,000 or more died of disease or adversity entire. ” ( Randall, Donald, 371 )

During the first half of the 19th century, the United States expanded at an sum that was unmatched in modern history. The growing occurred in three proportions, district, population, and economic. ( Randall, Donald, 206 ) The growing, nevertheless, was achieved at a high cost to certain groups in North America. White work forces were illicitly prehending Indian lands and killing the Natives or driving them further to the West. The enlargement was due in portion, to the slave-grown baccy and cotton. The United States was rapidly going the largest slaveholding state in the universe. The political tensenesss of the development threatened to destruct the state, these tensenesss due largely to slavery, and to the divisions between the free and slave-holding provinces. This caused a struggle over whether the land would be free or slave retention. Originally, the northern provinces reached a decision to number each slave as three-fifths of a individual for the population footing of representation in the Electoral College. Another struggle was that they had a clause prohibiting for twenty old ages “ the transition of a jurisprudence to forbid importing of slaves, and a clause necessitating slaves to be returned even after they had escaped into the free Northern provinces. ” ( Randall, Donald, 216 ) The South was forcing for the new lands to be slave-holding provinces, and the North was forcing for the land to be free. Finally they came to slightly of a via media leting Missouri to be added as a slave province, but the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase was to stay free. This settled the issue for a piece, until the Mexican war caused the issue to come up once more. By 1860, the Free provinces had a population of 19 million and the slave provinces had a population of merely about 12 million. “ The election of the president by Northern antislavery parties in 1860 was the first chief cause of the slave provinces desiring to splinter from the state, and caused the first battles of the civil war. ” ( Randall, Donald, 216 )

Cotton, in the South, had become moneymaking following the creative activity of the cotton gin, and rise in plantations and traveling to other harvests caused a necessity for a big sum of cheap labour. Therefore, they needed a larger sum of slaves. The south became an economic system dependant on the growing of cotton. The northern economic system was mostly based on industry. The industries in the North were buying the cotton and turning it into the finished goods. This set up major differences in economic attitudes, because the South was based upon plantations, while the North was based on metropolis life ( Randall, Donald, 36 ) . Society in the North evolved because people of different civilizations and categories needed to work together. Since the clip of the Revolution, two different groups emerged, those contending for greater province rights and those contending for the federal authorities to hold more control. Many argued that the fundamental law overlooked the provinces ‘ rights to move independently. They felt the provinces should hold the right to make up one’s mind if they were willing to accept certain federal Acts of the Apostless. The provinces felt that they were “ no longer respected ” . ( Randall, Donald, 28 )

There was besides a battle between which provinces would be slave provinces and which would be free-soil provinces. There was a immense conflict reasoning whether new lands would be slave or free-soil. Another issue was the Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854, this act created two new districts that would let the provinces to utilize popular sovereignty to find whether they would be free or slave. There was much tenseness, doing a conflict in Kansas, called “ hemorrhage Kansas ” .

The northern provinces became more and more against bondage, particularly after the transition of the fleeting slave act, which held persons responsible for protecting fleeting slaves even if they were in free-soil provinces. The concluding cause of the start of the war, nevertheless, was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. South Carolina so issues its “ declaration of the causes of sezession ” ( Randall, Donald, 312 ) because they believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favour of the North. Seven provinces seceded from the brotherhood before Lincoln was elected, including South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The most of import causes Southerners listed for the war were unjust revenue enhancement, provinces ‘ rights, and the bondage issue, and beef uping the function of the Cardinal Government in America.

In the American Civil war, Industry was used for the first clip including railwaies, steamers, telegraph, and mass-produced arms. This is a major difference between the wars, as this is the lone war that industry was used in. It is the deadliest war in American history, go forthing over 600,000 dead. ( Randall, Donald, 64 )

Major causes of the Revolutionary war included many political causes. Americans considered the British point of position irrational and oppressive. The British were seeking to put to death revenue enhancements on the Americans, they thought that the Americans should “ transport their just portion of the debt load ” ( Lancaster, 46 ) from the wars that the British had been contending. The Englishmen found the settlers attitude to be hideous, and thought them to be uncooperative.

The biggest cause to the Revolutionary war was likely the Stamp Act. As Lord Chesterfield put it “ It has given such panic to the Americans that our trade with them will non be, for some old ages, what it used to beaˆ¦ ” ( Lancaster 47 ) . The Americans considered it, non to be an act of trade or gross, but an act of dictatorship, because the Americans had ne’er been consulted, the act was merely passed with no audience to the settlers. The Stamp act was an act that taxed the Americans to pay for the costs of the Gallic and Indian war. It was a revenue enhancement on all printed stuffs, such as booklets, newspapers, and commercial paperss. ( Lancaster, 50 ) This led to boycotts of British goods, every bit good as a formal declaration of American grudges and rights. They called themselves the Stamp Act Congress. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, nevertheless, the settlers already had the foundation set for the American Revolution. The settlers were enraged by the cast revenue enhancement, because of the criterion it was puting, because in the yesteryear, revenue enhancements were viewed as steps to modulate commercialism, and non to raise money. The Stamp Act, was executed to raise money, and was done without the settlers blessing. Their sentiment was that if this revenue enhancement were to go through without any battle, so there would be more revenue enhancements like it to come. They besides considered it a misdemeanor of their rights to be taxed without their understanding.

Another cause to the Revolution was the Townshend Acts. These Acts of the Apostless came into topographic point when Charles Townshend replaced William Pitt as Prime Minister of Great Britain. Townshend, unlike Pitt, did non care about the rights of the American settlers. He was merely concerned with beef uping the power of Parliament, converting Parliament to go through Torahs, which forced new revenue enhancements upon the settlers, believing that external revenue enhancements would be acceptable. New revenue enhancements were placed on points such as paper, lead, glass, pigment and tea, which were imported. ( Lancaster, 60 ) He besides suspended the New York Legislature until they agreed to one-fourth the British soldiers. The settlers perfectly refused to one-fourth the British soldiers.

For the Revolutionary War, the Revolution came about by chance. Most of the settlers wished at first that they would non hold to hold a war ; it was merely increasingly that the events caused the settlers to arise and caused a war, it was ne’er their purpose to hold a war with Great Britain.

In the Revolutionary War, there were many different causes, non one specific cause that started the war. The first chief cause was when the “ great common man ” ( Lancaster, 60 ) William Pitt, halted the illegal wartime trade between the mainland settlements and the Gallic West Indies. The Writs of Assistance were the chief cause of this. “ These writs gave permission to officers to come in by force, any warehouses, shops or places and hunt for bootleg goods without holding any grounds, or suspected any of these goods. They did non hold to hold any pretence in these hunts. ” ( Lancaster, 62 )

Another cause was the Molasses Act of 1733. This act imposed a revenue enhancement of six pence per gallon on the settlers imports of foreign molasses ; nevertheless, it was non to assure income, but to do certain that the British West Indian Sugar Company kept a monopoly on the market. The settlers extremely opposed this revenue enhancement, complained that it was reasonably high, and that its execution would destroy their economic system. Next was the sugar act. The settlers were get downing to arise, and differ with British policies. The Townshend Acts of the Apostless and Tea revenue enhancement were other events taking up to the Revolution.

Another major event taking up to the Revolution was the “ Boston Massacre ” this was an event in which, on the eventide of March 5, 1770, crowds of people were throwing sweet sand verbenas at British officers outside the Custom House. Troops came out to assist the officer, but the rabble kept coming in closer. Captain Preston kept stating his work forces non to fire, nevertheless, one of the

British soldiers fired anyways into the crowd, doing a few other shootings to be fired. Five of the people ended up dead and even more hurt. This caused terrible choler among the people of Boston. ( Lancaster, 70 )

Another concluding and major factor in doing the war was the Tea Act. This act gave the East India tea Company a monopoly on tea trade. Though tea was now less expensive than it had been, it still carried the revenue enhancement, which angered the Americans. “ On December 16, 1773, 150 disguised Boston Patriots boarded English ships and dumped 342 thoraxs of tea into the seaport. “ ( Lancaster, 94 ) This angered the British more than anything antecedently. As one Englishman put it, it was “ The most motiveless and motiveless abuse offered to the civil power that is recorded in history. “ ( Lancaster, 94 ) . From so on, dealingss between the settlements and Britain went downhill and the fortunes easy got worse.

The “ Intolerable Acts ” , nevertheless, was the concluding reverse to the Americans that started off the Revolution. The “ Coercive Acts ” as it was referred to by the British, was an act that was passed until the settlers would pay back the East India Tea Company for the tea that was dumped into the seaport. ( Lancaster, 75 ) The Acts included shuting the Boston seaport port, and the Royal governor controlled the Massachusetts authorities, and all sheriffs would go royal appointees. The British besides forced the settlers to one-fourth any soldiers anyplace in the Colonies. ( Lancaster, 75 )

A celebrated quotation mark by John Adams was that one of the most of import factors in the Revolution was that “ there had to be a Revolution in the heads, and the Black Marias of the people ” ( Lancaster, 56 ) before alteration could take topographic point. This was a major consequence of the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act caused the people of even the lowest categories to arise against the British and push more towards a Revolution. They began to develop soldiers and pattern for a full out war.

For the Civil, Revolutionary, and Peloponnesian wars, fright was a common factor in doing the wars. Fear of power for the Spartans, and for the United States southern provinces, fright of the new fundamental law, every bit good as fright that their manner of life would be interrupted. They feared that bondage would be banned and they feared that they would non hold adequate power. Therefore, in these instances, fright was a common factor doing the wars. In the Revolutionary war, fright was besides a factor. The settlers feared the Torahs and limitations that Great Britain would enforce, and thought that if they could enforce one revenue enhancement or jurisprudence upon them, that they could enforce any unjust Torahs or revenue enhancements upon them.


The results of the wars are besides really similar and different in their ain ways. In the Peloponnesian war, Athens ended up losing their imperium. Here is an illustration of what happened:

Athinais lost its imperium and accordingly the beginning of gross, which had supported its dominant navy. Sparta and its Alliess achieved impermanent land laterality until Thebes and its Alliess, go forthing a tripartite draw in laterality in mainland Greece, overthrew this.

By 448 BC, Athens had exhausted Persia ‘s will to prolong the war and peace was made. Athenian intercessions finally turned Corinth and others against Athens and provoked an eruption out belligerencies. Finally in 433 wars broke out between Athinais and Corinth. In 432 Sparta joined in, and started the Peloponnesian war Proper, which ended in Spartan triumph. The wake finally left Greece unfastened to conquest and implement fusion at the custodies of the Macedonians. ( Martin, 165 )

The result of the civil war was that bondage was eliminated in the United States. The South had far fewer soldiers and far less supplies for their ground forces. This was partly why they lost the war. The soldiers of the South suffered from deficiency of nutrient, vesture, places and covers. By the terminal of the war, they were weakened by famishment and unwellness. Therefore, on April 2, 1865, the Northern ground forces broke into Petersburg and General Lee of the southern ground forces came to the realisation that, he would be trapped if he chose to maintain his ground forces around Richmond. He headed west. Grant ‘s ground forces surrounded the Southerners and two yearss subsequently. Lee and Grant met in Virginia where the Confederate leaders surrendered the remains of their ground forces, because the Union ground forces was better trained and better equipped to go on the battle, they won. The Confederates knew that had no opportunity against the Union soldiers in their already weakened province, and hence they surrendered.

In the Peloponnesian war, Pericles on the Eve of contending said that war was inevitable. There was malaise that this would be a new limitless civil battle. The Corinthians warned the Spartans to halt their antique schemes of war and happen new ways to destruct Athens. There were at least 55 straightforward naval actions, land conflicts and besiegings. There is no record of how many were killed or lost in these conflicts. ( Martin, 155 )

The Greeks had a galley called the Trireme. Lightness and balance non seaworthiness and protection, were the main purposes in constructing these ships. Crew could row at about 50 shots a minute, to velocities of up to ten knots.

From 411 to 404, the Athenians met the Spartans and their Alliess in at least seven major battles. To win, the Spartans had to kill off, gaining control or spread at least 50,000 Athenian and allied crewmans and drop about 200 ships. These last conflicts are sometimes called the Ionian war.

Navy was a large portion of the Peloponnesian war. Spears, javelins, bows, warship random-access memories were the chief arms used during the Peloponnesian war. During the civil war, the bulk of the arms used were artillery or canons, and little weaponries. Bayonets, sabres, blades, short blades, cutlasses, Bowie knives, expresswaies, and spears were used every bit good, but accounted for really few of the casualties. Though the civil war is non thought of as a naval war, ships did play a large portion of it. There were some naval conflicts. The Navy was a large portion of the Peloponnesian war.

The Peloponnesian war started with Pericles rejecting all dialogues. He insisted on get downing a war to resuscitate his melting popularity, and no adjustment to Spartan demands was possible because Athenian freedoms of action were at interest. The war between Sparta and Athens began in 431 and carried on for 27 old ages. The Thirty-year peace made in 445 was destroyed. ( Martin, 124 )

Causes of the Peloponnesian war were focused on differences between Athens and Sparta in the 430s covering with Alliess. The eruption came when the Spartans issued demands to Athens that the Athenian assembly rejected urged to make so by Pericles. The Spartans so threatened unfastened warfare unless Athens lifted its economic countenances against Megara and stopped its military encirclement of Potidaea. The Corinthians were besides angry with the Athenians for back uping Corcyra. The Spartans so feared that Athens would utilize their high quality to destruct the Spartans control over the Peloponnesian conference. Therefore started the Peloponnesian war. The Athenians believed that the Gods would prefer them in the war for holding valued their duties.

Athinais had fatigued Persia ‘s will to prolong the war and peace was made. Athenian intercessions finally turned Corinth and others against Athens and provoked an eruption of belligerencies. Finally in 433 wars broke out between Athinais and Corinth. In 432 Sparta joined in, and started the Peloponnesian war Proper, which ended in Spartan triumph. The wake finally left Greece unfastened to conquest and implement fusion at the custodies of the Macedonians.

Pericles on the Eve of contending said that war was inevitable. There was edginess that this would be a new unrestricted civil battle. The Corinthians warned the Spartans to halt their antique schemes of war and happen new ways to destruct Athens. There were at least 55 distinct naval battles, land conflicts and besiegings. There is no record of how many were killed or lost in the conflicts. ( Hanson, 174 )

The Greeks had a galley called the Trireme. “ Lightness and balance non seaworthiness and protection, were the main purposes in constructing these ships. Crew could row at about 50 shots a minute, to velocities of up to ten knots. ” ( Hanson, 236 ) These ships could transport about 200 crewmans, officers and Mariness.

From 411 to 404, the Athenians met the Spartans and their Alliess in at least seven major battles. To win, the Spartans had to kill off, gaining control or spread at least 50,000 Athenian and allied crewmans and drop about 200 ships. These last conflicts are sometimes called the Ionian war. ( Hanson, 124 )

Revolutionary War, causes include the fact that the people had moved to the “ new universe ” to get away Great Britain, and non hold to cover with the revenue enhancements and other Torahs that were being imposed on them ; nevertheless, they shortly were faced with the same oppressive authorities in the new universe. The chief cause was the revenue enhancements and non being represented. They wanted to be an independent state, wholly separate from Great Britain.

The result of the radical war was that the 13 settlements were freed from British regulation. Trade was besides reconnected between the settlements and other parts of the universe ( which is similar to the Peloponnesian war because they were besides afraid of trade being cut off ) . The United States enlisted a sum of about 200,000 soldiers and crewmans during the war. Battle casualties were 4435 dead and 6188 wounded. An estimated 20,000 Americans died of non-combat causes. Treaty of Paris was signed on Sept. 3, 1783 and Great Britain recognized the independency of the United States. The Americans so elected their first president, George Washington. ( Lancaster, )

The Continental Navy finally put into service 50 or 60 ships ; the Colonies ‘ naval forcess added another 40 or so. In comparing, the British Navy in 1775 had 270 ships and by 1783 had enlarged the figure to 468. Although the corporate American naval forcess were unable to get by with the British fleets, they sank or captured about 200 royal ships. ( Lancaster 123 )

The Greeks had a galley called the Trireme. Lightness and balance non seaworthiness and protection, were the chief intents in constructing these ships. Crew could row at about 50 shots a minute, to velocities of up to ten knots.

The Peloponnesian war easy divides itself into three stages. Concluded by a armistice in 421, there were ten old ages of intermittent combat. This armistice stage, named after the Athenian general Nicias, lasted until 415. A big onslaught against Sicily by Athens began the concluding stage. This operation was so black for Athens that the metropolis was barely able to uniformly recover. In 411, the democracy at Athens was besides temporarily overturned, and the metropolis remained in political confusion for old ages. Though democracy had been restored, infinite leaders could non hold to any armistice footings, and many wanted to go on to contend the war, no affair what it took. Battles raged on for the following six old ages. Athens rebuilt its fleet, while Sparta and its Alliess created their ain naval forces. Under Lysander, the terminal came for Athens in 405, when he defeated the Athenians in the conflict of Aegospotami.

One major effect of the Peloponnesian war was that Athens lost its imperium and the beginning of gross that had supported its naval forces. Sparta and it allies achieved impermanent land domination until the Thebes and its Alliess, left a tripartite draw of laterality in the mainland of Greece, and they overthrew them. The devastation of the 27-year war left the Hellenic universe less united and less capable of facing Persia when they attacked. The postwar dividers and ongoing battles between Athens and Sparta enabled Persia to go involved. The diminished state of affairs left the mainland of Greece unfastened to the enlargement of Phillip II of Macedonia, and he declared himself as leader of Greece and determined to extinguish any Iranian laterality. After his blackwash, Alexander the Great was able to declare himself leader of Greece, and proceeded to destruct the Persian Empire.

In the Peloponnesian war there were five stages, Phase one was from 431-427 BC. In Phase one, Sparta relied on the traditional scheme of Greek warfare, in hopes that by occupying Attica and destructing the harvests, it would coerce Athens to peace, or they would hold to contend the conflict. The major issues with this scheme was that Athens could non be starved into resignation or made to contend by business of its single citizens farming areas, since her nutrient supplies came largely from Egypt. The Spartans were certain of their scheme. They knew their metropolis walls were non penetrable and affiliated Athinais to the sea of Piraeus and that their naval forces could guarantee nutrient supply. This was their chief defensive scheme.

After the Spartans invaded, the rural population of Attica moved into the metropolis, and Athens became unable to be attacked. Athens ‘s fleet secured the imperium against any rebellions. Every spring and Autumn the Athenian ground forces would lay waste to the lands of Sparta ‘s Alliess while the Spartans were be givening to their harvests. This scheme, nevertheless, had many failings, for he had missed the chance of combined land and sea actions to convey a higher inhuman treatment of war to the Spartans.

Athinais offered peace in 430, nevertheless the Spartans declined. In 430-429 Potidaea eventually surrendered, and this helped to promote the Athenian place. In the autumn of 429, Athens won two major naval conflicts.

Phase two of the Peloponnesian War began when, in 426, under the way of their new political leaders Cleon and Demosthenes, they began more active operations. In 425 Athens won a great triumph at Spacteria. In 424, All the Athenian violative programs ended up weakness, and the admirals were forced to return from Sicily. In 422, Brasidas, a Spartan leader, continued to hold triumphs despite Athenian aids. He killed Cleon but died every bit good, go forthing two of the greatest advocators of the war dead. In 421, there was a peace pact between Athens and Sparta, and it was hoped that the war would shortly be ended.

In Phase three, from 421 to 417, Corinth and Thebes refused to listen to the peace pact, and while Athinais gave up its Spartan captives, neither Sparta nor Athens fulfilled their other obligations.. Athens besides obtained a new democratic leader, Alcibiades, doing Athinais hope they could assail more offensively, and hoped to cut off Spartan and Corinthian supplies from Sicily. This did non work, nevertheless, and ended severely for Alcibiades, being forced to fly to Sparta to get away charges against him. They began the run, nevertheless, they were defeated when supplies ran out, and the Athenian fleet was blocked and defeated in conflict. Survivors were enslaved, while generals were executed.

In stage four, the Spartans officially resumed war in August of 414, Greece now to the full anticipating Athens to lose. Sparta now had many extra supports and Athens had lost its fleet every bit good as wore out their exchequer. In 413, Athens was caught up in a encirclement, barricading all their Ag mines, and the imperium fell apart, doing many rebellions. Another party seized power in Athens and wanted to offer resignation nevertheless, this was non agreed upon by the Democratic Party. Athens was now dependent of Crimea for nutrient, because of the encirclement. This did non look good for Athens.

In stage five of the war, the Spartans eventually offered peace after the conflict of Arginusae in 406. The Athenians refused their offer. Soon after, the Spartans blockaded Athens by cutting off their grain supply. Athens eventually surrendered to the footings offered by the Spartans after about six months of famishment, with no alleviation in sight.

The wake of the Peloponnesian war was that though the Peloponnesian war ended, the struggles did non. There were still conflicts among the outstanding Grecian City states. “ In the 50 old ages that followed the Peloponnesian war, Sparta, Thebes and Athens struggled militarily to win a leading place without, in the terminal, accomplishing anything more than weakening each other and making a vacuity of power on the international degree. ” ( Martin, 174 ) Macedonia ended up lifting to power militarily and politically under the reign of Philip II. He formed the League of Corinth, and planned to do war against Persia. Alexander the Great took over after Phillip II was murdered, and conquered all of the Persian Empire. Athens ne’er regained their economic and military strength that it had had in the yesteryear.

In the wake of the Revolutionary War, a formal pact of Peace was signed on September 3, 1783, eight old ages after the first conflict of the war. Great Britain now acknowledged the settlements as their ain separate state. When the war ended, the Americans were working under the Articles of Confederation. In 1787, Nationalists called the Philadelphia convention, and they drafted a fundamental law, which would supply a stronger federal authorities. This authorities would hold a president, Congress would manage the power of revenue enhancement, and there would be a balance between all of the subdivisions including the judicial, executive and legislative subdivisions. The new president George Washington took office in March of 1789, making the new system of authorities of the United States of America.

The wake of the American Civil War began when General Robert E. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865 to the Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Abraham Lincoln ‘s program was to retrace the South, nevertheless, this ne’er happened due to his blackwash, April 14, 1865. The provinces finally ended up a stronger brotherhood because of the Civil War, because there were no longer any inquiries sing whether they would splinter from the state. It brought the provinces closer together and made them more incorporate. Most significantly, nevertheless, the terminal of the Civil war brought bondage to an official terminal in the southern provinces.

There are many grounds why even though the Peloponnesian war was 2,436 old ages in the past, we still study it. One ground included that it was a “ barbarous and really long battle ” ( Hanson, 5 ) because of this, many that were born after the first old ages of the war, frequently would contend and decease in the combat before the war was over. It destroyed households, and it reminds us that war is destructive, and can rupture people apart. It is besides because there are so many analogues between the Peloponnesian war and so many other wars in history. It is besides because of Thucydides that we study the Peloponnesian war, because Thucydides was an of import philosopher of the clip. He believed that human nature is unchanging across clip and infinite, and is predictable, and that the war between Athens and Sparta should function as a lesson for what can go on to anyone at any clip. He uses the subjects of maltreatment and power and how it changes work forces over clip. Thucydides is besides of import because he was non merely a theoretician but besides a participant in the war that he wrote approximately. Though he is bias towards one side, he wanted to hear both sides of the narrative, and study as much truthfully of the war as perchance, utilizing interviews and addresss and entering them every bit closely as possible.

In decision, the Peloponnesian War, American Revolutionary War, and the American Civil War, are all similar in cause and declaration, every bit good as the fact that they are each based out of fright. Fears, every bit good as human nature are major causes of wars in the universe. War has non changed much in over 2,000 old ages since the beginning of the Peloponnesian war to the terminal of the American Civil War, and even to current wars today, there are still many similar causes, schemes, and declarations.