Amalgamations are nil new to the universe of concern ; countless of concerns have been acquired, bought out, phased out and bankrupted, along with other types of entity deaths. How is it that a company can last over 200 old ages and go on to be one of the largest Bankss in the universe while another dies in merely over 100 old ages?
In order to understand the organisational civilization of both Bankss we need to look at their background. Where did they come from and where are they now.
Historical Background of JP Morgan Chase
In 1799, the United States 3rd Vice President Aaron Burr created the Bank of the Manhattan Company. Under the pretense of “ providing the City of New York with pure and wholesome H2O ” ( Anonymous, 2005 ) during the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1798, Aaron Burr helped to force a clause after being awarded $ 2,000,000 for the ambitious undertaking underway. This was a cagey gambit to sell the water company to the metropolis and instantly turned itself to banking. This action opened banking privileges that helped forestall the monopolisation in the banking industry that existed in the banking and province of New York.
“ After an epidemic of xanthous febrility in 1798, in which caskets had been sold by itinerant sellers on street corners, Aaron Burr established the Manhattan Company, with the apparent purpose of conveying clean H2O to the metropolis from the Bronx River but in fact designed as a forepart for the creative activity of New York ‘s 2nd bank, equaling Alexander Hamilton ‘s Bank of New York. ” ( The Economist, 2000 )
The ferocious political and personal competition that existed between Vice President Aaron Burr and Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, led to the celebrated historical Burr-Hamilton affaire d’honneur that led to Hamilton ‘s decease in 1804.
Chase National Bank was founded in 1877 by banker John Thompson, whose boy went on to get down the “ 1st National Bank of the City of New York ” which is better known today as Citibank. Chase National Bank kept its name until 1955 when Chase became interested in the Bank of the Manhattan Company. A amalgamation proved to be non so easy since Aaron Burr ‘s clause was still in consequence, stale but still in drama. Banker John J. McCloy, who was one the “ Wise Men ” ( Isaacson & A ; Thomas, 1986 ) under President Harry Truman ‘s disposal, acquired consentaneous consent of stockholders for the bank to be taken over. When the trade was struck for Chase National Bank to take over the Bank of the Manhattan Company, McCloy became president to unify both concerns together organizing Chase Manhattan Bank. George Champion succeeded McCloy and working with David Rockefeller, the bank became known as Chase Manhattan Corporation.
Chemical Bank of New York was founded in 1823 by three gentlemen ; Balthazar P. Melick, Mark Spenser, and Geradus Post. Following the same maneuver that Aaron Burr used in 1798, they started the New York Chemical Manufacturing Company to bring forth a assortment of chemicals the same manner Burr used H2O. They so successfully petitioned the New York State Assembly to go a bank ; hence Chemical Bank of New York was born. ( “ Chemical Bank Company History: Chemical Banking Corporation ” ) . In the early to mid 1990s, Chemical Bank purchased both the Manufacturers Hanover and Chase Manhattan and became Chase Manhattan Bank.
In the twelvemonth 2000 the steamroller J.P. Morgan & A ; Company came into the image. By now, Chase Manhattan Bank had become one of the most successful Bankss in the United States, but they were still looking to spread out. An understanding was made and J.P. Morgan merged with Chase Manhattan Bank making JPMorgan Chase & A ; Company. This was a $ 650 billion amalgamation, merely 2nd to Citigroup ‘s $ 800 billion. ( McGeehan & A ; Sorkin, 2000 ) . However, it did n’t halt at that place ; Bank One and Bear Stearns & A ; Company came under the cross hairs of in the mid 2000s.
Historical Background of Washington Mutual
Washington Mutual was established in 1889 as the Washington National Building Loan & A ; Investment Association after the great Seattle fire that consumed the bulk of the concern territory.
The beginnings were modest, to be certain, but non long after its creative activity, Washington National made banking history. The association ‘s first loans were approved in February 1890, one of which was an amortized place loan, possibly the first of its sort in the United States. Washington National went on to O.K. more than 2,000 amortized place loans during the resulting 20 old ages, going a much-used beginning for place mortgage loans. ( Funding Universe )
Merely shy of the First World War about coming to an terminal, Washington National Building Loan & A ; Investment Association changed their name to Washington Mutual Savings Bank and began to harvest the wagess. “ The recast establishment boasted more than 16,000 depositors at the clip of the United States ‘ entryway into World War I and benefitted well from the century ‘s first heroic poem military battle. During World War I, Washington Mutual ‘s assets rose 68 per centum, entering a addition of more than $ 4 million, and existent estate loans registered an even greater addition, by 250 per centum. ” ( Funding Universe )
In 1930, Washington Mutual attained a agony Continental Mutual Savings during the beginning of the Great Depression. By the terminal of the 1930s to the early 1940s, Washington Mutual grew to about 100,000 depositors, one time once more profiting from another economic roar.
The Second World War brought much attending to Washington Mutual Savings ; selling about $ 30 million in bonds. Now, no alien to amalgamations, Washington Mutual Savings merged with Coolidge Mutual Savings Bank ( increasing sedimentations to $ 72 million ) . New Torahs and statute laws passed in the United States leting Washington Mutual to construct new locations and to turn rather quickly. Still, Washington Mutual Savings remained, as the expression goes “ under the radio detection and ranging ” until the sixtiess when it started to turn and spread out out of the Seattle country. Washington Mutual Savings began to raise superciliums in 1964 when they acquired Citizens Mutual Savings Bank which, was founded in 1902 as Citizens Savings & A ; Loans Society. Washington Mutual Savings did non halt at that place, before taking over Citizens Savings ; Washington Mutual Savings obtained Pullman Savings & A ; Loan giving the Washington Mutual Savings a presence known throughout Washington State. The rapid growing of Washington Mutual came under examination. Was Washington Mutual spread outing excessively fast and distributing themselves excessively thin?
By the 1980s, Washington Mutual Financial Group, a seasoned corporation was about 100 old ages old. Washington Mutual continued with their acquisition and amalgamation fling and after successfully purchasing Murphey Favre, Inc. and Composite Research & A ; Management Company, they remained silent for about a decennary operating in different countries of concern such as travel services, existent estate partnership, and commercial loans.
In 1983, Washington Mutual demutualizes change overing to a capital stock nest eggs bank and within six old ages, doubled its assets. Then, in the 1990s, a former Murphey Favre employee named Kerry K. Killinger, who had assimilated into the Washington Mutual environment, rose up through the ranks of Washington Mutual doing CEO in 12 old ages. This is when questionable concern patterns began to take consequence. The followers is a list of the Bankss that were acquired under his reign:
Commercial Capital Bancorp, California, 2006
Providian Financial Corporation, California, 2005
Alta Residential Mortgage Trust, California, 2000
Long Beach Financial Corp. , California, 1999
Industrial Bank, California, 1998
H. F. Ahmanson & A ; Co. ( Home Savings of America ) , California, 1998
Great Western Bank, 1997
United Western Financial Group, Inc. , Utah, 1997
Keystone Holdings, Inc. ( American Savings Bank ) , California, 1996
Utah Federal Savings Bank, 1996
Western Bank, Oregon, 1996
Enterprise Bank, Washington, 1995
Olympus Bank FSB, Utah, 1995
Summit Savings Bank, Washington, 1994
Far West Federal Savings Bank, Oregon, 1994
Pioneer Savings Bank, Washington, 1993
Great Northwest Bank, Washington, 1992
Sound Savings & A ; Loan Association, Washington, 1991
CrossLand Savings FSB, Utah, 1991
Vancouver Federal Savings Bank, Washington, 1991
Williamsburg Federal Savings Association, Utah, 1990
Frontier Federal Savings Association, Washington, 1990
These acquisitions over the old ages gave Washington Mutual an unprecedented growing. Just over the bank turning 100 old ages old, it was deserving $ 42 billion.
Killinger ‘s doctrine was quoted by the New York Times, “ We hope to make to this industry what Wal-Mart did to theirs, Starbucks did to theirs, Costco did to theirs and Lowe’s-Home Depot did to their industry. And I think if we ‘ve done our occupation, five old ages from now you ‘re non traveling to name us a bank. ” ( Goodman & A ; Morgenson, 2008 )
The Subprime Mortgage Crisis had a awful consequence in the finance industry, and Washington Mutual felt the brunt of its force. This sent everyone running for screen. Finally, the crisis led to the board of managers to taking Killinger as CEO in late 2008. The FDIC was dubbed as the receiving system of the largest bank failure in the history of United States. Before Washington Mutual was sold to JP Morgan Chase, “ Kerry K. Killinger earned a entire compensation of $ 14,364,883, which included a base wage of $ 1,000,000, a hard currency fillip of $ 0, stocks granted of $ 10,120,731, and options granted of $ 2,846,400. ) ( Equilar, 2007 )