Nanotechnology solar cells

Abstraction

Nanotechnology solar cells are an improved version of photovoltaic solar cells utilizing the latest engineering “Nanotechnology” . Photovoltaic solar cells are made of semiconducting material stuff, Si, which is non an expensive stuff but it is dearly-won to fabricate as it requires clean suites or vacuum chamber. However, it is non really efficient in bring forthing electricity or a current of negatrons due to the set spread energy. With the latest nanotechnology, the efficiency of the electricity produced is increased and besides, the cost monetary value to fabricate the solar cells utilizing nanotechnology is reduced. The constructions of Nanotechnology solar cells are besides different from the photovoltaic solar cells as it uses inexpensive plastic solar cells that are paintable on about all types of surface. However, these fictile solar cells can merely accomplish 1.7 % of efficiency, with the aid of the bantam nanorods that are diffused within a polymer. These nanorods act similar wires as negatrons are merely created when the nanorods absorb a specific wavelength of visible radiation to bring forth electricity. Nanotechnology solar cells do non merely consist of plastic solar cells and nanorods, it besides includes many different type of Solar Cells – Quantum Dots ( nanocrystals ) , Gratzel Cells and Polymer Cells.

Introduction

Background

Solar Cells are a type of solar power engineering that transforms energy from the Sun into electrical energy. ( Seale, 2003, para.1 ) The early, Solar Cells ( Photovoltaic Cells ) are made from Si. The protons layer absorbs the Sun energy to strike hard out the negatrons in the Si to let the energy flow through. Different drosss such as P or B are added to the Si to set up an electric field. This electric field acts as a rectifying tube to let negatrons to flux in one way to do a current of negatrons to flux in one way, and this phenomenon is besides known as electricity. ( Aldous, 2002, para.2 ) However, there are 2 disadvantages on photovoltaic cells. One restriction is that it can merely accomplish about 10 % efficiency due to the demand of incoming photons, or visible radiation, holding the right energy, called the set spread energy, to coerce an negatron out. For illustration, the photon will go through through the Si if it has less energy than the set spread energy. ( Aldous, 2002, para.2 ) [ 3 ] Otherwise, that extra energy will be lost as heat. The 2nd disadvantage is the high cost of Si, which requires expensive equipment such as clean suites or vacuity Chamberss and demands to be made under rigorous controlled conditions.

With the betterment of engineering, a new coevals of engineering ( “Nanotechnology” ) has emerged. With the betterment from the first coevals ( e.g. Si ) to 2nd coevals ( e.g. thin movie ) before germinating into the 3rd coevals, nanostructure solar cells or progress thin-film photovoltaic cells. The nanotechnology solar cell can be produced utilizing inexpensive plastic solar cells, which are paintable regardless of the surface. Despite holding a maximal efficiency of merely 1.7 per centum, these new plastic solar cells are assuring in their capableness. ( Sanders, 2002, para.2 ) Their basic construction makes usage of bantam nanorods dispersed within in a polymer, which behave as wires because negatrons are created when the nanorods absorb visible radiation of a specific wavelength. These negatrons travel in the nanorods towards the aluminium electrode where they finally gather to organize a current, what we call electricity. This type of cell is much more cost-efficient compared to photovoltaic cells. First, Si, which is an expensive stuff, is non used to do these fictile cells. Second, dearly-won research labs such as clean suites or vacuity Chamberss for the industry of photovoltaic Si based solar cells are non needed for the production of these fictile cells. The fictile cells can be made in a beaker as an option. ( Sanders, 2002, para.5-12 ) The combination of nanotechnology and solar cell will bring forth a little addition in the efficiency of the solar cell, but most significantly it lowers the stuff cost of industry the cell. The current nanotechnology solar cell besides consists of: Quantum Dots ( nanocrystals ) , and Gratzel cell.

Aim

The primary aim of this study is to place the most efficient Solar Cells to be implemented in the Solar panel to derive better energy efficiency. Nanotechnology Solar Cells is the latest engineering Solar Cells that can increase the dependability and energy of the Solar panels but at the same clip, non increasing the cost of the system significantly.

Scope

The range of the study covers the development of cost-efficient and better energy efficiency Solar cells for usage in developing Solar panels. In this study, we cover the construction of Nanotechnology Solar cells which includes the different beds of stuff it is made up of, and the procedure of how Solar Energy is being produced utilizing Nanotechnology Solar cell. Last, the study besides takes history of the other type of Nanotechnology Solar Cells – Quantum Dots, Gratzel Cells and Polymer Cells.

Discussion Of Nanotechnology

Structure Of Nanotechnology Solar Cells

Nanotechnology non merely plays an of import function in increasing the efficiency of the solar cell, but besides it helps to cut down the fabrication cost of the cells. Chemists at University of California ( UC ) , Berkeley have come up with a manner of doing inexpensive plastic solar cells that could be painted on about all the surfaces. Even though these new plastic solar cells can accomplish an efficiency of 1.7 per centum merely, research workers strongly believe that these solar cells can make much better than this. “There is a reasonably clear way for us to take to do this perform much better.” ( Alivisatos, 2002, para.3 ) [ 6 ]

These solar cells have bantam nanorods dispersed within a polymer. These rods act like wires and they absorb visible radiations of specific wavelengths and as a consequence generate negatrons. Then there is a flow of negatrons in the wires which when reaches the aluminum electrode gets combined and converted as electricity or electric current. Typical construction of the solar cell is given at the side:

The sunshine is allowed to fall on the photoreception country of the solar cell which penetrates through it and reaches the interior country where nanorods are sandwiched in between the aluminum electrodes. The production of the electricity takes topographic point in this country of the cell.

The figure on the left is a paradigm of a panel of eight plastic solar cells which is based on inorganic nanorods and semiconducting polymers.

The egg-shaped forms on the panels are the aluminium back electrodes of each single solar cell inside the panel.

Procedure Of Producing Solar Energy

A solar cell is a device which converts photon of visible radiation into electricity. Harmonizing to Knier, G. ( n.d. ) , the stuff used for the cell is specifically treated in order to do it able act as a music director of electricity. ( Knier, G. , n.d. , para.1 ) . Such stuff usually has 2 charged terminus, the p-type and the n-type which is similar to a semiconducting material. In the U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program article ( n.d. ) it stated that, in the n-type terminus, it is negatively charged as it has extra negatrons whereas, in the p-type terminus, due it chiefly consist of holes, it is positively charged. When photon of visible radiation hit the solar cell, these photons which are absorbed gives energy to the negatrons on the n-type side and therefore enabling them to travel freely out of the cornice shell ( outermost shell of molecule ) . After these negatrons are “released” , it will flux toward the p-type side and cover up the holes. This flow of negatrons from the n-type to p-type is besides called as electric current, which is used in electricity. ( U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program, n.d. , parity. 2-4 )

In the light spectrum of sunshine, it has different coloring materials sets with each holding different energy and wavelength. With mention to Aldous, S. ( n.d. ) he stated that, due to the difference of energy and wavelength, the solar cell is merely able to absorb those set ( colorss ) which higher energy. Lower energy set exist in the visible radiation spectrum which were non used will ensue as energy loss and this would greatly impact on the efficiency of the power produced by the solar cell. Therefore, in order to work out this job, in Knier, G. ( n.d. ) article, he indicated that, several solar cell ‘tuned ‘ to different set of light spectrum, they were connected together so as to better on the overall efficiency of the cell. ( Knier, G. , n.d. , para.7 )

Types Of Nanotechnology Solar Cells

Quantum Dots

Make up from between periodic III to V. Ranging from 2nm to 10 nanometers in diameter. Electrons in bulk semiconducting material stuff have energy degrees that are closely together that they behave the same, this characteristic allow the set spread energy set at a fixed sum. Small nanocrystals take in shorter wavelengths or bluish visible radiation, whereas larger nanocrystals absorb longer wavelengths or ruddy visible radiation. Changes in the form of the point besides change the set spread energy degree. Beginning: Kristy_Peter ( 2006 )

Gratzel Cell

Gratzel cell name after its discoverer developed a solar cell using a dye that absorbs visible radiation in the early 1990 ‘s. Nanoparticles of Ti dioxide widely available and cheaper than Si are used in the cells. Gratzel cells shows 10 % power transition efficiencies as comparison to those achieved by current Si but the dyes are more sensitive to heat and light. Beginning: Kristy_Peter ( 2006 )

Polymer Cell

Polymers with ( individual and dual C – C bonds ) along the polymer anchors are being implemented in photovoltaic cells. Polymers are cheaper to do than inorganic photovoltaic and are expected to be usage in solar cells. Single and dual carbon-carbon bonds have different lengths, and therefore hold different energies. The bonds alternate along the anchor create an energy spread and act as semiconducting materials. Beginning: Kristy_Peter ( 2006 )

Decision

Mentions

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K.Peter ( 2006 ) .GREEN NANO TECHNOLOGY. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from Kristy Peter research paragraph 14-128

For green portion I forget the web site

M.G.Richard ( 2009 ) . Recession Could Cut Solar Industry in Half by 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.treehugger.com/files/2009/09/solar-power-industry-in-crisis-solar-panels-manufacturers.php

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( For this portion delight assist me look into right anot cause I forget where I get the info from ) For my portion delight say that we will briefly explicate on the 3 type of merchandise create from nano engineering.

Drum sanders, B ( 2002 ) . Cheap, plastic solar cells may be on the skyline, thanks to new engineering developed by UC Berkeley, LBNL chemists. Retrieved October 09, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2002/03/28_solar.html

Drum sanders, B ( 2002 ) . Cheap, plastic solar cells may be on the skyline, thanks to new engineering developed by UC Berkeley, LBNL chemists. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2002/03/28_solar.html

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