It is natural that pupils achieve otherwise in the same category, larning from the same instructor. How pupils learn and why they achieve otherwise has been a field of involvement among many bookmans, particularly in the field of 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) larning. Many surveies have been conducted about the different factors that affect learner variables, both cognitively and affectively. On a general footing, there are chiefly three factors that contribute to the single differences in L2 larning experience: acquisition manners, larning schemes and affectional variables ; Motivation being one of the most of import issues in affectional variables. ( Ehrman et all, 2003 ) Harmonizing to Wigfield ( 1994 ) , motive is based on how much the single expect to win and their value of their success. Gardner defined motive as the combination of attempt plus desire to accomplish the end ( larning the linguistic communication ) and favourable attitudes towards it. ( Gardner, 1985 ) Although the theories and researches concerned on motive have ne’er been free from unfavorable judgment, it is by and large agreed that motive have great impacts and influences on single scholars. Based on the categorization of different types of motive, this essay aims to research how it affects a pupil ‘s learning experience, peculiarly in L2 acquisition. This essay besides provides some suggestions on learning which might supply aid to the formation of a positive motive.
2 The different types of motive
Theories and theoretical accounts of motive began to look in the 1950 ‘s, when Gardner and Lambert proposed the Socio-Educational theoretical account of linguistic communication acquisition, which contained two types of motive: integrative and instrumental. ( Gardner & A ; Lambert, 1959 ) . Such theoretical account laid the land work for farther research, being developed by following bookmans. Deci and Ryan ( 1985 ) distinguished between intrinsic and extrinsic motives ; the motive inside and outside the person. And based on Skehan ‘s ( 1989 ) four hypothesis, Ellis ( 1994 ) categorized four types of motive: integrative motive, instrumental motive, resultative motive and motive as intrinsic involvement. ( Ellis, 1994 )
While Lambert described integrative orientation as ‘a sincere and personal involvement in the people and civilization represented by the other linguistic communication group ‘ , ( Lambert, 1974 ) Ellis ( 1994 ) emphasized that ‘orientation ‘ and ‘motivation ‘ are two constructs which need to be considered individually. While ‘Orientation ‘ refers to the implicit in grounds for analyzing an L2, i.e. the attempt plus desire ; ‘motivation ‘ is the directed attempt that scholars make. ( Ellis, 1994 ) In other words, integrative motive is the desire for pupils to desire to go portion of a address community, an of import facet of which is utilizing the mark linguistic communication for societal interaction. Immigrants are normally illustrations of people with high integrative motives. Integrative motive is usually considered oppose to instrumental motive, and frequently believed to be more powerful in its effects than the latter. Gardner and Lambert studied English talkers larning Gallic in Quebec and argued that integrative motive led to greater success in L2 acquisition. ( Gardner and Lambert, 1959 )
Instrumental motive developed from Skehan ‘s ( 1989 ) ‘The Carrot and Stick Hypothesis ‘ , which originally implies ‘external influences and inducements ‘ . ( Ellis, 1994 ) Different from integrative motive, which appears to be less accomplishable and requires longer clip every bit good as attempt ; instrumental motive is more centered on concrete ends such as a occupation, sheepskin, or the ability to read academic articles. This signifier of motive is thought to be less likely to take to overall success than integrative motive, as the ultimate end is more executable. Wagess could besides be seen as an instrumental motive, which could help the acquisition procedure to some extent. Gardner and MacIntyre ( 1991 ) reported a survey for a vocabulary undertaking in which the group of pupils who were offered awards did significantly better than the comparable group, although the positive effects decreased every bit shortly as the wages Michigan. By and large, the effects of instrumental motive tend to keep for a shorter clip period. Unless the single pushes himself farther by puting up new ends, the consequence ends every bit shortly as the end is achieved. Despite the differences in integrative and instrumental motive, some ( Muchnick & A ; Wolfe, 1982 ) argued that it is impossible to divide the two in certain occasions, when pupils have strong motives for both. ( cited from Ellis, 1994 )
Resultative motive is concerned with the relationship between motive and accomplishment, which Ellis ( 1994 ) identified as synergistic. Learner ‘s motive is strongly affected by their accomplishment. Students who perform good in schoolrooms are more likely to derive assurance and to be more willing to take part. However, Gardner, Smythe and Clement ( 1979 ) ; suggested that ‘while greater motive and attitudes lead to better acquisition, the converse is non true ‘ ( Cited from Ellis, 1994 ) . But ‘the barbarous circle of low motive = low accomplishment = lower motive ‘ could ever develop. ( Ellis, 1994 ) Interest is a powerful psychological science tool in having attending from pupils and pressing them to do attempts. There are assorted ways that instructors could assist pupils to develop their intrinsic involvement motive, such as welcoming pupils with a large smiling, or presenting new activities into the schoolroom.
3 The effects of motive
From the psychological position, motive could besides be categorized as positive and negative motive. Positive motive means an optimism and cheerful response towards the undertakings being assigned to. Negative motive implies unwillingness and is frequently companied with anxiousness. About all pupils will see both positive and negative motive in some degree of their surveies ; hence, it is of import for them to understand that both positive and negative motives could be helpful or harmful.
3.1 Positive motive
It is by and large believed that positive motive leads to break consequences in the acquisition procedure. Students who enjoy larning a L2 or have a clear purpose tend to work harder that those who have no involvement. However, one of the restrictions of the surveies in motive is that the chief tool is usually questionnaires, which has dubiously cogency. There is ever the possibility that pupils would compose down what the instructor hopes them to, or what makes them look good, even if the questionnaire is confidential. Besides, motive is different from the existent attempt that people make. A pupil could be ‘highly-motivated ‘ judgment from his questionnaire but might non hold made any attempts in his surveies. ( Ellis, 1994 ) In footings of the acquisition procedure, motive itself is non plenty. It is merely an impulse which pushes the pupil work harder, which means nil if non taken action. Adoring the instructor and basking the category does non needfully connote that the pupil understood what he should hold learned. Besides, motive is rather mutable ; doing it hard to mensurate which against clip and continuity. Besides, a positive attitude might take pupils to be excessively relaxed or improperly prepared and execute worse than they could hold. There is a thin line between confident and haughtiness.
3.2 Negative motive
Negative motive is usually associated with anxiousness, unsatisfactory public presentation and low accomplishment. But it might non needfully be like that for every one. Oller and Perkins suggested that negative motive might be more powerful to some scholars in actuating them to stand out, which they referred to as “ Machiavellian Motivation ” . ( Oller & A ; Perkins, 1978 ) I recall a similar state of affairs from my ain learning experience. When I was analyzing English in primary school, one of the strongest motives that drove me to work harder was a Korean miss who used to do merriment of me. I had the impulse to demo her that I was capable of larning the linguistic communication. Although Machiavellian Motivation did non ever work that manner. I did non like my Gallic instructor when I was analyzing Gallic as a L2 in my university. But I was ne’er intrigued by the thought of working difficult and turn outing to her that I could pull off to larn the linguistic communication decently. Alternatively, I got trapped between Ellis ‘s ‘vicious circle of low motive = low accomplishment = lower motive ‘ . ( Ellis, 1994 ) Presumable Machiavellian Motivation is more likely to domain when the “ fanciful opposition ” is of the similar degree. When the “ opposition ” is far more advanced than the scholar himself, the thought to “ suppress ” would non easy arise, although there could ever be exclusions.
4 The formation of a positive motive
Although negative motive may take to positive consequences in the acquisition procedure, Machiavellian Motivation is rather hazardous which might non be suited for all scholars every bit good. It is by and large more simple and good to organize a positive attitude when larning an L2. As Pintrich and Schunk ( 1996 ) indicated, motive depends greatly on context, the people involved and specific fortunes. ( cited from Ehrman et all, 2003 ) Motivation is ne’er a fixed dimension ; instructors could ever assist pupils to organize positive motives.
Not all L2 scholars have the chance to be integrated in a state where the mark linguistic communication is used as L1. However, there are other methods which instructors could utilize to assist pupils organize integrative motive, such as presenting the civilization, utilizing reliable reading stuff, or inquiring pupils to watch foreign films in the mark linguistic communication. One of the methods that my English instructor used when I was in primary school was inquiring us to compose letters to our American pen buddies. We were all profoundly engaged in the activity and extremely motivated by the desire to pass on with our friends on the other side of the universe.
Teachers could assist their pupils to organize instrumental motive by puting up clear ends and purposes. There could be small stairss for novices, and bit by bit assist pupils to organize the wont of puting up ends for themselves. Realistic and executable short term ends are really helpful to pupils in happening their failing and cognizing where they want to be. Teachers could besides promote pupils to put up long term ends and put up survey diaries to enter their advancement.
Motivation is ever closely linked with public presentation. To avoid the ‘vicious circle of low motive = low accomplishment = lower motive ‘ , ( Ellis, 1994 ) it is necessary to organize a positive motive towards all larning procedure. In assisting pupils to organize a positive resultative motive, instructors should ever see the hard of undertakings. Students could easy be depressed by their work and set in less attempt or all attempt when they have decided that it is excessively hard for them. The instructions should besides be clear so that they would understand what they are expected to make. The undertakings should be deigned to accommodate the demand of the bulk of the category, within their cognitive ability and somewhat out of their range so that they would do an attempt to carry through it. Besides, how to give feedback and what type of feedback should be given to pupils is another of import issue. An assignment all in ruddy Markss would easy deter anyone. What the instructors could make, peculiarly for composing category is to hold one focal point each hebdomad such as “ future tense ” or “ pronouns ” and merely expression for errors in the specified country. The mistakes could be marked by letters or underlined and inquire the pupils to rectify them by himself. Teachers need to understand that mistakes are inevitable in the acquisition procedure and really a mark that ‘learning is taking topographic point ‘ . ( Broughton et all, 1980 ) In SLA theories, mistake analysis ( EA ) is a technique which aims to depict and explicate the systematic nature of mistakes generated in the scholar ‘s linguistic communication which was established in the 1970 ‘s by Stephen Pit Corder. ( Corder, 1967 ) The mistakes that people make reveal forms of L2 linguistic communication development and the differences between L1 and L2 acquisition. Mistakes provide valuable feedback to both instructors and scholars sing scholar schemes and the learning advancement ; assist the instructors to understand the pupil ‘s degree and reflect on their ain instruction methodological analysis. They besides indicate whether the pupils are ready to foster their surveies. Furthermore, mistakes provide penetrations into the nature of SLA procedure.
As mentioned before, involvement is a powerful tool in L2 acquisition. To get down with, instructors should ever seek to make a comfy ambiance within the schoolroom. A instructor with a good personality, person who is adored by the pupils could do the category much more gratifying. To hike pupils ‘ involvement, instructors could ever being new activities into the schoolroom. Task based acquisition combined with narratives and games would easy pull immature scholars. For more advanced scholars, instructors could on occasion convey civilization and play into the schoolroom for a alteration. Besides, harmonizing to a survey by Bachman ( 1964 ) , pupils are more motivated when are involved in decision-making, which lead to overall productiveness. ( Cited from Ellis, 1994 ) As indicated, pupils will demo more involvement in their surveies when they feel that they have made determinations. Consequently, instructors could inquire for the pupils ‘ sentiments to make up one’s mind on a peculiar topic for their assignments. Group work besides has important values in increasing pupils ‘ involvements, supplying with the pupils an chance to interact with each other and portion their sentiments. Small group undertakings are peculiarly actuating as the pupils know that their equals are working towards the same undertaking. ( Dornyei, 2001 ) By working hand in glove, pupils will be urged to execute better, being a representative of their ain group.
As how motive works and the effects of motive differ among each person, besides being influenced by many variables, the surveies sing motive have ne’er been free from unfavorable judgment, including its categorization. However, the impact and value of motive is by and large impossible to disregard. Although both positive and negative motive could take to higher accomplishment in L2 acquisition, pupils should be encouraged to organize positive motives as it is more likely to promote success than “ Machiavellian Motivation ” . ( Oller & A ; Perkins, 1978 ) Motivation is non an unchangeable sphere ; instructors could assist pupils organize motive in all of the four categorizes identified by Ellis: integrative motive, instrumental motive, resultative motive and motive as intrinsic involvement. ( Ellis, 1994 ) Besides, it is of import for pupils to larn to command their motive and utilize it in an active manner ; to keep longer motive for greater success.
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