Mongolia, Russia And China On The New Millennium

Mongolia is a landlocked state located between two large neighbors, Russia and China. It is immense, empty land with a little population. It is eco­nomically weak in comparing to its neighbors. The Mongols have a genuinely amazing history. Close on eight centuries ago they erupted on the universe sphere as if out of nowhere. The imperial power of the Mongols of that clip subdued their neighbors and made them follow the great Mongols ‘ policies. Mongolia ‘s neighbours signifier themselves in an sole relationship with the imperium. This was the lone period in history when Mongols were dominant in their relationship with their two neighbors. Since the mid-seventeenth cen­tury till the terminal of the Cold War epoch Mongolia became in general isolated from the outside universe, with dealingss merely with its two neighbors. This resulted in the state going weak, demoralized and disintegrated ; about under their dependence. It was in 1911 when, after over 200 old ages of battle under the Manchu regulation, the Mongols reclaimed their independency. It did non last for long, nevertheless. Russia and China did non see Mongo­lia as an independent province and shortly in 1919 the Chinese General Xu Shuzhen gained control of Mongolia. After Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, in 1917, Mongolian patriotism was deriving more and more strength and, in 1921, the People ‘s Revolution broke out in Mongolia. Mongolia ‘s independ­ence was recognised by Bolshevik Russia. But even so Mongolia ‘s state of affairs did non better every bit much as one would hold expected. Mongolia fell under the load of communism, which for 70 old ages cut off the state from the remainder of the universe. Soviet influence was so tremendous that in world Mongolia was counted as little more than a Soviet democracy. Despite all this, Mongolia survived, fring some and at the same clip deriving some. Mongolians ‘ pride and committedness to their state withstood the con­straints and force per unit areas f*om neighbors every bit good as from political orientation. The modern history of Mongolia or, in other words, Mongolia ‘s history in the 20th century can be referred to as the period of endurance and of victory for sover­eignty. All these alterations clearly suggest that Mongolia was, is and will con­tinue to be influenced by both its neighbors.


Historically, Mongolia ‘s ties with China have been closer than those with Russia. Russia appears on the Mongol skyline in the early and ulterior mediaeval period and of class it has been really conspicuously there from the beginning of this century. However, direct contact and interaction with sedentary China go back to antediluvian times. The relationship with Russia started from the 17th century, while the Russians reached the Yenisei. Ten old ages subsequently they were upto the Lena river, in 1644 they were on the Amur river and in the mid-seventeenth century they founded their colonies at the southern terminal of the Baikal lake and Amur basin, like Irkutsk and Khabarovsk. The latter was founded by General Khabarov and named after him.

Both neighbors were overawed by Mongolia. Both suffered a batch during Mongolia ‘s rise and its power for 1000s of old ages. They were of course interested in destructing its power. They were intelligibly happy at the diminution of Mongol power and dominance. In contrast to Russia, China was dependent on Mongolia throughout its history. Equally, expeditions and wars provoked by the northern neighbour-drove Mongols due south rather frequently, arousing political crisis in China. This was the state of affairs till the com­plete ruin of the Mongolian sovereignty in the mid-seventeenth century. Mongolia of both sides of Gobi desert and the western group of Mongols besides became topics of the Manchu Qing dynasty every bit good as China itself. Merely most northern group of Mongols, Buriyat Mongols, became topics of the Tsar of Russia as a consequence of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, concluded between Russians and Manchus in 1689. Actually, Mongolia and Mongols were divided between their neighbors, those to the North and West came under the Russian regulation and those to the south under the Manchu regulation. Mongols lost their independency going a portion of the Qing dynasty ( 1644-1911 ) . The state of affairs might hold remained unchanged had it non been for the birth of Mongolian patriotism. In the 19th century, as increasing Numberss of Russian colonists moved into Buriyatia and Chinese into Inner Mongolia, Mongols in those parts responded by going more cognizant of their national individuality and the demand to asseverate it. Nationalism developed more easy in Outer Mongolia boulder clay 1906, when the Manchu imperial authorities, under force per unit area from Chinese society, announced ‘a New Policy towards Mongolia ‘ , which gave Mongols permission to settle in Outer Mongolia by the Chinese people, conduct trade activities and utilize its land for agribusiness. The policy besides permitted assorted matrimonies. Until that clip the inflow of set­tlers in Outer Mongolia was little and the corresponding force per unit areas on the autochthonal population were less marked. However, it was in Outer Mon­golia that independent Mongolia was re-established, when the Qing dynasty disintegrated and was overthrown in 1911. In the same twelvemonth ‘Independent Mongolia ‘ was instituted under the leading of Bogdo Jebzundamba Khutugtu, the Living Buddha. Later the authorities of Mongolia announced its independency and constitution of a Mongolian province to the nine large powers of that clip, viz. , the UK, France, Germany, USA, Japan, Den­mark, Holland, Belgium and Austria. For assorted grounds they did non widen acknowledgment to Mongolia. Merely Tibet established bilateral relationship and signed a pact with the ‘state of Mongolia ‘ in 1913.

Mongols, under the leading of some loyal Lords and Bogdo, sought national independency and reunion of all Mongols and their districts. But Mongolia ‘s two neighbors, the Tsarist Russia and the newly-formed Republic of China, did non volitionally give up their claims on Mongolia.

From this clip on both neighbors had different places on the Mongo­lian independency issue. Russian involvement in Mongolia was to make a buffer zone between China and themselves. Consequently, the Russian authorities waged a double-track policy, which, on the one manus, encouraged the Outer Mongolian independency, on the other manus, they discouraged the reunifica­tion of all Mongols. It did non supercharge China to recognize Mongolian inde­pendence. The Russians besides wanted to protect the involvement of the considerable figure of Russian merchandisers and enterprisers who were already good established in Outer Mongolia. They besides forced the Mongolian authorities to accept the independent Mongolia proposal of 1913 and to subscribe a alleged ‘trilateral pact of Khyakhta ‘ in 1915. However, Mongolia continued to be divided into the northern ( Outer Mongolia ) and southern ( Inner Mongolia ) subdivisions. Subsequently, the Russian imperial authorities itself was swept off and Mongolia temporarily lost its independency when the Chinese General Xu Shuzhen gained control in 1919. Yet, even while this was go oning, Mongolian patriotism was given a new drift, this clip under the influence of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.


The Mongolian People ‘s Party ( subsequently renamed the Mongolian People ‘s Revo­lutionary Party ) was founded in 1921 and took ownership of the capital, Urga. The probationary radical authorities declared one time once more the ‘independence ‘ of Mongolia on 11 July 1921. In the same twelvemonth independent Mongolia was officially recognised by Bolshevik Russia and the Mongolia People ‘s Republic was proclaimed on the district of Outer Mongolia two 1924. Since the triumph of People ‘s Revolution of Mongolia in 1921, so was established a new relationship between Mongolia and newly-formec Soviet Union. During this period of more than seventy old ages till the prostration of the Soviet Union, Russian involvement in Mongolia was replaced by the Soviet engagement, and the state became locked into such an sole relation­ship with the Soviet Union that it was in consequence little more than a Soviet democracy. The relationship with its southern neighbor during this period was about non-existent. World War II changed this relationship with China. It was in 1946, that China tardily recognised Mongolia ‘s independency. When China became the People ‘s Republic in 1949 diplomatic relationship was re-established between the two states. Since that clip, till the early 1960ss the trilateral relationship between Mongolia and both its neighbors, based as it was on socialism and the Marxist-Leninist political orientation, was rather positive. During that ‘honeymoon ‘ Mongolia signed a pact of common friendly relationship with the PRC in 1960, and the boundary line between two provinces marked in 1962. Subsequently, when the southern neighbor had a ‘cultural revolution ‘ ( 1966-76 ) , Mongolia one time once more c/osely imitated the Soviet policies and the relationship with China was in stagnancy for two decennaries. Mongolia of that clip became an armed cantonment: the Soviet and Chinese military personnels were posted against one another aiong the Mongolian-Chinese boundary line. Tensions between ViaanbaatarandBeijing /essened when Sino-Soviet reconciliation began to germinate in the mid 1880ss.


The Mongolian-Chinese relationship became wholly normal with the backdown of Soviet military personnels from Mongolia in 1990-91. It was merely after the prostration of the Soviet Union that Mongolia became truly independent. Ten­sions between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing besides lessened. And the ‘buffer province ‘ Mongolia now held a place of neutrality towards its neighbors. Nowa­days, Mongolia has its ‘own voice ‘ on its foreign policy and an equal relation with both neighbors. It has signed a pact on friendly dealingss and cooper­ation both with Russia ( in 1993 ) and with the PRC ( in 1994 ) .

The economic dealingss of Mongolia with two neighbors are different than earlier. Though the re-establishment of dealingss with China in about all Fieldss represented a new start, they developed really rapidly. In peculiar, the development of economic dealingss was so fast. China accounted for 13.6 per cent of Mongolian foreign trade in 1995. In 1996 it totalled 16.9 per cent a growing of 3.3 per cent over the old twelvemonth.

Relationss with Russia are presently at the province of stagnancy since the col­lapse of the Soviet Union and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ( CMEA ) . Nevertheless, Russia remains one of Mongolia ‘s taking trade part­ners and the trade with Russia accounted for 32.4 per cent in 1995 and 27.5 per cent in 1996 of Mongolia ‘s foreign trade ( Table 1 ) .

In 1995 Mongolia was dependent on Russia for 50.1 per cent of its imports, peculiarly of crude oil and lubricators. In 1996 imports dropped to 34.4 per cent, but rose to 36.2 per cent in 1997, a rise of 1.8 per cent. Since 1989 Mongolia has been negociating with major foreign companies on pros­pecting for and processing of oil. Several international energy houses are already prosecuting investing chances in Mongolia, appraising the south­ern, eastern and south-eastern parts of Mongolia for prospective oil sedimentations. Western company functionaries have estimated oil militias in topographic point at two known Fieldss of Mongolia at 50 million barrels, of which between 10 to 30 per cent can be recovered. The Mongolian ministry O ( trade has emphasised that development of in-country processing of oil, as an import permutation, would be favorably considered. Get downing from the first half of this twelvemonth, Mongolia began to export its oil to China and the export addition will depend on resource use. The Mongol Petroleum Company, jointly with American, Russian and Chinese oil houses, implements undertakings in developing the parts of 22 blocks in the far E of the state. Company president Bayarkhuu says: ‘We ca n’t state precisely how much our militias are, but our estimations now suggest that there are up to 600 million barrels of oil in all of Mongolia. ‘

In the post-Cold War epoch Mongolia has created its ain foreign policy con­cept. It can be summarised therefore:

Keeping friendly dealingss with the Russian Federation and the People ‘s Republic of China shall be a priority way of Mongolia ‘s foreign policy activity. It shall non follow the line of either state but shall keep in rule a balanced relationship with both of them and shall pro­mote all-round good-neighbourly cooperation. In making so, the tradi­tional dealingss every bit good as the specific nature of our economic cooperation with these two states will be taken into history.

In September 1992, Mongolia declared a atomic free zone that was recog­nised by its two neighbors, the USA and other United Nations Security Council members. Many of us know that:

Since the terminal of World War II, the Soviet Union entirely conducted about 715 trials, of which 506 were in the ambiance. The huge bulk of these trials was conducted at the Semipalatinsk trial site. China has conducted 41 trials at the Lop Nor trial site, of which 23 were in the ambiance. Both of these trial sites are comparatively close to the Mongolian boundary line.

Until 1996 merely two states, China and France, continued the atomic arms tests despite international concern and protests. At get downing of 1995 France announced the terminal of its trials and its committedness to the Com­prehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ( CTBT ) . China opted unwillingly for ‘zero option ‘ and ‘opposed a trial prohibition ‘ . In 1998 Mongolian president P Ochirbat sent a particular protest message to exceed leaders in Beijing, which was passed on to the Chinese president Jiang Zemin by the Mongolian premier curate P Jasrai on his visit to Beijing during 27-30 March. Mongolia has made a point of protesting all of Beijing ‘s atomic trials, which are conducted at the Lop Nor test site in north-eastern Xinjiang state ( an independent part ) near the Mongolia boundary line. The message noted that good ties between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing were indispensable and uttered gratitude for China ‘s support of Mongolia ‘s self-declared nuclear-free zone. The Renmin Ribao did non transport the ‘protest ‘ message of the Mongolian president, but it was full of articles on Sino-Mongolian friendly relationship and common economic cooperation. Towards the terminal of 1996 China eventually signed the CTBT. As of now all atomic power provinces have stopped carry oning trials. Mongolia is eventually relieved of atomic jeopardies.

As a consequence of the new foreign policy Mongolia signed pacts on friendly dealingss and cooperation with its two atomic power neighbors, which committed the neighbors non to come in any political-military axis, non to subscribe any understanding with 3rd parties nor to let the usage of one ‘s district which may endanger the sovereignty and security of the other party.

Table 1 Mongolia ‘s Trade with Russia and China ( in thousand US $ )


Soviet union


1995 1996


199 S




1996 1997

Export 473,270.9 424,267.1 417,998.9 68,896.4 87,546.4 39,929.4 77,760.0 80,979.2 90,769.0

( 14.6 % ) ( 20.6 % ) ( 9.6 % ) ( 16.4 % ) ( 19.1 % ) ( 21.7 % )

Import 415,291.3 450,927.9 443,446.4 208,021.5 154,914.0 160,540.1 44,526.3 66,044.3 63,337.3

( 50.1 % ) ( 34.4 % ) ( 36.2 % ) ( 10.7 % ) ( 14.6 % ) ( 14.3 % )

Entire Foreign Tradeover 886,562.2 875,195.0 861,445.3 276,918.0 242,460.4 200,469.5 122,286.3 147,023.5 154,106.3

( 32.4 % ) ( 27.5 % ) ( 22.9 % ) ( 13.6 % ) ( 16.9 % ) ( 18 % )

Beginning: Based on the informations given in Government of Mongolia, Statistical Bulletin, ( Ulan bator: State Statistical Office of Mongolia, 1997 ) , pp. 48-51.


Mongolia is a sparsely populated state of about 2.4 million people and an about homogenous Mongolian talking population. As a acrimonious trade of his­tory, a bulk of Mongols unrecorded outside Mongolia. They inhabit neighbour­ing Russia and China, every bit good as Iran, Afghanistan and other states. Five million Mongols unrecorded in China and around 1 million in Russia and several hundred thousand live in different states. Therefore, the entire population of Mongols is about 9 million. At the beginning of this century and during its first two decennaries at that place was a strong pan-Mongol motion among cultural Mongolians that ended merely with the re-establishment of the Mongolian province in Outer Mongolia, which historically ever was the Centre of all Mongolian provinces throughout her over 2000-year history. The Mongolian leader Kh. Choibalsan had tried to discourse the possibility of the reunion of all Mongols with Stalin at the terminal of World War II, but he was unsuccessful.

These pan-Mongol sentiment is really much there in Mongolia and among the Mongolian minorities in China and Russia. Harmonizing to the Proclama­tion of the Union of Human Rights Protection of Inner Mongolia announced on 20 February 1996, during the last 50 old ages under Chinese communist government out of 5 million Inner Mongolians, 300,000 were killed and a half of million of thSKujured ; the Proclamation besides noted that they stood for independency of Inner Mongolia and support to the people of Tibet and Xinjiang. The announcement was published in the Mongolian independent newspaper Il Tovchoo as a consequence, and after the detainment of Inner Mongolian dissenters, in December 1995, in Inner Mongolia. Hundreds of Mongolians protested last February and March in Ulaanbaatar against what they called widespread maltreatment of human rights in Chinese Inner Mongolia. On 7 May 1997 in Ulaanbaatar, few twelve people besides protested against the maltreatment of human rights in Chinese Inner Mongolia. The state of affairs of Buriyat Mongols in general is under control. However, they are unhappy with the national policy of President Leonid Potapov of Buriyatia, who is of ‘Russian ‘ beginning or ‘mangad ‘ in Buriyat Mongolian linguistic communication, which means ‘monster ‘ . Most Mongolians in south-eastern Russia, the alleged Kalmyks, are still seeking to last among the Russians and stand up economically under the leading of the Kalmyk president K Ilyumjinov, who is ever described in negative footings in Russian newspapers, both official and unofficial.

Pan-Mongol feeling might go a motion as the ‘heartland ‘ of all Mongols-present-day Mongolia-develops economically and the life criterions turn higher than in neighbouring states ( Russia and China ) . Nationalism will originate as a chief political orientation for all Mongols, and human rights and democracy will go existent issues for all of them. Of class, these pro­cesses will take decennaries. They are improbable to go a world in the close hereafter.


Mongolia of the last decennary of the 20th century is a really different coun­try from what it was even ten old ages ago. Now Mongolia is a democratic and market economy-oriented state with a multi-party parliament. Mongo­lia ‘s dealingss with its two neighbors are equal and developing in the right way. This post-Cold War epoch triangle relationship will go on in a positive way unless there is a political dislocation in Russia or there is a important alteration in PRC ‘s policy towards Taiwan.

The province of bilateral dealingss between Mongolia ‘s two neighbors has undergone a alteration since the announcement of the joint statement of Russia and China on their place in the universe, signed on 23 March 1997 by the Russian president Boris Yeltsin and his Chinese opposite number Jiang Zemin in Moscow. This papers aims towards multipolarisation and a new universe order, which was dictated by their involvement of holding an confederation against US ‘s attempts to construct a unpolar universe order dominated by itself. Strategic partner­ship of Mongolia ‘s neighbors is steadily and noticably beef uping and high-ranking visits have become regular.

In 1997 Qiao Shi, president of the Standing Committee of the Chinese National People ‘s Congress, and vice-premier and foreign curate Qian Qichen made visits to Mongolia, and Mongolia ‘s foreign and defense mechanism minis­ters officially visited China. In contrast, while there were studies of possible visits of Boris Yeltsin and Victor Chernomyrdin to Mongolia, none of these visits materialised. However, the foreign curate, Yevgeny Primakov, did visit Mongolia. Russians military personnels in Mongolia left in 1991. Since the prostration of the Soviet Union its laterality over Mongolia and Eastern Europe has greatly diminished. During its absense the spread was filled by the Western universe and the USA. Currently, Russia hopes to reconstruct its influence over East­ern Europe and Mongolia. But this may non be instantly possible.

Throughout the 20th century Russian and Soviet influence over Mon­golia has been prevailing factor in its national development. The post-Cold War epoch has changed Mongolia ‘s external environment. The hereafter of Mongolia will depend non merely on well-established relationships with its two neighbors on the perpendicular degree but besides on its dealingss with the outside universe on the horizontal degree: Germany and other West European states in the West, and Japan, Korea, USA, and whole of the Pacific rim in the E. It will supply some sort of a balance to Mongolia ‘s relationship with its two atomic neighbors.

In decision, Mongolia is still geopolitically of import, for both Russia and China as a buffer and for the remainder of the universe as a SOMP ( states other than major powers ) state.