This essay concerns “ Migratory Motions from Cuba to Miami. ” To to the full understand the migratory forms of the Cuban society into Miami, one must cognize that this is non a modern issue, but that Cubans were really amongst the first populations to resettle in Miami.
Get downing with the Spanish colonial regulation in Cuba, many decided to fly to Miami. Then came assorted big in-migration moving ridges into USA, such as political refugees of the Batista absolutism, post-Revolution emigrates who left because of dissension with the Communist government, followed by Operation Peter Pan and other motions such as the rafting crisis. An of import factor to see is the migratory policies that are in force for Cuban-US migrations. Amongst other inducements is the “ wet-foot, dry-foot ” policy that has facilitated migration for many Cubans since its execution in the 1990s.
Modern twenty-four hours integrating forms of Cubans in Miami are besides of import. To understand how the exile Cuban community integrates in Miami I gave out a questionnaire that would assist make a better thought of how Cubans live in Miami and if they are satisfied with their lives at that place.
The consequences indicate that although most Cubans went through problem settling down and suiting into the Miami community, irrespective of how long ago they moved at that place, they consider that their lives have improved since go forthing Cuba. However, they are proud of their heritage and province that they have kept all or most of their traditional Cuban imposts.
Besides, the economic effects that migrations have on both states must be considered. How these migrations have affected the US economic system in contrast to the Cuban one, and how these tendencies are likely to develop.
In my sentiment, Cuba-US migration should non be stopped or forbidden because it has been traveling on for so long that it is now portion of both civilizations.
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In this essay I will be analyzing “ Migratory Motions from Cuba to Miami ” and looking into the migratory forms of Cubans into USA. I take a personal involvement the topic because holding lived in Cuba my whole life, I have experienced household members emigrating every bit good as friends coming back to visit and sharing positions and experiences. I decided to look into the grounds why so many Cubans want to go forth the state and why the most targeted topographic point to travel to is Miami. There is a unsighted captivation with that metropolis that I have frequently witnessed in Cubans. Many Cubans will take Miami over any other topographic point to migrate to, given a pick. As a consequence, the ever-growing Cuban community in Miami has become a magnet for more Cubans to take this metropolis as the mark finish.
Historical Background on Migratory Motions:
Long term migration from Cuba to United States can be traced back every bit far as the Spanish colonial period. In 1565 100s of Spanish-Cuban soldiers moved to Florida with their households. ( 1 ) These
( Google Earth map of Miami )
100s turned to 1000s of Cuban colonists between 1778 and 1802, still during the Spanish regulation in Cuba. ( 1 )
In the 1920s there was another immense migration moving ridge of an estimated 100,000 ( 1 ) seeking fiscal stableness ; this includes refugees flying from Fulgencio Batista ‘s military absolutism. In 1959, after the revolution led by Fidel Castro, the authorities allied with the Soviet Union and began presenting Communism, which led 1000s of Cubans to emigrate within the undermentioned 20 old ages. In the biennial period following December 1960, the largest migration of unaccompanied bush leagues was recorded ( 14,000 ) , due to the ‘Operacion Pedro Pan, ‘ or Operation Peter Pan. Cuban parents feared that their kids would be sent to military schools in a Soviet state so they sent their kids to populate in surrogate places, get oning schools or orphanhoods in Miami ( 2 ) .
Subsequent to the sixtiess, Miami specifically started to go the favorite finish of migration for Cubans because it had become slightly of a Cuban-American cultural hot-spot ; Hialeah became one of the most densely Cuban populated countries. ( 1 )
There was a ‘Balsero ‘ ( rafting ) crisis in the summer 1994 where over 38,000 people travelled by raft and were arrested near Florida by the US Coast Guard. ( 4 ) Most of these people were relocated to the ill-famed US naval base of Guantanamo, but were brought back to the USA after a few months. Furthermore, as of financial twelvemonth ( FY ) 2007, about 77,000 Cubans were recorded as holding reached USA land ; this is over double the entire ‘Balsero ‘ refugees. ( 4 )
The undermentioned graph shows the sum of Cuban immigrants to the USA each decennary. ( 5 )
Migratory Policies/Incentives for Cubans:
Possibly one of the most talked of migration policies applicable to Cuban migrators into the US is the ‘wet-foot, dry-foot ‘ policy implemented in 1995 ( 7 ) . Basically, the policy which is the consequence of an understanding reached by the Cuban authorities and the Clinton disposal, consists in that any immigrant that reached the US shore was a ‘dry-foot ‘ and could remain in the state every bit long as they passed the Homeland Security review, nevertheless those that were going by H2O illicitly, the ‘wet-feet, ‘ and were caught by the seashore guard were sent to a 3rd state or back to Cuba. ( 3 ) ‘Dry-feet ‘ were granted immediate entree to the opportunity at going a ‘legal lasting occupant ‘ of the USA, and subsequently on, US citizenship. ( 6 )
On the following tabular array, notice the dramatic addition in lasting legal occupants from the 1980s to 2008. ( 10 )
This policy, although good for those who reached the shore, presented a menace to those who got caught by the seashore guard. ( 6 ) Knowing that by sea they might be relocated, many opted for geting in Mexico and so happening agencies to traverse over the boundary line into Texas, doing a alteration in migratory forms. These types of immigrants were nicknamed ‘dusty-foot, ‘ and because of the big figure of them come ining the US, Homeland Security stopped seeking to confine each of them in 2005, alternatively, leting Cubans transition to the state. However, these programs were ephemeral because in 2008, after it was established that the huge bulk of Cuban immigrants in the first half of the twenty-first century left Cuba for economic grounds instead than political, the Mexican and Cuban authorities signed an understanding to forestall ‘dusty-foot ‘ migratory motions. ( 7 )
Despite policies acquiring stricter in the past old ages, the ‘wet-foot, dry-foot ‘ policy still poses a clear benefit for Cuban migrators over other US immigrants. To this twenty-four hours, the pre-assigned figure of 20,000 Cuban immigrants to the US per twelvemonth, non including those who migrate for grounds such as household reunion, is kept, provided they enter with a legal visa. ( 1 ) However, this bound is greatly exceeded every twelvemonth with over 50,000 Cuban migrators settling in the US ( more than 80 % of them taking Florida ) , exceling the quota by 150 % . ( 8 )
U.S. communities with high per centums of people of Cuban lineage. The highest per centums are concentrated in Florida, back uping the thought that the quota set by the US authorities is surpassed. ( 1 )
Another inducement that encourages Cuban migration into the USA is the so called ‘visa lottery, ‘ a plan designed to randomly choose a US visa receiver out of a group of Cuban appliers. Successful registrants have a valid visa for six months that besides allows for partner and minor kids to attach to them. Despite the calendered radiance that the thought of go forthing Cuba may keep for some people, they frequently do non see the expensive issue fees or the reverberations that their departure may hold for blood-related staying in Cuba. ( 7 )
Forms of Interaction of Migrants with the Mainstream Culture:
Given the turning figure of Cuban immigrants in Miami, issues of ethnicity have reached a highpoint. Since the twentieth century migrations the construct of an ‘ethnic citizen ‘ has become stronger in the Cuban-American communities. ( 1 ) It has besides become easier to present certain cultural labels to Cubans due to their clear segregation from the “ white and black communities ” ( 1 ) of Miami. This cultural classification is farther carried on by media bureaus who relate cultural groups to specific events. In effect, feelings of disaffection and defenselessness surface in cultural communities, which in many instances is ground known to take to a life of offense and anti-social behaviour towards other communities, hindering a speedy version and accommodation procedure. Hence, one of Miami ‘s biggest challenges is making a societal environment that counter acts the thought of cultural favoritism. ( 1 ) This challenge is juxtaposed with the uncooperativeness of Cuban-Americans who have no involvement in encompassing globalisation, multiculturalism or anything that allows them to be labeled as ‘ethnic citizens. ‘ ( 1 )
Despite that people from all over Latin America and the Caribbean have settled into the US, Cubans seem to hold had the strongest impact, particularly on Miami. They have radically transformed the metropolis culturally and economically, helping Miami ‘s speedy development into a Metropolis. ( 1 ) In add-on, in malice of the Cuban-Americans being defined as a really clearly different group from Native-Americans in the sense that they have a different set of imposts and their ain and much defined civilization, when compared with other Hispanics and non-Hispanics populating in the USA, they seem to hold the most resemblance to non-Hispanics. Regardless of the fact that they value their civilization so strongly that they have created an ‘ethnic group, ‘ the 1997 Census compares basic features of the three groups mentioned above and in facets such as, lower unemployment rates, higher incomes, and better instruction, Cubans resemble the non-Hispanic population more than the other Latino groups. Since Cubans are besides amongst the oldest migratory populations to settle in the USA, they have a natural advantage in comparing to other Latinos who have late migrated to USA, every bit good as other minorities like African-Americans or Asian-Americans. ( 7 )
The following table represents selected socioeconomic features of Cubans, all Hispanics, and non-Hispanics in the USA, 1997. This tabular array reflects how the Cuban population resembles the non-Hispanic population more than the Latino 1. ( 3 )
In general, Cuban-Americans can be classified into two groups. Those who decide to incorporate with the Native Americans and go or presume portion of their civilization. This group of people is besides more interested in political relations and despite remaining true to their heritage, is accepted by the American community because they have chosen to accommodate adequately. Then there are those migrators who do n’t accommodate to the new environment, alternatively anticipate it to accommodate to them. This is where a struggle may originate between the ‘self-excluded ‘ Cuban communities and the Native-American 1s, as mentioned above. In the undermentioned subdivisions some of the troubles Cubans encounter in Miami mentioned above are highlighted and explored through primary informations I collected.
Miami ‘s Attraction/Push and Pull Factors:
The most obvious ground why the huge bulk of Cuban emigres chose US, specifically Miami, over any other state is because of its close physical distance. When this migration form foremost started during the Spanish colonial period, it was used as a, flight path. During the Batista absolutism it was besides a manner of flying the government. It was non until after the Revolution in 1959 that migration to the USA had a strong economic push factor. Notably, Cuban immigrants since so hold encouraged further Cuban-US migration through the materialisation of Cuban civilization in Miami.
Although there are many valid grounds for a Cuban to travel to Miami such as fiscal motive, household reunion, better instruction, or even the simple impression of Capitalism, merely really few see the true battle that lies behind such a move. Many people populating in Cuba seem to hold this ideal vision of what life in Miami would be like. They seem to believe that merely by traveling there their life will better by default. Person working as a physician in Cuba and non being happy with their wage or working conditions may desire to travel to Miami in hopes of bettering, but working as a professional in Cuba does non vouch you will non stop up in a low paying, blue-collar occupation for old ages one time populating in Miami. Peoples think that if they are at the top of their calling in Cuba and travel to Miami they will automatically restart from where they left off, but the truth is that that happens merely in the rarest of instances. For most people, the clock does non un-pause ; it resets. For most new-coming Cubans, life in Miami turns out to be harder than anticipated and one truly needs to work their manner to the top in order to acquire to where they hoped their life would automatically get down off from in Miami.
Success of Migrants in the Target State:
The in-migration moving ridge of 1959 managed to set up an economic and cultural foundation for Cubans that would ease and rush up the accommodation of future immigrants. ( 7 ) Today, the sum of Cuban-US migration has risen to such degrees that Miami is frequently thought of as ‘Cuban Miami. ‘ Miami is now a little theoretical account for what is go oning at a planetary degree: multicultural and multiracial societies are emerging and turning stronger. Most Cubans in Miami remain dedicated to their civilization, imposts and linguistic communication. It was because of this exceeding input of Cuban civilization that the locals were going progressively worried that immigrants would alter their native socio-cultural background. And although cultural hot spots such as ‘Little Havana ‘ have emerged, the American civilization and imposts have non been overruled by the Cuban 1s. In this sense, Miami can be considered a cultural fireplace because it is the centre point where two civilizations meet and spread into other civilizations, which has clearly affected Miami ‘s fast growing.
For this subdivision of the essay I prepared a questionnaire for Cubans life in Miami, collected my informations through sweet sand verbena sampling and received 146 filled out questionnaires out of 150 that were sent out. ( see Appendix 1 ) .
The first inquiry, inquiring how long the individual has been in the US was intended as an debut to the surveyed and besides for me to hold a clearer thought of which groups of people tend more towards certain tendencies throughout the remainder of the questionnaire.
As we can see, the questionnaire was rather equally distributed throughout the classs given for the clip they have lived in the USA, but a big sum of people have spent over 5 old ages in the US. This inquiry provides a greater overview of the migrators ‘ state of affairss.
Question 2 explores some of the grounds for go forthing Cuba.
Obviously household is a strong incentive for Cubans to travel off, nevertheless under “ Others ” fall some of the undermentioned grounds: dissension with the Communist government, the hunt for freedom, and fiscal motivations. However, the most dramatic reply I received was “ I needed to get away from the most corrupt and inhumane government I ‘ve of all time known. ” This peculiar individual indicated they moved to the US 52 old ages ago, intending they left in 1960, right after the Castro Revolution. After 52 old ages in the USA and still holding such a strong sentiment clearly shows deep-seeded dissension with the Communist government. All of this individual ‘s relations in Cuba have emigrated every bit good, presumptively for similar ground, merely as many other have done since. Cuban migrations have non ever had a political nature, though, but normally go on because of household issues or socio-economic jobs in the place state. Migratory motions due to political dissensions tend to be focused around the old ages when the Revolution was fresh in Cuba, while more recent migrations seem to go on due to personal issues, ( 13 ) as is shown by the consequences above. The US Embargo set on Cuba, go forthing the state in an progressively hard economic state of affairs is besides a incentive for Cubans to migrate, in hopes of prosecuting a better life elsewhere. ( 13 )
In fact, some people are so despairing for alteration that still today they risk their lives to go those ill-famed 90 stat mis in tonss or opt for the ‘dusty-foot ‘ method and resettle to Miami as 84 of the surveyed stated they did, merely to seek the freedom communism can non offer. Alternatively of remaining in Texas, “ dusty-feet ” move to Miami because that is where they will hold the highest opportunity of seting to the US since there is a widespread Cuban community that has managed to insulate itself from the Native-American community and they probably have friends or relations at that place already. In add-on, if they choose to settle in Miami it makes the passage from Cuba to USA smoother because this country is so influenced by the Cuban civilization.
In inquiry 3, out of the 146 surveyed, 125 say it was hard suiting in Miami, which brings us back to the issue of ethnicity and favoritism. Despite the fact that holding friends and household in one topographic point should logically ease the version, it is frequently non so.
Questions 4 and 5, whether it was easy happening a occupation and whether or non they are presently employed ( severally ) , besides falls under the version and adjustment procedure of the migrators mentioned in inquiry 3 because it is portion of the version process.
A sum of 55 say that it was difficult to happen a occupation ; still 115 of the surveyed are presently employed and 91 people say it was easy to happen a occupation, nevertheless the inquiry does non stipulate what sort of occupation. We can non cognize if those that ticked ‘currently employed ‘ are satisfied with their occupation or if it is even in their field. Possibly they were trained professionals in Cuba and in Miami have no pick but to work for minimal pay. This ties back to what I mentioned earlier about Cubans ‘ unrealistic outlooks about Miami. They frequently times underestimate the attempt that is expected of them if they plan on suiting fast and easy and this includes happening a hearty occupation.
Associating to the subject of happening satisfaction in Miami is the motion that the exile Cuban community began towards the terminal of the 1960 ‘s in USA and Puerto Rico where they assume political positions radically different from tradition. Having developed a deep-seeded hatred for the Revolution and faulting it for holding to relocate to a state they do non experience identified with. Adding to that was the ill will the expatriate community encountered in metropoliss such as Miami where they were margined by society. ( 13 ) This statement addressed both, inquiry 2 and 3 since it shows one statement for go forthing Cuba that was really popular with migrators flying communism, every bit good as modern twenty-four hours ‘s issue of Cubans being excluded by the Native-American community.
However, in inquiry 6, refering whether or non the immigrants ‘ lives improved in the US, 102 people say it improved significantly one time they moved to Miami and despite this study merely making a little per centum of the Cuban population in Miami, they represent the positions held by the bulk of the population.
In general, Cubans that move to Miami may non be wholly happy with their life because maybe it was non as they imagined, but as a regulation, this life is still better than the 1 they led in Cuba.
Question 7 concerns the economic facet. Whether or non a individual sends remittals back to Cuba is a immense factor that affects both states ‘ economic systems.
In Cuba, most people have relations in Miami or elsewhere that direct them money on a regular basis, which is why Cubans can afford to purchase ware in CUC, the stronger of the two Cuban currencies. If Cuban citizens did non have any remittals at all the economic system would probably endure, since a big portion of the fiscal flows and foreign capital income in an LEDC like Cuba depends on remittals. On the other manus, the US economic system would better, since there is a greater flow of capital within the state.
The concluding inquiry asks what imposts or traditions the migrators brought with them to Miami, since the fact that they brought such a apparently great sum has caused them to be their ain community separated from the typical American 1.
It is logical that people tick all the classs available in inquiry 8 because most of the surveyed have merely spent a few old ages outside of Cuba which is where they grew up and have their roots. Their upbringing and imposts are Cuban and no affair how much clip they spend in the US or how many of their vacations and imposts they inherit, they will ne’er bury their heritage, despite holding grown accustomed to the wont of paying revenue enhancements, being punctual and accepting civic and societal subjects, which besides shows the form of interaction in which Cubans actively take part in the new community and adapt to it.
If the migratory state of affairs of Cuba and USA were considered a job by either party, it is non one easy solved since a figure of factors weigh in on it. It largely depends on the Cuban ‘s ain ability to decide their critical economic state of affairs every bit good as the USA ‘s willingness to help the procedure. ( 13 )
Effectss of Migration in Cuba as the Point of Origin and in Florida as the Point of Destination:
For the beginning state, in this instance Cuba, migration can hold assorted positive effects such as population force per unit area being reduced and the economic system being benefitted by remittals. However, negative effects include the remotion of younger, educated people and therefore a decreased skilled work force. ( 9 )
However, for the Cuban authorities, the function that Cuban immigrants play in Florida has an extra political benefit. It is convenient for the Cuban authorities that the Democrats stay in power and post-Soviet immigrant electors will most likely contribute greatly to this, since in the elections of 2008, 48 % of Cuban electors in Florida voted for Obama, and even though the remainder voted for Romney, the Cuban-American Democrat protagonists has increased since the 2008 elections. ( 14 ) Cuba benefits from the possibility that before Obama ‘s 2nd presidential term terminals, Cuban-American dealingss will hold been normalized will be one measure closer to lifting of the US trade stoppage.
The effects for the finish state are non black and white. Even though Cuban migration into the USA provides them with a larger, younger, skilled work force and multicultural enrichment it can take to racism and segregation and cultural inharmoniousness ( 9 ) as discussed earlier under ‘Patterns of Interaction of Migrants with the Mainstream Culture. ‘ Furthermore, mass migration such as Cuban-US, can really rapidly turn into and overcrowding job.
If the Cuban in-migration rate into the US continues turning by 100 % or more, as it has been making and is expected to make, US is looking to suit around one million new colonists within the following decennary. ( 8 ) Such an extraordinary figure of Cuban migrators looking to settle in the US, largely Florida will present a challenge to the already demographically concentrated part of South Florida. There will be a felt cultural, socioeconomic and fiscal impact following these aggregate migrations.
The following tabular array shows the costs of Cuban in-migration in FY. ( 10 ) ( 11 ) ( 12 )
Now that Cuba has implemented a new migration policy ( since January 14th, 2013 ) and eliminated the ill-famed “ permiso de salida, ” ( exit permission ) and all that Cubans need to go is a valid passport and a visa from the other state, many people will be hotfooting to go forth the state.
Clearly this presents a important addition in outgo for USA. An estimated US $ 3.2 billion will be the cost in one twelvemonth, sing federal, province and local disbursals every bit good as assistance given to Cubans set to come in between 2009 and 2018. ( 8 ) However, if Cubans want to go to USA most of them will still hold to travel through another state and many may non even be granted visas, which besides can take old ages to obtain. The US authorities has non yet issued an sentiment on the affair because since the new jurisprudence, the Cuban in-migration haste into the US has non been every bit overpowering as anticipated, which is non needfully negative because this manner it is more likely that the bing anticipations will remain accurate.
Furthermore, Florida ‘s substructure, fighting economic system and natural resources will probably ne’er return to pre-migration conditions because of the long-run impact caused by the strain of mass migration.
US $ 322 million were given to 50,000 Cubans granted a legal lasting occupant position in the US in 2008. ( 8 ) The money histories for disbursals in federal refugee aid plans and local services such as public instruction. If the in-migration figures continue to lift so will the costs, but the demographic effects in Florida might be of greater concern. South Florida ‘s already low-wage, service oriented market will go overwhelmed, as will the conveyance substructure. Both of these effects will negatively impact the enlargement of societal services, other services runing from public instruction to nutrient casts, every bit good as increase the already excessively high unemployment figure. In 2008 the figure of Cuban unemployment in Florida reached 13.5 % and to do affairs worse, 43 % of new immigrants were economically inactive. ( 8 )
In my personal sentiment, Cuban migration to Miami should non be viewed negatively. For long it has been the manner chosen by Cubans to better their life, and is it non human nature to endeavor to better? Nevertheless, I must admit that Cubans who arrive to the US, clueless, and so do non do an attempt to suit in or even acquire a respectable occupation and non populate off of authorities money, have to transport the incrimination themselves for it and non fault others for ‘excluding them. ‘ If Cubans seek to travel to Miami and genuinely seek to work and do a difference for themselves, the chance to make so should ne’er be taken off from them.
Decision and Evaluation:
Cuban-US migration has become an progressively strong tendency over the old ages. Get downing with the Spanish colonial period, so the Batista refugees and the post-Revolutionary immigrants, to now. There have been big moving ridges of migrations that have led to certain understandings such as the “ wet-foot, dry-foot ” migration policy. Despite the cultural segregation that some Cubans may see in USA, Miami remains the preferable finish topographic point for the huge bulk of Cuban migrators, and as is reflected in the questionnaires, a great part of Cubans in Miami are satisfied with their lives and see that they have improved since traveling at that place.
In this essay I identified some of my ain strengths and failings. Roll uping the primary information was my biggest failing since I had no opportunity of personal contact with Cubans in Miami, which besides limited the methods of informations aggregation. Besides 150 questionnaires is barely adequate to accurately analyse the full Cuban population in Miami. Nevertheless, I think I did a good analysis with the informations nowadays and the consequences obtained match the forms discussed within the secondary beginnings, intending that the questionnaires provide a small-scale theoretical account of the bulk of the Cuban population in Miami.
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Appendix 1: Sample of Questionnaire
Estimado/a senor/a, este Es un cuestionario sobre movimientos migratorios en Cuba. Tiene un proposito academico Y Sus resultados permaneceran en anonimato. Le agradeceria su colaboracion en este proyecto. A?Gracias!
A?Hace cuanto tiempo wine usted a los E.E.U.U?
___3 anos, ___5 anos, __x_mas, ___menos.
A?Cual fue La razon/razones fundamental/es?
___Reunificacion familiar, ___mejor educacion, __mas/mejores servicios.
Otros: ___Busca de libertad __________________________________________________________
A?Le costo trabajo acomodarse en Miami?
__x_Si, ___no, ___un poco.
A?Le fue facil encontrar trabajo?
A?Se encuentra empleado actualmente?
A?Considera que hour angle mejorado su nivel de vida desde su llegada a E.E.U.U?
_x__Mucho, ___un poco, ___para nothing.
A?Manda boodle o insumos de vuelta a Cuba parity apoyar a su familia?
_x__Si, ____no, ___a veces.
A?Cuanto de Cuba Han traido a Miami ( costumbres ) y cuantas han heredado?
__x_Idioma, ___acento, __x_celebraciones, __x_ habitos culinarios, ___ otros ( por favour especifique )
A?Muchas gracias por su atencion!
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