GSD/EST/OBA/11 METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL INTRODUCTION 1. A sexually active woman that is fertile and capable of becoming pregnant needs to ask herself, “Do I want to become pregnant now? ” if her answer is “No”, she must use at least a method of birth control. This is because over the years, events have shown that uncontrolled births have negative social economic impact on the population. Amongst the effects of uncontrolled births are unwanted children, overpopulation, increased maternal mortality, overcrowding, overstretched public utilities, reduced standard of living and the non-development in the rural areas. 2.
Despite these facts, a section of the population still do not make use of these methods of birth control due to religious or moral believes. The awareness of birth control dates back to era of our great-grandmothers, when after childbirth they stopped sex with their husbands until the child is weaned. Information is key to liberation; therefore, to reduce these negative impacts, the need to use the correct method of birth control arises. The use of appropriate birth control method allows individuals to plan their envisioned lives. It is against this background that I will be reviewing the methods of birth control practised in Nigeria.
AIM 3. The aim of this presentation is to highlight birth control methods available to Nigerians. SCOPE 4. The presentation will cover the following: a. Methods of birth Control. b. Natural Methods of Birth Control. c. Artificial Methods of Birth Control. d. Consequences of Methods of Birth Control. Methods of Birth Control. 5. Birth control is an umbrella term for several practices or devices used to prevent fertilization or the interruption of pregnancy in a sexually active woman.  It could be in form of family planning, pregnancy prevention, fertility control, contraception or contragestion.
Government policy or health related issues might demand the use of a birth control method. Different birth control method requires different actions by its users to accomplish desired result. The choice of method depends on the suitability to individual body chemistry or life style. 6. When the desire to use a birth control method arises, cost medical advice or compatibility with our bodies, most times helps to make a decision. Methods of birth control can be broadly grouped under: a. Natural Methods of Birth control. b. Artificial Methods of Birth Control.
NATURAL METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL 7. Natural methods of birth control are neither mechanical nor due to hormone manipulation but on observing some aspect of a woman’s body physiology in order to prevent fertilization. These methods require that a man and woman do not allow a woman’s egg or the sperm to come into contact by natural means. Natural Methods of birth control include: a. Total abstinence. b. Fertility awareness Method. c. Withdrawal. d. Breast feeding 8. Total Abstinence. Total Abstinence is a means of birth control were the parties voluntary refraining from sexual activity.
Abstinence is the only contraceptive method that is 100% effective in the prevention of both pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. 9. Fertility Awareness Method (FAM). Fertility awareness methods are based on knowledge of a woman’s ovulation period. In order to use a FAM, it is necessary to watch for the signs and symptoms that indicate ovulation has occurred or is about to occur. FAM can be up to 90% effective if well observed and require a continuous and conscious commitment with considerable monitoring and self-control.  FAM Includes: a. Billings ovulation method b. Basal body temperature. 0. Withdrawal. Withdrawal involves the deliberate removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. The main risk of withdrawal is that the man may not perform the manoeuvre correctly, or may not perform the withdrawal in a timely manner and the aim is defeated. 11. Breast feeding. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. This is effective only when exclusive breastfeeding is being done and lasts up for up to six months after childbirth. ARTIFICIAL METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL 12. This involves the use of external substance or material to prevent pregnancy.
Success rate is relatively high compared to FAM. This method includes the following: a. Barrier method. b. Intrauterine Devices. c. Hormonal Contraceptive. d. Surgical Sterilization. 13. Barrier method. Barrier method involves physical blockage of the sperm from entering the uterus to unite with an egg. Barrier methods must be used with each act of sexual intercourse. They include: a. Male and female condoms. b. Diaphragm. c. Cervical Cap. d. Spermicides. 14. Intrauterine Device. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic device inserted into a woman’s uterus to prevent pregnancy.
IUDs prevents pregnancies by interfering with the mobility of sperm and decreases the ability of a sperm to fertilize an egg or prevents implanting of a fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus. 15. Hormonal Contraceptive. Hormonal contraceptives deliver doses of female sex hormones that alter a woman’s reproductive cycle in one or more ways. Available only on prescription, hormonal contraceptives are extremely effective in preventing pregnancy, when used properly they include: a. Birth Control Pills. b. Hormonal Implant. c. Contraceptive Injection. d. Contraceptive Ring. e. Contraceptive Patch. 16.
Surgical Sterilization. This involves surgical alteration of the human anatomy. There exist 3 types of surgical procedures: vasectomy for men, hysterectomy and tubal sterilization for women. Vasectomy is the cutting of the two vas deferens ducts that carry sperm from the testes to the penis and tiring the ends to prevent sperm from reaching the penis. In Tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are either cut, tied, blocked, or sealed to prevent eggs descending from the ovaries to encounter sperm. Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus and/or the ovaries. These procedures are permanent forms of birth control.
CONSEQUENCES OF BIRTH CONTROL METHODS 17. There is always a chance of side effects when taking hormonal birth control. Certain Hormonal contraceptives may cause bloating, weight gain and increased risk of blood clots nausea, dizziness, mood swings, depression, irritability, breast tenderness, irregular and painful periods, amongst others. Emergency contraceptive pills may cause nausea, vomiting or ectopic pregnancy, and may affect the duration of the next menstrual cycle. The prolong use of hormonal contraceptives may alter the woman’s physiology cause secondary infertility by suppressing egg production. 8. Barrier methods have a risk of allergic reaction; persons sensitive to latex have to look for polyurethane or silicone barriers. Spermicides also have possible side effects of genital irritation, vaginal infection, or urinary tract infection. Male and female sterilization are permanent methods of birth control. Sterilization procedures are considered to have low risk and of little side effects, though some persons and organizations disagree.  A desire to have more children may occur and the couple will regret their decision. CONCLUSION 19.
All methods of birth control are based on either preventing a man’s sperm from fertilizing a woman’s egg or preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the woman’s womb and starting to grow. The control can be natural or artificial. New methods of birth control are being developed and tested all the time and what is appropriate for a couple at one point may change with time, cost and circumstances. Unfortunately, no birth control method, except abstinence, is considered to be 100% effective.  20. Birth control methods help save women and their children’s lives and preserve their health by preventing untimely and unwanted. regnancies. It reduces women’s exposure to the health risks of* childbirth and abortion and gives women, who are often the sole caregivers, more time to care for their children and themselves. Selecting a method is a personal decision that involves consideration of some factors, including convenience, reliability, side effects, and reversibility. The warnings and appeals on the need to space our children by using appropriate birth control method must be allowed to continue. OB ANIMASAHUN Jaji-Kaduna Lt Cdr Aug 11Student REFERENCES 1. CHILD SPACING: EFFECTS ON THE SOLDIERS STANDARD OF LIVING, LT COL CA HALIRU, 2003 2.
MICROSOFT ENCARTA 2009. 3. WWW. AMERICANPREGNANCY. ORG/PREVENTINGPREGNANCY/FERTILITYAWARENESSNFP 4. EN. WIKIPEDIA. ORG/WIKI/BIRTH_CONTROL 5. WWW. OPTIONSFORSEXUALHEALTH. ORG 6. WWW. UNFPA. ORG 7. WWW. HEALTHTIPSCITY. COM 8. WWW. MEDICINENET. COM/VASECTOMY/PAGE2. HTM# EFFECTIVE 9. EMEDICINE. MEDSCAPE. COM/ARTICLE/258507-OVERVIEW ———————–  www. christianebeerlandt. com/Foreword  En. wikipedia. org/wiki/Birth_control  www. americanpregnancy. org/preventingpregnancy/fertilityawarenessNFP  http://www. medicinenet. com/vasectomy/page2. htm#effective  http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/258507-overview