See the statistics of 2007, all over the universe the 137 million bikes were produced which more than the two-base hit of the figure of the autos produced in the universe in 2007. Till 1980 ‘s the production of the auto and bike were about the same but there after from 1990 ‘s there has been steep rise in the production of bikes. ( Mathew, 2008 ) The bike publicity is chiefly taking topographic point because it is more efficient and cleaner alternate to the personal cars and can assist metropoliss in a manner to cut down traffic, to work out the jobs of smog and the pollution jobs. Many of the authorities organisations and societal groups in most of the states are working to convey the rhythms as a major portion of the urban conveyance. ( Mathew, 2008 )
Figure 1: World Automobile and Bicycle Production from 1950 – 2008
Beginning: ( Mathew, 2008 )
There are enormously increasing plans and policies all over the universe for a considerable addition in the usage of bikes. The concerns over the increasing monetary values of the oil and the altering clime conditions would promote people to travel for cycling. The chief motive the current survey is therefore focused on the analysis of a Bicycle. The Manufacturing procedure, the natural stuffs required, their impacts on the environment would be studied and presented. A comparative survey on the assorted bike stuffs would be carried out and the best stuffs for the bike would be presented. The survey would besides affect a survey related to the EC directives for fabrication and the conformity of the bike fabrication with the EC directives.
To transport out life rhythm analysis for Bicycle: Comparative survey of different stuffs and the Manufacturing Procedure
To look into the different stuffs used for bike and to transport out a comparative survey of assorted stuffs with regard CO2 emanations
Study and Analysis utilizing CES to happen the right stuffs for Bicycle
To analyse the fabrication procedure of bike and to look into the direct impact of EC directives on the fabrication procedure.
To analyse the disposal procedure and to look into the direct impact of EC directives on the disposal procedure.
Understanding of import constructs of Product Life rhythm
Investigating Different Materials used for Bicycle
Analyzing EC directives for Manufacturing and Disposal
Investigate the fabrication procedure and its conformity with EC directive.
Pulling out decisions from the survey and proposing recommendations
Analysis of the Comparison
Investigate the Disposal procedure and its conformity with EC directive.
Comparative survey of different stuffs with regard CO2 emanations
CES analysis to happen the right stuff for Bicycle
Figure 2: Flow Chart for the Research
1.5 Expected Outcome and Recommendation
A thorough analysis of the different stuffs used for bike and a comparative survey to happen out the best stuffs in order to do bike more environmental friendly. Analysis of the fabrication procedure would be carried and it would studied with regard to EC directives for fabrication and would be checked to what extent they are being followed. On the footing of this suggestions and recommendations would be made on how the fabrication procedure can be modified.
2.1 History of Bicycle
Leonardo Da Vinci envisioned a machine really similar to the modern universe bicyle in 1940. But he did non travel for developing the vehicle and even his studies were non found till 1960s. The first effort was made by Comte, a Frenchman, in 1700s when he invented the Celerifree which was a wooden avocation Equus caballus made with the aid of the two wheels which are so joined by the beam. The individual who will sit it will sit on the beam top and would impel by forcing the pess against the land. The modified version came in 1816, when German adult male Baron Karl developed a avocation Equus caballus which was dirigible. ( Herlihy 2004 ) Few old ages after the development of this the equitation of hobby Equus caballus became a manner in Europe. The riders started sing and detecting newer methods and ways of siting. In 1840, Kirkpatrick Macmillan developed a two wheeled object which was operated with the aid of pedal. He traveled about 225 kilometer unit of ammunition trip to Glasgow with that and set a universe record. A few old ages after that Ernest Michaux, developed a avocation Equus caballus which used revolving pedals and grouchs connected to the axle in the forepart. ( Herlihy 2004 )
The chief epoch of betterments in the bike started in 1860 when the metal-spoked wheels, ball-bearing hubs, a lever-operated gearstick with four velocities and solid gum elastic tyres etc got invented. James Stanley in 1866 created a really alone Velocipede version. It had really big forepart wheel and the wheel at the dorsum was little. It shortly became really celebrated and got started to be exported to US. ( Herlihy 2004 )
In 1885, John Kemp, developed Rover Safety, the name safety was give because it was much safer than the Ordinary developed by the James. The safety developed by John had two equal size wheels made up of solid gum elastic, a diamond-shaped frame and a chain-driven rear wheel. The usage of the Dunlop ‘s pneumatic tyres besides took topographic point in 1800s merely. In 1898 the coaster brakes got developed and thenceforth the biking became easier as the freewheeling would let the uninterrupted spin of the wheel without really bicycling every clip. ( Herlihy 2004 )
Figure 3: Bicycle Frame ( Herlihy 2004 )
2.2 Natural Materials
The chief portion of the Bicycle is its diamond shaped frame which is required for associating all the constituents of the bike together and in a proper constellation. The frame helps in supplying rigidness and strength to the bike and the handling of the bike is mostly dependent on it. In a frame there are rear and front trigon. The forepart in true sense forms a four-sided of four tubings: place, the down, the top and the caput tubing. In the rear trigon is the seatstays, chainstays and the dropouts of rear wheel. The maneuvering tubing and the fork are attached at the forepart of the frame to the caput tubing. ( Caunter 1972 )
For a batch of clip in the history the chief stuff for the fabrication of the frame was steel or the metal steel, really heavy but really strong. There had been uninterrupted betterments in the frame stuff to increase the rigidness, lastingness, stamina, elation, and strength. In 1970 a newer signifier the alloyed steels was developed which can now be welded automatically ensuing into the handiness of cheap and lighter frames. In the recent old ages the light weight frames made of aluminium have become more popular. However the strongest metals are Ti and steels holding big life spans as compared to that of aluminium which get failed due to tire within four to five old ages. ( Caunter 1972 )
In 1990s even lighter frames have been introduced with the developments of composite stuffs made of structural fibres like C.
The other constituents, than the frame, like brakes, wheels, ironss and derailleurs are by and large made of unstained steel.
Figure 4: Detailss of Bicycle Parts ( Herlihy 2004 )
2.3 Manufacturing Procedure
First of the seamless tubing which are required for building the frame are made from the solid steel blocks which are first pierced and so drawn into the tubings through assorted phases. The seamless tubings are by and large more superior so the seamed tubings which are made with the level steel strip stock by pulling it and so wrapping it in to the tubing and so welding it along the whole length of the tubing. Subsequently buttering can be done or the tubing wall thickness can be altered in order to pull strings the seamless tubing in order to increase their strength and to do them light. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 ) Butting of articulations and terminals of tubes involves increasing their wall thickness as there most of the emphasis is applied, and thinning the walls at locations where there is small emphasis as in centre of tubing. The resiliency of frame can besides be increased by butted tubings. There can be different types of butting for a tubing, individual butted with one terminal made thicker, double butted with both terminals made thicker as compared to the centre, ternary butted with either terminals holding different thickness, and quad butted which is resembles triple butted apart from the cutting of centre towards the center. However for certain motorcycles even changeless thickness tubings are used. Welding by machine or hand-brazing is used for piecing the tubings, the ulterior being more expensive procedure as it is really labour intensive. Fictile binders or strong gum may be used for fall ining the complexs. Machines are by and large used to fabricate the constituents although they may be attached by either manus or machine. Skilled bike builders make the concluding accommodations to the motorcycle ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Assembling the Frame
Tailoring of the tubes- Annealing or softening of the metal is carried out by heating and so “ hollows ” or “ blooms ” are formed by excavating them out. The warming of these blooms is carried out once more, and acid is used for pickling in order to take the graduated table and so they are lubricated. The appropriate dimensions are achieved by mensurating the hollows and cutting them with preciseness. The grownup bikes have frame sizes runing from 19-25 inch as measured from the top of the place station to middle of the grouch hanger. Then the hollows are put over a spindle which is connected to a draw bench. Then a procedure called cold drawing is carried out on the hollows by go throughing them through dies stretching them into dilutant and longer tubings in order to accomplish right gage. A assortment of designs or lengths may be obtained by tapering and determining the tubing. More so a twelve of operations may hold to be carried out by taper-gauge fork blades in order to accomplish the right strength, resiliency and weight. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Brazing, Welding and Gluing – Hand or machine can be used to fall in tubings to the frame. Lugs which are metal arms fall ining assorted tubings at a joint may be used for fall ining the frames by welding, brazing or even simple gluing. Brazing is a particular signifier of welding procedure the lone difference being it is carried out at a lower temperature of around 871 degree Celsius. A white flux is formed by utilizing gas burners which are arranged equally sound the Lugs that are heated and this flux thaws and cleans the surface, therefore fixing it for brazing. The filler stuff that is used for brazing may be brass or Ag that has a lower thaw temperature than the stuff of the tubings being joined. The filler stuff seals the articulation on which it is applied as it easy melts around it. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Aligning and Cleaning – After piecing the alliance of the frames is checked by puting them into gigue. As the frame is still hot and ductile assorted accommodations that are required can be made easy. Pickling with acerb solution is carried out for taking the extra flux and brazing metals and this is followed by rinsing and grinding of the brazing until it becomes smooth. Further preciseness alliances if required are made after the metal has cooled down. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Finishing- Then the picture of the frames is carried out which serves the double intent of giving a more finished visual aspect and besides protecting the frame. A underseal is used for priming the frame and the a coloured enamel is used for painting the frame. Automatic electrostatic crop-dusting suites or hand-spraying method may be used for painting the frames. The positively charged pigment spray is attracted by the negatively charged frames that are revolving for the full coverage. After this lacquers and transportations are applied on the frame. On some constituents like fork blades chrome-plating may be used alternatively of pigment. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Assembling the Components
Derailleurs and Gear Shift Levers – The gear displacement levers may be mounted on assorted locations like down tubing ( used in rushing motorcycles ) , on the handle saloon ends or on the root depending on the manner of the bike. The rear and the forepart derailleurs are attached by a overseas telegram widening between them. Brazing or clamping of the forepart derailleurs ( which are used for traveling the concatenation from one thrust sprocket to another ) is done on the place tubing. However rear 1s may be mounted on built-in hangers or bolt-on hangers. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Handlebars, Stems and Headsets- There could be assorted forms of handle bars like raised, I dropped or level. A bike root which fits in to the caput tubing is used for bolting these roots onto them. The assorted headset constituents like bearings, safety nuts and cups are attached to the caput tubing. The guidance is made easier as the headset allows the turning of the fork inside the caput tubing. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Brakes- Handlebars are used for mounting of the brakes. Cables are extended to the brackets and are besides fastened to the callipers. A plastic or cloth tape can be extended to the grip bars followed by stop uping of the terminals.
Saddles and Seat posts- Generally steel or some aluminum metal is used for doing seat stations and they are bolted into place. A shaped cushioning is used for doing the saddle and so is is covered with fictile stuffs or nylon. In past leather was normally used for saddles nevertheless it is rarely in usage now.
Cranksets- It is used for turn outing a support of the pedals and for transportation of power to the concatenation and rear wheel from the pedal. They consist of grouch rings, grouch weaponries and a bracket assemble at the underside which consist of axle cups and bearings and these are made of steel and aluminum metal. Thunderbolts and caps are used to attach them to the bottom bracket of the rhythm frame. The terminals of the grouch weaponries have pedals screwed onto them. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
Wheels, tyres and hubs- A J International Standards Organization ( ISO ) system for tyres sizes and wheel diameters are conformed by the wheel makers. Machines which roll steel strips into basketballs which are further welded into rims are used for fabricating the wheels. In order to accept the radiuss the rims are drilled and these radiuss are tied one unit of ammunition at a clip between the rim and hub rim. In order to accomplish unvarying tenseness a wheel must be straightened in radial and sidelong waies. After this the tyre, rim line drive and interior tubings are attached. Adjustment of the concatenation onto the bike follows following. A free wheel which consists of several cogs and spacers is fitted onto the rear wheel and this free wheel helps to liberate the rear wheel from the grouch mechanism when the rider stops bicycling. An axle running through the hub of the wheel is used to attach the wheels to the bike. Quick release skewers or bolts may be used to fasten the axle. ( Van Der Plas, 2005 )
2.4 European Union Directives for Bicycle
The criterions for the Bicycle fabrication, safety and liability where a small hapless in Europe boulder clay 2006. But with the debut of CEN criterions and directives in 2006 for Bicycle fabrication procedure, the safety demands, the testing processes the beginning for doing the bike as the more dependable and a cleaner manner of conveyance has started. In 2006, 4 European Union criterions were introduced which are as below: ( European Standards, 2006 )
EN 14764 Trekking and City Bicycles
EN 14765 Bicycles for kids
EN 14766 Bicycles for Mountains
EN 14781 Bicycles for route racing
The directives contains criterions related to the fabrication, safety demands and methods of proving for the major constituents and parts of bike which includes frame, fork, place, brake systems, gear systems, handlebar etc. ( European Standards, 2006 ) Some of the European Directives are presented below. A elaborate survey of all the directives would be carried out in the farther survey.
Manufacturing Directives for Brake – Lever
The maximal value of the dimension vitamin D, which measured between the handlebar and the outer surface of brake lever which is in contact with the fingers of the rider should non be less than 40 millimeter. ( European Standards, 2006 )
Some exact values are as below:
For a bike with a tallness of saddle as 635 millimeter or above, the maximal value of vitamin D can be 90 millimeter
For a bike with a tallness of saddle less than 635 millimeter, the maximal value of vitamin D can be 75 millimeter
Figure 5: Brake Lever Dimensions ( European Standards, 2006 )
Manufacturing Directives for Wheels and Wheel assembly
For wheels which are intended for the rim brake the maximal allowable run-out ( i.e the maximal fluctuation in the place of rim ) is 1mm when it is measured perpendicular at a suited point on the rim and in the way perpendicular to the axle. The wheel assembly alliance in bike whould has at least clearance of 6 millimeter between the Sur and the fork or the frame component. ( European Standards, 2006 )
Figure 6: Wheel assembly ( European Standards, 2006 )
The European directives along with the criterions for different parts and constituents besides contains instructions for the makers, some of these are as mentioned below: Every bike designed in any state should hold the undermentioned set of instructions written in the state linguistic communication:
It should hold mentioned the usage or the application for the bike is designed along with the jeopardy warnings in instance of incorrect usage
It should hold the inside informations about the bike readying like adjusting and mensurating the saddle tallness
It should hold clearly informed notes about the right levers for the forepart and the rare brakes
It should hold a method recommended for seting the suspension system which is adjustable
It should hold safe siting recommendations like helmets, cheques for brakes, Sur etc
It should clearly bespeak the entire allowable weight which it can bear
The right tenseness in the concatenation and the right method for constituent collection
General recommendations on Care
2.5 Future of Bicycle
The hereafter of the bike is really promising in the close hereafter. There are many grounds behind it, but the major one apart from the developments bike engineering is the environmental pollution because of the fueled vehicles which is continually encouraging and demanding for the usage of non fueled vehicles like bike. ( Mathew, 2008 ) There besides had been a batch of developments in the engineering of the Bicycles in 1990s and 2000s and these have led to some advanced vehicle designs like Human Powered vehicles. Most of the Human powered vehicles are a low-slung recumbents holding more of aerodynamic features than that of the conventional rhythms which consequences in lessening of the retarding force and therefore addition in the velocity. Recumbents are besides really safe and many of them have proviso for conditions protection or lading room. Wim in 1990s developed loanblend of the car and bike called the Ecocar which had commissariats for safety, conditions protection, easy care, velocity, and comfort and baggage room. With the coming of the computing machine technologies the design capablenesss of the interior decorators and makers has enhanced greatly and this can assist in even better and acceptable designs of bike in future. ( Mathew, 2008 )