Is Southeast Asia A Core Or A Periphery History Essay

This papers is about Southeast Asia part. It lies on the E of the Asiatic sub- continent. As the universe systems attack goes that divides the universe into Core, Peripheral and Semi- peripheral parts, Southeast Asia falls in the Peripheral part as of today. Its hard to make up one’s mind the division in which may Southeast Asia may fall as the full part has many states, some of them have flush economic systems, some development and others in utmost poorness. There are many factors which determine this province. Besides this, many geographical factors of the part such as political, physical, economic and cultural geographics are talked about briefly in this. Other noteworthy subjects such as geo-concepts, emerging issues and strategic deductions for future concern strategic planning are besides taken into consideration so as to hold a complete apprehension of the part. Political geographics covers the states, boundaries etc. Physical geographics is more about rivers, mountains, gulfs, vents amongst others. Economic geographics negotiations about the economic system of the part whereas Cultural geographics is about the cultural groups, linguistic communications, faiths, art etc. All of these will assist in deriving competitory about the part I chose as the footing of my term terminal undertaking.


Is Southeast Asia, a Core or a Periphery?

The ‘core ‘ states are the extremely economically developed states with them harvesting benefits from the economic system of the remainder of the universe.

The ‘peripheral ‘ states are the 3rd universe states which are still in the development phase with a really low criterion of life.

The ‘semi-peripheral ‘ states are those which are between the ‘core ‘ and the ‘peripheral ‘ . They are the bracing factors in the universe system.

Southeast Asia is a combination of peripheral and semi- peripheral states. Some of the states have shown good degrees of development but remainder are still fighting to be economically independent. The part ‘s economic system greatly depends on agribusiness but fabrication and services are fast catching up. Many of the states that come in the Southeast Asiatic part are demoing immense sum of economic development.

While Indonesia, an emerging market, is the largest economic system in the part, Singapore and Brunei are already seen as flush developed economic systems. Whereas Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines are considered as freshly industrialized countries.. But the remainder, such as East Timor, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos are still far behind in being economically uplifted. Agribusiness is preponderantly the chief business of the part and Vietnam is working towards developing its industrial sectors. Besides, fabrics, electronic hi-tech goods are manufactured here with militias of oil found at some topographic points.

Tourism has made economic systems of many states take a high pace. It has boosted the income of locals with many people from all over the universe coming up for vacationing in parts like Thailand, Cambodia, and Singapore etc.

About half of the states that fall under the Southeast Asia have most of its population below poorness line.

They work difficult towards doing their terminals meet.

So, it wo n’t be hard to presume and province that Southeast Asia has both Peripheral every bit good as Semi peripheral states but as the bulk of them are peripheral so the whole Southeast Asia, will be taken as being one of the Peripheral parts of the universe which, in few old ages, is set to be amongst the “ semi peripheral ” parts of the universe.


Political Geography:

Southeast Asia derived its name from it location in the universe Atlas. It lies in the south eastern portion of the Asiatic continent. It is bounded approximately by China on the North, Pacific Ocean on the E and India on the West.

Southeast Asia consists of two geographic parts:


Mainland subdivision consists of:



Union of burma



Lao people’s democratic republic


Peninsular Malaya


Phnom Penh

Capital of thailand

Laotian capital

Capital of vietnam

Kuala Lumpur


Maritime subdivision consists of:



East Malaysia

East Timor

Dutch east indies


Papua New Guinea

The Philippines


Kuala Lumpur



Bandar Seri Bhagwan

Port Moresby


City of Singapore

Southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau are sometimes grouped in the Southeast Asia sub part geographically. Vietnam is culturally and historically tied to East Asia instead than Southeast Asia.

ASEAN i.e. Association of Southeast Asiatic Nations was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the sign language of the ASEAN Declaration by Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand, besides known as the Establishing Fathers.

It work towards improvement of the part.

Physical Geography:

Southeast Asia ‘s about full part falls within the humid Torrid Zones as it is located on the equator.

In the yesteryear, the part had well lower population denseness than major Asiatic states like India, China and Japan but now many states have heavy populations.

The development of two different sorts of Southeast Asiatic provinces are based on the type of business i.e. inland provinces, based on rice agribusiness, and maritime provinces, based on trade and raiding.

Mountains characterize a big part of the country with the tallest being Borneo ‘s Mount Kinabalu but the most influential mountain is Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. Standing merely 4,874 pess tall, this vent ‘s eruptions have had a major impact on the state.

The geologic landscape is ruled by temblors and vents, the Pacific Rim being the “ Ring of Fire ” .

There are many major rivers in the part. Some of them are:

The Red River: Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam is connected via H2O with North Vietnam.

The Irrawaddy River: It is the cardinal river of Myanmar.A It connects the international transportation ports through the Andaman Sea.

The Chao Phraya River: It is Thailand ‘s cardinal river and supports intensively settled country around Bangkok.

The Mekong River: Base on ballss through southern Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and China. It is the most of import river of the part and helps in connectivity and conveyance between the mainland states.

Southeast Asia is the most complicated maritime boundary web in the universe.

The gulfs, bays, passs, recesss, and transporting paths form the part. Due to presence of bays, recesss, gulfs, passs in the part, struggle has taken form. China takes the largest part in the South China Sea though every state wants to hold interest in these of import transportation lanes.

Cultural Geography:

Southeast Asia is extremely influenced by China and India. Vietnam is said to be by far the most Chinese influenced. Western civilization influence is easy seen in the Philippines due to the Spanish regulation.

For illustration, people who eat with their fingers are more likely influenced by the civilization of India. The civilization of China, in which people eat with chopsticks and tea, as a drink, can be found across the part.

Humanistic disciplines of this part have propinquity to the humanistic disciplines of the environing countries. In some parts of Southeast Asia, humanistic disciplines and literature is rather influenced by Hinduism, brought into the part many centuries ago.

Dance signifiers:

Southeast Asia is extremely influenced by Indian dance signifiers, peculiarly of Hinduism. There are assorted dance signifiers such as Apsara Dance, strong manus and pess motion and Wayang, known for its shadow and puppetry dramas which are rather celebrated in the signifier of amusement.


Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia have Islam as their faith. It makes up to 40 % of the entire population rehearsing Islam in Southeast Asia.

Besides this, there are followings of many other faiths such as Buddhism, which is widely practiced in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand and Myanmar. Peoples in Singapore and Vietnam are into Confucianism and ascendant worship. In eastern Indonesia, East Timor and Philippines, Christianity is prevailing.

Vietnam has many cultural similarities with China. As Islam is opposed to certain signifiers of art, still in Indonesia which is a Muslim dominated state, they have retained patterns, humanistic disciplines, civilization and literatures of Hinduism. Ramayana is true illustration of literature holding foothold in the part.

Lao, Thai, Cambodian and Burmese civilizations have Hindu Gods, humanistic disciplines, dance motions fused into them.


Cultural force per unit areas such as trade and colonization has influenced the part to hold many linguistic communications.

There are legion linguistic communications spoken by people in the part but states have their ain functionary linguistic communications. Due to diversified faiths, people know one or more linguistic communications other than their native linguistic communication. For e.g. a Malayan, may talk English, Chinese, Tamil every bit good every bit Malay as a 2nd linguistic communication.


Music is every bit diversified as the cultural and lingual diverseness. Music has its presence in signifier of tribunal music, common people music, music manners of smaller cultural groups etc. Stringing instruments are really popular in the part with many other tribunal and common people genres.

Economic Geography:

Southeast Asia has experienced rapid growing of economic system since last few old ages. Known as one of the “ East Asiatic Tigers ” , Singapore has been a developed economic system boulder clay day of the month. But shortly happening their topographic point amongst the East Asiatic Lttes are Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. Southeast Asia has been seen as an illustration of globalized capitalist economy as the chief ground behind the growing of the economic system is foreign direct investing in local industries by giants like US, Japan.

The islands in the part are major beginning of Petroleum and besides for Loging.

While Malaysia is the universe ‘s largest exporter of Oil Palm, Singapore has foothold as the universe ‘s 2nd busiest Port and a major Banking and Financial hub.

The part is a combination of affluent every bit good as hapless states. On one manus, Singapore is extremely developed whereas on the other manus, states like Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam face utmost poorness. This is chiefly because two of the above stated states are still under communist regulation and boulder clay late holding faced wars.

Tourism plays a cardinal function in developing the economic system of the part. In recent times, there has been huge addition in the growing rate and the major subscriber is touristry. Difficult attempts are put into publicising and marketing the topographic point to show the scenic beauty of the part. There have been immense footsteps in signifier of tourers who bring in money and in return hike the economic system.


They are thriving economic systems. Malaysia has a vivacious oil industry. It is one of the top exporters of natural thenar oil and gum elastic, which together with chocolate, Piper nigrum, Ananas comosus and baccy contribute towards the growing of the sector. Palm oil is besides a major generator of foreign exchange.


Thailand is the 2nd largest economic system in the sou’-east Asian part after Indonesia. It depends to a great extent on exports. Rice and Shrimp have been major merchandises exported in the universe. Other harvests include maize, coconut, soya beans, gum elastic, sugar cane and tapioca.


It has a developed economic system. Servicess provided alongwith export of electronics and chemicals form the chief beginning of gross for the economic system, which in bend helps to buy natural resources and natural goods for the state.


Exports of petroleum oil and natural gas, with grosss from the crude oil sector contribute towards the little but affluent economic system of the state. It is the third-largest oil manufacturer in Southeast Asia besides the fourth-largest manufacturer of liquified natural gas in the universe.


It is the fifth largest economic system of the part. Agribusiness and industry, electronics and car parts, fabrics and garments are the chief sectors. Exports of minerals besides contribute towards the economic system.

It is one of the freshly industrialized emerging economic systems of the universe.

Viet nams:

It is one of the most underdeveloped economic systems of the universe. Mining and minerals exports aid. Petroleum and coal are the chief mineral exports.

Dutch east indies:

Indonesia is the member of G-20 states as it has the largest economic system in Southeast Asia and is one of the emerging market economic systems of the universe. Food, touristry, dress, footwear, excavation, cement, crude oil and natural gas, fabrics, chemical fertilisers, plyboard, gum elastic, are the major economic system sectors.

Geo constructs:

There are several similarities throughout the part as in clime, works life ; carnal life etc. Many sea and jungle merchandises are found in this part which is rare otherwise. The full part is affected by monsoon air currents. There are many species of animate beings and birds. High degrees of biodiversity can be seen in the shallow Waterss of the coral reefs in the part. There are many assortments of fishes seen in the H2O. Such as the giant shark, which is the universe ‘s largest species can be seen in the South China Sea. Cambodia and Vietnam have claimed to hold the richest fresh water fishing resources in the universe. Mekong River is place to the elephantine Mekong mudcat which is about 3 pess long. Elephantine shellflower and the Giant Bagarius are besides found. The part is really rich in natural resources. Indonesia is considered a giant in universe fishing concern. The country is close to be to the full exploited therefore degrading the overall environment. Illegal fishing has gained impulse which is turn outing unsafe due to already decreasing fish stock.

Emerging Issues:

Southeast Asia has many emerging issues which needs immediate attending. Many states in the part are confronting economic downswing. States like Thailand and Philippines are holding difficult clip as their economic systems are traveling south. Importing oil has taken a immense toll as the rates are fixed in US dollars and their currency is weak as compared to the US dollar. There are other emerging societal, environmental and security issues as the position of the part in footings of wellness is truly dissatisfactory. The part has become a hub of diseases after series of natural catastrophes. Human rights need pressing attending.

Security of the part is negligible as the overplus of islands makes it hard to hold complete security screen. Forest deforestation is doing its manner to the part. Environmentalists warn that it may hold a immense impact on otherwise really much green part. Natural resources are being exploited and exhausted. There many traditional and non traditional issues to be addressed.

Strategic Deductions for future concern strategic planning:

Young, knowing and progressively flush populations, turning GDP, high foreign currency militias and low authorities adoption are among the cardinal factors. Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines are the leaders of the battalion, but Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are besides seeing sensible FDI

net influxs at around 10 % of GDP The strong salvaging wonts of Asiatics have been hailed as portion of the ground the part may non endure the same grade of downswing as Europe and the US. Malaysia and Indonesia in peculiar are seeing increasing activity in footings of by-products of non-core divisions by foreign MNCs.


Southeast Asia is a peripheral part in the universe systems theory. Though it consists of developed, developing and under developed economic systems, still, when the denseness of the country along with population is taken into consideration so the underdeveloped and still developing states take over the little but economically developed states. By holding an bird of Jove oculus ‘s position and prioritizing all the points of the part, Southeast Asia is still a Peripheral part. But it certainly has potency of acquiring into Semi – Peripheral parts of the universe. It has batch of still untapped possible which can take the economic systems of the part to odd highs.

Southeast Asia is a combination of many civilizations, linguistic communications and faiths. It is extremely influenced by the Indian and Chinese civilizations. Many cardinal rivers, mountains, vents, gulfs, straits etc. organize the physical part. There are many islands. So, in all, Southeast Asia is a part of diverseness with great chances.