Internal combustion engine


The internal burning engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs in a confined infinite called a burning chamber. This exothermal reaction of a fuel with an oxidant ( normally air ) creates gases of high temperature and force per unit area, which are permitted to spread out. The defining characteristic of an internal burning engine is that utile work is performed by the spread outing hot gases moving straight to a movable constituent of the engine, such as the Pistons, turbine blades, or even the full engine itself, doing motions over a distance to bring forth utile mechanical energy. Here, the first jurisprudence of thermodynamics is applied where heat from the burning is transformed to mechanical energy. Energy is conserved in this procedure.

Construction Of A Four-Stroke Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

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The internal burning engine is rather different from external burning engines. Since the burning occurs internally, the fire is in direct contact with the traveling constituents of the engine. This contrasts with external burning engines, such as steam engines, which use the burning procedure to heat a separate working fluid, typically H2O or steam, which so in bend does work. In steam engines, fire is off from the traveling constituents of the engine while steam is in direct contact.

All internal burning engines depend on the exothermal chemical procedure of burning: the reaction of a fuel, typically with air, although other oxidants such as azotic oxide may be employed. This type of engine must hold a agencies of ignition to advance burning. Once successfully ignited and burned, the burning merchandises, hot gases, have more available energy than the original tight fuel/air mixture ( which had higher chemical energy ) . The available energy is manifested as high temperature and force per unit area which can be translated into work by the engine. In a reciprocating engine, the high force per unit area merchandise gases inside the cylinders drive the engine ‘s Pistons. Once the available energy has been removed, the staying hot gases are vented ( frequently by opening a valve or exposing the exhaust mercantile establishment ) and this allows the Piston to return to its old place. The Piston can so continue to the following stage of its rhythm, which varies between engines. Any heat non translated into work is a waste merchandise and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid chilling system.

Internal burning engines are most normally used for nomadic propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. In nomadic equipment, internal burning is advantageous since it can supply high power-to-weight ratios together with first-class fuel energy denseness ( energy shop in a given system per unit volume or per unit mass ) . By and large utilizing fossil fuel ( chiefly crude oil ) , these engines have appeared in conveyance in about all vehicles ( cars, trucks, bikes, boats, and in a broad assortment of aircraft and engines ) . Internal burning engines appear in the signifier of gas turbines every bit good where a really high power is required, such as in jet aircraft, choppers, and big ships. They are besides often used for electric generators and by industry. Several other utilizations are for any portable state of affairs where you need a non-electric motor. The largest application in this state of affairs would be an internal burning engine driving an electric generator. That manner, you can utilize standard electric tools driven by an internal burning engine. The advantage of this application is the portability. It is more convenient utilizing this type of engine in vehicles over electricity.

However, there are disadvantages from this type of engine, non merely the air pollution, but besides noise pollution. Another disadvantage is size. It is really impractical to hold little motors that can hold any power. Electric motors are much more practical for this.

The First Law Of Thermodynamics And Combustion

Energy and enthalpy balances

In a burning procedure, fuel and oxidant react to bring forth merchandises of different composing. The existent way by which this transmutation takes topographic point is understood merely for simple fuels such as H and methane. For fuels with more complicated construction, the inside informations are non good defined. However, the first jurisprudence of thermodynamics can be used to associate the terminal provinces of mixtures undergoing a burning procedure ; its application does non necessitate that the inside informations of the procedure be known.

The first jurisprudence of thermodynamics relates alterations in internal energy ( heat content ) to heat and work transportation interactions. See a system of mass m which changes its composing from reactants to merchandises by chemical reaction as indicated in figures 1. Using the first jurisprudence to the system between its initial and concluding provinces gives QR-P-WR-P=UP-UR… … … … ( 1 )

Heat reassign QR-P and work transportation and work transportation WR-P due to normal force supplantings may happen across the system boundary. The standard thermodynamic mark convention for each energy transportation interaction-positive for heat transportation to the system and positive for work transportation from the system is used.

System Changing From Reactants To Merchandises For First Law Analysis

Following, we will see a series of particular procedures: foremost, a changeless volume procedure where initial and concluding temperatures are the same, T ‘ . Then the equation 1 is becomes

QR-P=U’P-U’R= ( ?U ) V, T ‘ … … . ( 2 )

The internal energy of the system has changed by an sum ( ?U ) V, T ‘ which can be measured or calculated. Combustion procedures are exothermal ( the ( ?U ) V, T ‘ and QR-P are negative ) ; therefore the system ‘s internal energy lessenings. If equation 2 is expressed per mole of fuel, so ( ?U ) V, T ‘ is known as the addition in internal energy at changeless volume, and – ( ?U ) V, T’is known as the heat of reactant at changeless volume at temperature T ‘ .

Following, see a changeless force per unit area procedure where the initial and concluding temperatures are the same, T ‘ . Then a changeless force per unit area procedure

WR-P=RPp dV=p ( VP-VR ) … … . ( 3 )

So the equation 1 becomes


QR-P=U’P+pV’P- ( U’R+pV’R )

QR-P=H’P-H’R= ( ?H ) P, T ‘ … … . ( 4 )

The heat content of the system has changed by an sum ( ?H ) P, T ‘ which can be measured or calculated. Again for burning reactions, ( ?H ) P, T’is a negative measure, if equation 4 is written per mole of fuel, ( ?H ) P, T ‘ is called the addition in heat content at changeless force per unit area and – ( ?H ) P, T ‘ is called the heat of reaction at changeless force per unit area at T ‘ .

These procedures can be displayed, severally, on the internal energy or enthalpy versus temperature secret plan shown schematically in figures 2. If U ( or H ) for the reactants is arbitrary assigned a value U°R ( or H°R ) at some mentions temperature T0, so the value of ( ?U ) V, T0 [ or ( ?H ) P, T0 ] fixes the relationship between U ( T ) or H ( T ) , severally, for the merchandises and the reactants. Notes that the inclines of these lines ( the particular heat at changeless volume or force per unit area if the diagram is expressed per unit mass or per mole ) increases with increasing temperature ; besides, the magnitude of ( ?U ) V, T ‘ [ or ( ?H ) P, T ‘ ] lessenings with increasing temperature because curriculum vitae ( or cp ) for the merchandises is greater than for the reactants.

Conventional Plot Of Internal Energy ( U ) Or Enthalpy ( H ) Of Reactants And Products As A Function Of Temperature

Heat contents of Formation

For fuels which are individual hydrocarbon compounds, or where the precise fuel composing is known, the internal energies or heat contents of the reactants and the merchandises can be related through the heat contents of formation of the reactants and merchandises.

The heat content of formation ?h°f of a chemical compound is the enthalpy addition associated with the reaction of organizing one mole of the given compound from its elements, with each substance in its thermodynamics standard province at the given temperature.

The standard province is the province at one atmosphere force per unit area and the temperature under consideration. We will denote the standard province by the superscript° . Since thermodynamics computations are made as a difference between an initial and a concluding province, it is necessary to choose a data point province to which all other thermodynamic provinces can be referred. While a figure of data point provinces have been used in the literature, the most common data point is 298.15 K ( 25°C ) and 1 atmosphere. The mention province of each component is its stable standard province ; eg. , for O at 298.15 K, the mention province is O2 gas.

Heat contents of formation are tabulated as a map of temperature for all normally happening species. For inorganic compounds, the JANAF thermo chemical tabular array are the primary mention beginning.

For a given burning reaction, the heat content of the merchandises at the standard province relation to the heat content data point is so given by

H°P=productsni?h°f, I

And the heat content of the reactants is given by

H°P=Reactantsni?h°f, I

Engine Cycles

The rhythm experienced in the cylinder of an internal burning engine is really complex and hard to be analyzed. This is because the rhythm is an unfastened rhythm with altering composing. To ease the analysis of the engine rhythm, the existent rhythm is approximated with an ideal air-standard rhythm. The undermentioned estimates were made in the analysis of the engine rhythm.

1. The gas mixture in the cylinder is treated as air for the full rhythm. Hence, belongings values of air are used in the analysis.

2. The existent unfastened rhythm is analysed as a closed rhythm by presuming that the gases being exhausted are fed back into the consumption system.

3. The burning procedure is treated as a heat add-on term Qin of equal energy value.

4. The unfastened fumes procedure, which carries a big sum of heat content out of the system, is treated as a closed system heat rejection procedure Qout of equal energy value.

5. Engine procedures are approximated with ideal procedure.

a. Intake and exhaust shots are assumed to be constant-pressure procedures.

B. Compression shots and enlargement shots are approximated by isentropic procedures.

c. The burning procedure is assumed to be a constant-volume procedure ( spark ignition rhythm ) , a constant-pressure procedure ( compaction ignition rhythm ) , or a combination of both ( compaction ignition double rhythm ) .

d. Exhaust blowdown is approximated by a constant-volume procedure.

e. All procedures are treated as reversible procedures.

Since the engine rhythm is analysed as an air-standard rhythm and air is considered as ideal gas, the ideal gas relationships can be used.

The most common four-stroke flicker ignition engine and compaction ignition rhythms are Otto rhythm, Diesel rhythm and Double rhythm. The Otto rhythm and Double rhythm are widely used in modern automobile four-stroke internal burning engine.

Notation, Symbols, Abbreaviation, And Subscripts Used In Cycle Analysis






Gas force per unit area in cylinder


heat transportation rate per unit mass


Volume in cylinder


heat transportation for one rhythm


Specific volume of gas


heat transportation rate


Gas invariable of air


heating value of fuel




compaction ratio


Mass of gas in cylinder


work for one rhythm






Specific heat content


burning efficiency


Specific internal energy



cp, curriculum vitae

Specific heats






Specific work



degree Celsiuss

Speed of sound




Air-fuel ratio

degree Fahrenheit



Mass flow rate




heat transportation per unit mass for one rhythm


mixture of all gases

Otto Cycle

Otto rhythm is the rhythm of many car engines and other four-stroke flicker ignition ( SI ) engines. It is the air-standard theoretical account of most four-stroke flicker ignition engines of the last 140 old ages, including many of today ‘s car engines.

Thermodynamic Analysis of Air-standard Otto Cycle at Wide-open Throttle

Pressure-Volume And Temperature-Entropy Diagram Of Otto Cycle

Process 6-1 – Constant-Pressure Intake Of Air At Po

Intake valve is opened and exhaust valve is closed:


w6-1=Po ( v1-v6 )

Process 1-2 – Isentropic Compression Stroke

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:

T2=T1v1v2k-1=T1V1V2k-1=T1 ( rc ) k-1

P2=P1v1v2k=P1V1V2k=P1 ( rc ) K



Process 2-3 – Constant-volume Heat Input ( Combustion )

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:








Process 3-4 – Isentropic Expansion Stroke ( Power Stroke )

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:


T4=T3v3v4k-1=T3V3V4k-1=T31rc k-1

P4=P3v3v4k=P3V3V4k=P31rc K


Process 4-5 – Constant-Volume Heat Rejection ( Exhaust Blowdown )

Intake valve is closed and exhaust valve is opened:





Process 5-6 – Constant-pressure Exhaust Stroke At Po

Intake valve is closed and exhaust valve is opened:



The Thermal Efficiency Of Otto Cycle:




By using ideal gas relationships, the thermic efficiency of Otto rhythm at broad unfastened accelerator can be determined with merely the compaction ratio.


However, due to altering composing, heat losingss, valve convergence, and finite clip required for rhythm procedures, the existent thermic efficiency for an Otto rhythm SI engine is less than the predicted value.


Operation Of A Four-Stroke Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

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Double Cycle

If the Otto rhythm ( Spark ignition ) and Diesel rhythm ( Compression ignition ) are analysed, it is found that an engine will ideally hold higher efficiency if the engine is compression ignition ( CI ) but operates on the Otto rhythm. Most modern high-velocity CI engine uses Dual rhythm alternatively of Diesel rhythm for higher efficiency. The Double rhythm has heat input procedure of burning represented by a double procedure of changeless volume followed by changeless force per unit area. It is besides called Limited Pressure rhythm since it can be considered as a modified Otto rhythm with a limited upper force per unit area.

Thermodynamic Analysis of Air-standard Dual Cycle

Pressure-Volume And Temperature-Entropy Diagram Of Dual Cycle

Process 1-2 – Isentropic Compression Stroke

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:

T2=T1v1v2k-1=T1V1V2k-1=T1 ( rc ) k-1

P2=P1v1v2k=P1V1V2k=P1 ( rc ) K




Process 2-x – Constant-Volume Heat Input ( First Part of Combustion )

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:






Pressure ratio, ? is defined as the rise in force per unit area during burning.


Process x-3 – Constant-Pressure Heat Input ( Second Part Of Combustion )

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:






Cutoff ratio:


Heat in:



Process 3-4 – Isentropic Expansion Stroke ( Power Stroke )

Both consumption and exhaust valves are closed:





Process 4-5 – Constant-Volume Heat Rejection ( Exhaust Blowdown )

Intake valve is closed and exhaust valve is opened:





Process 5-6 – Constant-Pressure Exhaust Stroke at Po

Intake valve is closed and exhaust valve is opened:


Thermal Efficiency Of Dual Cycle:




After rearranging, the thermic efficiency of Dual rhythm becomes:


As with the Otto rhythm, the existent thermic efficiency for a Double rhythm CI engine is less than the predicted value due to altering composing, heat losingss, valve convergence, and finite clip required for rhythm procedures.


Heat Transfer In Engine

Under the utmost high temperature the internal burning engine will burn and bring forth the mechanic power to the system. The heat transportation from the burning is of import to guarantee that the procedure is continuously and in the high public presentation. Heat transportation is required for a figure of of import grounds including material temperature bounds, lubricant public presentation bounds, emanations and knock. The fumes system heat transportation is besides an of import factor in emanations and exhaust turbine public presentation. Satisfactory catalytic convertor public presentation occurs above a threshold of light-off temperature. The threshold temperature ( oxidization efficiency greater than 50 % ) for the catalyzed oxidization of hydrocarbon and C monoxide emanations is about 500K, so that at exhaust temperatures less than 500K, catalytic convertor public presentation is adversely affected. In add-on, the continued oxidization of hydrocarbons and other pollutants in the fumes system is a map of the fumes system temperature.

The heat transportation rate in an engine is dependent on the coolant temperature and the engine size, among other variables. There are complex interactions between assorted operational parametric quantities. For illustration, as the temperature of the engine coolant decreases, the heat transportation to the coolant will increases and the burning temperature will diminish. This will do a lessening in the burning efficiency and addition in the volumetric efficiency. It will besides do an addition in the thermic emphasiss in the cylinder arm, and increase the size of the radiator needed, since the coolant-ambient temperature difference will diminish. The formation of N oxides will diminish and the oxidization of hydrocarbon will diminish. The exhaust temperature will besides diminish, doing a lessening in the public presentation of the catalytic convertor and a turbocharger.

Engine Cooling System

There are two types of engine chilling systems used for heat transportation from the engine block and caput ; liquid chilling and air chilling. With a liquid coolant, the heat is removed through the usage of internal chilling channels within the engine block, as shown schematically in Figure 7 below.

Liquid Cooling System

With air as coolant, the heat is removed through the usage of fives attached to the cylinder wall, as shown schematically in Figure 8. Both types of chilling systems have assorted advantages and disadvantages. Liquid systems are much quieter than air system since the chilling channels absorb the sounds from the burning processes. However, liquid systems are capable to freeze, corrosion and escape jobs that do non be in air systems.

Air Cooling System

The H2O chilling system is normally a individual cringle where a H2O pump sends coolant to the engine block and so to the caput. The coolant will so flux to a radiator or heat money changer and back to the pump. The boiling temperature of the liquid coolant can raised by increasing the force per unit area or by adding an linear with a high boiling point, such as ethylene ethanediol. During engine tune-up, a thermostatically controlled valve will recycle the coolant flow through the engine block, by go throughing the heat money changer. As the engine heats up, the valve will open up, and let the coolant to flux to the radiator. The clip required for engine tune-up to a steady province operating temperature depends on the engine size, velocity and burden and is typically of the order of 10 proceedingss for an automotive engine. Dual circuit chilling with separate circuits to the caput and block has besides been used.

The design of the liquid chilling transitions in the engine block and caput is done through empirical observation. The primary design consideration is to supply for sufficient coolant flow at the high heat flux parts, such as the fumes valves. Since the country between exhaust valves is hard to chill, some automotive engine designs use merely one fumes valve to cut down the warming of the recess air-fuel mixture, and therefore increase the volumetric efficiency. A reappraisal of preciseness chilling considerations is given in Robinson et Al ( 1999 ) .

The heat fluxes and surface temperatures near the fumes manifold and port are high plenty so that nucleate boiling can happen in the coolant at those lubricators. The boiling heat transportation coefficients are much larger than individual stage forced convection, so that the surface temperatures will be correspondingly lower. For heat fluxes of the order of 1.5 MW/m2, the ensuing surface temperature of the chilling jacket will be approximately 20 to 30 0C above the impregnation temperature, which typically 130 0C ( 400K ) . The nucleate boiling procedure is really complex, as bubbles formed on the chilling channel surface are swept downstream and so distill in ice chest fluid.

Engines with comparatively low power input, less power end product, less than 20KW, primary usage air chilling. Because the thermic conduction of air is much less than that of H2O, air systems use fives to take down the air side surface temperature. For higher power end product, an external chilling fan is used to increase the air side heat transportation coefficient. Aircraft engines are, for the most portion, air cooled ; providing the needed air flow is non a job since the engine need non be enclosed and is normally located right behind a propellor. Engines that are operated for really short periods of clip, such as engine used in ? -miles dragster, do non utilize a chilling system and utilize the thermic electrical capacity of the engine block to maintain the gas side surface temperatures within bounds.

Radiation Heat Transfer Theory in Engine

During the burning procedure in an engine, high temperature gases and particulate affair radiate to the cylinder walls. In spark ignition engine the fraction of gaseous and particulate affair radiation is really little in comparing to the convection heat transportation to the cylinder wall. The fire front propagates rapidly across the burning chamber through a reasonably homogenous fuel-air mixture. Most of the gaseous radiation is in narrow sets from the H2, CO2 and H2O molecules.

Radiation heat transportation in take parting media, such as the instance in a combusting gas particulate mixture, is modelled with the radiation transportation equation ( RTE ) . The equation includes the radiant energy absorbed, emitted and scattered along a given solid angle way:

dIds=-K+?I+KIb+?4?P ( ? , ? ‘ ) I?’d? ‘

Where I is the beaming energy strength in the way of a solid angle ? , s is the distance in that way, Ib is the black organic structure strength, K is an extinction coefficient, ? is a scattering coefficient, P is the stage map or chance for dispersing from solid angle ? ‘ into solid angle ? . There are a assortment of numerical methods for solution of the radiative transportation equation including flux methods, Monte Carlo techniques, the distinct ordinates method and the distinct transportation method. The distinct ordinates method discretizes the radiative transportation equation for a set of finite solid angle waies. The ensuing distinct ordinates equations are solved along solid angle waies utilizing a control volume technique.

The radiation transportation equation has been incorporated into multi-dimensional CFD codifications, such as KIVA. Blunsdon et Al. ( 1992 ) applied the distinct transportation method to the CFD codification KIVA for the simulation of Diesel burning and besides modeled the radiation from burning merchandises in a spark ignition engine ( Blunsdon et al. , 1993 ) .

The fumes system operates at a temperature high plenty so that radiation heat transportation from the fumes system to the environment is important. At full burden with a stationary engine on a trial base, it is possible to do exhaust system glow red, which indicates the radiation emanation is in the seeable wavelength scope. In many engines a radiation shield is use to cut down the radiation heat transportation from the fumes manifold to the engine block and heated through fumes manifold gasket.


1 ) Willard W. Pulkrabek, 2004, “Engineering Fundamentalss of the Internal Combustion Engine” , 2nd Edition, Pearson Prentice-Hall

2 ) John B. Heywood, 1988, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals” , McGraw-Hill, Inc

3 ) Robinson, K. , N. Campbell, J. Hawley, and D. Tilley, 1999, “A Review of Precision Engine Cooling” SAE paper 1999-01-0578

4 ) Blundsdon C. , W. Malalaskekera, and J. Dent, 1992, “Application of the Discrete Transfer Model of Thermal Radiation in a CFD Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion and Heat transfer ” SAE paper 922305

5 ) Blundsdon C. , J. Dent, and W. Malalasekera, 1993, “ Modeling Infrared Radiation from the Combustion Product in a Spark Ignition Engine” SAE paper 932699

6 ) Ferguson. Kirkpatrick, 2001, “Internal Combustion Engines Applied Thermo sciences” , 2nd Edition, John Wiley & A ; Sons, Inc