Industrial Robots And Plasma Cutting Robot Engineering Essay

A rhenium programmable multifunctional operator designed to travel stuff parts tools or specialised devices through assorted programmed gesture for the public presentation of assorted undertaking and rhenium programmable machine which seems and woks continuously 24 hours and 365 yearss is called as automaton.

The first automaton was invented in 18 century and the first industrial automaton was invented in the twelvemonth of 1961. As the universe start turning, the demand and the demand for the day-to-day life of human being starts increasing and to carry through these demands the company starts increasing their production rate. To increase the production rate and besides to cut down the wastage, clip and money companies planned to present robot machineries into their mill alternatively of human existences and these automatons are called as industrial automaton. By utilizing the industrial automaton it ‘s non merely possible to accomplish the production rate besides possible to keep the truth of the production procedure and possible to do needed form and size harmonizing to the company demands.

Most of the automatons in the industries are 6 axis automatons and all the automatons were built by some common factors like Detectors, Microcontroller, Motors, Electronics Communication and control, Grippers. These types of flexible automatons are called industrial automatons and other types of automatons are called choice and topographic point automatons ( domestic automaton ) . This type automaton are used in auto fabrication but now they are used in about all industries like wear house, infirmary, labs and glass film editing company and in sea H2O to research nature information they are besides used in infinite based automaton engineering and many more industries.


Automatons are utility to manual labor of human existences which save great energy and tonss of clip. When came to instance of industrial automatons they are reprogrammable and execute the undertaking of traveling stuffs to coveted locations. Initially automatons are used in auto fabrication but now they are used in about all industries like wear house, infirmary, labs and glass film editing company and more industries.

The followers are the basic demands in constructing the automaton parts.





Communication and control


Detectors ; – To build the intelligent automatons detectors should be installed. Detectors are the device which helps the automaton to place the things traveling around them. There different type of detectors like

Infrared detectors An energy which emits its radiation below the frequence of our oculus scope that we ca n’t see it but merely we can experience it at our skin temperature this type of radiation is called infrared radiation. Infrared detector are the device which identify the radiation below the frequence scope of our oculus, that merely we can experience at our tegument temp is called infrared detectors. Infrared detectors can place the gesture of the merchandise by the motion of its milieus and step the heat emitted by the radiation.

Supersonic detectors a device which identifies their encompassing merchandise presence by their sound frequence is called supersonic detectors. These type detectors produce big scope of sound frequence and let the frequence to fall on the surrounding merchandises and acquire reflected by some reverberations received back to the detectors. This type of detector identify the merchandise distance by ciphering the clip period of directing signal and having individual. These type detectors are normally used in measuring of long scope measuring, complicated contemplation surface and in last complicated environment.

Thermal array detectors This type of detector is besides called as tactile detector. This type of detector gives a provender back to a operator system in the automaton. It identifies the merchandise by their different physical belongingss like type stuff, cold or warm they feel.

Micro-controller Micro-controllers are the encephalon of the automatons, it ‘s a chief map key of the automaton without the micro accountant there is no such automatons act in the universe.

Motors Motor is besides a one of the of import key map the automatons it ‘s a portion of automaton. The chief map of the motor is to assist the automatons in gesture of the machine ; several demands should be satisfied in building of quality motor like RPM, TOURCH and POWER-REQUIERMENT.

Electronicss It plays a major function in the building of automatons that is MOTOR CONTROLLER, LCDS, and CABLE-MICRO_CONTROLLER etc.

Communication and control ; – The portion of the automatons are designed in such a manner which act harmonizing with the inputs given by the user. The choice of the accountant and communicating are depends upon the demand got by the industries or company, we should choose or put in the automaton parts in such a manner that we should hold longer life automatons.

Grippers ; – Gripper is besides a one of the most of import portion in the automaton without the gripper the automaton could n’t keep or transport any map decently without gripper we ca n’t make any map like cutting boring milling etc. They are many type of gripper available in the market ; it depends upon the work that a automaton has to make.

Types of automatons ;

The followers are the different type of automatons as follows

Cartesians robot

Cylindrical automaton

Spherical automaton

Sacra automaton

Articulated automaton

Parallel automaton

Cartesian automaton ; -Cartesian automatons means it measures each specific point in a different mode in a plane by utilizing a brace of numerical coordinates which are pointed from fixed point in a plane to the two fixed perpendicular directed lines and it measured in same unit length. In Cartesian automaton the axis of the automaton is Cartesian carbon monoxide ordinates, it is used in operations like ARC welding, milling and collection.

Cartesian automaton

Work infinite of Cartesian automaton

Working of Cartesian automaton

A automaton which consists of three chief axes like XY & A ; Z called Cartesian automaton and the three axis are right angle to each other. The Cartesian automaton is supported by the both the terminals and it involves the rectangular working envelops.

These types of automatons have high rigidness, truth and respectability but they are quit debatable as they ca n’t make the land placed objects.

It is really easy to programme and visual image by sing the mechanical construction of the automaton and working map of the automaton

Advantages of the Cartesian automaton

It is simple in design and working maps

It is high desirable in industry

Downtime can be reduced

Possible to keep the production rate

It is inexpensive and in cheap compared to others

Easily disassembled.

High truth can be achieved.

Disadvantage of Cartesian automaton

It is hard to seal

It ca n’t be used in moist country

Applications of Cartesian automaton

It is most normally used in choice and topographic point automatons like surface mounted circuit boards.

It is most normally used in machine tools and coordinate measurement

It is largely used in puting the terminal effecters like automatic prison guard thrusts, drills, welding caputs, cutting caputs and grippers.

Cylindrical automaton A Robot which consists of both the revolute and prismatic arm articulations is called as a cylindrical automaton. The name itself implies the type and working map of the automaton.

Cylindrical automaton

Working of cylindrical automaton

In cylindrical automaton the axis of the automatons is cylindrical coordinates, the automaton arm is fixed at Z-axis. It operates in two waies are up and down where it is fixed and in and out on prismatic articulations and the automaton films 360 grade in x axis in horizontal waies by giving left and right gestures, it films merely perpendicular way in Y axis by giving up and down gestures and in last it films in omega axis in horizontal way by giving forward and back ward motions. round gesture in the automaton is given by repairing the electrical motors and cogwheels at the base of the automaton. In cylindrical automaton the gesture given in the driver by using pneumatic presser to the drivers and the pneumatic presser is controlled by the solenoid value. The extra motion can be achieved by repairing the carpus at the terminal of the automaton arm. Different type s of carpus is available in the industries depending upon the work map, capacity and work infinite required for the operation the carpus is selected. It is used in operation like piecing and it besides use in topographic point welding etc.


Better Accuracy can be achieved.

Less infinite demand for operation.

Easy to run.

Less in award.

Visual image is easy.


Operator is required.

Merely little operation can be achieved.

It is non possible to make the base of the object.

Essential attention required.

Spherical automaton it is the earliest stock list in automaton industry. In this automaton the axis of the automaton is polar coordinates and it is besides called as polar automaton. It consists of one prismatic articulation and two rotary articulations except these articulations the spherical automaton requires some extra fond regard like carpuss and articulations to do certain the perfect orientation of the merchandise and its parts. The spherical automaton films in x-axis by 360A°in horizontal way in left and rights gestures, in y- axis by 270A°in perpendicular rotary motion by giving up and down gestures and in last in z-axis films in horizontal way by giving forward and backward gestures. It is used for the different type of welding like topographic point, gas, discharge, etc it is besides used for keeping the machine tools.

Spherical automaton


Less work infinite requires.

Easy to run.

High degree operation can be done.

Less dearly-won in monetary value.

Used in military operation.

High truth can be achieved.


Computer is required to finish the operation.

Complicated to understand

Time requires to finishing the operation is more.

Essential attention is required.

Sacra robo Sacra automaton was invented in the twelvemonth 1981under the experiment of. Scara is the 1 of the most of import automaton in accomplishing a point to indicate operation and accomplishing good truth in operation.

A Scara automaton is computing machine numerically controlled operated automaton and its arm seems like human arm. It is besides called as a selective ailment automaton arm. Sacra automaton has two parallel rotator articulations that have conformity in the plane. The one arm of scara automaton is fixed in z-axis and other arm can film in ten and y axis. The scara automaton is chiefly used for managing the assembly operation and machine tools. It is besides used in the choice and places the heavy object.


Point to indicate operation can be easy achieved.

High degree truth can be achieved.

Crisp cuts can be produced.

Time demand is less.

Less adult male power required.


More expensive.

Complicated in operation.

High engineering required.

High degree package required.

Merely trained individual can be operated.

Large infinite required for the operation.

Noise is more.

It ca n’t be used for high degree operation

Articulated robot a automaton which is fitted with rotary articulation arm is called as articulated automaton. Articulated automaton is closely resembles or seems like human arm. It is a six axis automaton and its mechanical construction consists of 3 rotary articulations. A polar coordinate system can be produced by utilizing these three traffic circle articulations. These three traffic circle articulations moves in x, Y and omega axis, in x-axis it films 360A°of horizontal rotary motion and gives left and right motions, in Y axis it films 270 grade of perpendicular rotary motion and gives up and down motions and in last it moves in omega axis by 90 to 180 grades in horizontal and perpendicular rotary motions and gives backward and forward motions. Articulated automaton chiefly consists of bole, arm, forearm, and carpus, revolving articulations ; articulated automaton has ability to revolve in all way in working environment. It is used for different types of welding like gas and discharge and besides it is used in spraying pigment and assembly operations etc.

Working of six axis

1 axis- In this axis the arm expanse from one side to other side.

2 axis- In this axis the shoulders moves in forward and backward waies.

3 axis- In this axis cubitus films in up and down way.

4 axis – In this axis forearm films up and down.

5 axis – In this axis carpus films in up and down waies. And in last

6 axis- In this axis wrist expanse from one side to other side.


Wide Varity of industrial application can be achieved.

Crisp cuts can be achieved.

Easy to keep the production rate.

Time demand for finishing the operation is less

More flexible in operation.


Expensive in monetary value

Complicated to run the machine.

Requires big workspace

Difficult to visualize

Parallel robot A automaton which consists of 3 prismatic and rotary axis which are parallel to each other is called as parallel automaton. The names itself implies or bespeak the type of automaton. Parallel automatons has rotator articulations, Basically Parallel automatons are used for executing uses and its terminal effecters are connected at the terminal of the base. All the automatons are seems to be similar when sing at that place consecutive engineering, in this engineering axis line of each arm is similar and parallel to other axis line.

Robot choice is chiefly depending upon the figure of grade of freedom. The most normally and celebrated analogue automaton is 3 grade of freedom automaton because of their high arm rigidness and high stableness. High respectability can be achieved in the parallel automaton because of it less flexing arm, the chief intent of the parallel automaton is to managing the nomadic platform, cockpit, flight simulators.


High rate of stableness can be achieved.

High arm rigidness.

Less clip required to finish the rhythm.

Easy to run.

It is used surgerical equipment.


High scope of power ingestion to finish the operation.

Computer is required for the operation.

Market value is high.

Work infinite demand is high.

Small scope of gesture.

Robot scheduling

A automaton is re programmable machine and its scheduling method is divided into two classs like

Manual scheduling.

Automatic scheduling.

Manual scheduling

Manual scheduling is a plan in that the automaton operated by the bids like text based bid scheduling and graphical based bid scheduling.

In text based bid programming the scheduling linguistic communication is divided with the construction and bid of the robot plan. The text based programming bids chiefly consist of algorithm and that algorithm includes no of bomber waies and figure of different bids.

Graphical based scheduling bid consists of flow diagram that consists of graphical image strategy in its flow diagram. By utilizing a graphical scheduling bid it is possible to accomplish the better image capturing for the automaton operations.

Automatic scheduling

In this type of automaton programming the automaton automatically generates the automaton programme depending upon the type of action executing. In industrial automaton the tech pendant is used to bring forth the plan depend upon its action. All the programmes are stored in the robot memory, by sing the automaton action the programme will be automatically executed.

Robot applications

The most flexible type of automaton is 6 axis automaton and it is industrial automaton other type of automatons are pick and topographic point automatons which are chiefly used to increase the production of the company and cut down the adult male power and clip.

Automatons are besides used in the industries like sawmill for boring intent, it is besides used in piecing varies parts like cell phone, current metres etc it ‘s besides used in the pharmaceuticals industries in fabricating medical specialties. The chief map of the automaton is they besides used in the military intent in some states.

It ‘s besides used in sea H2O to research nature information they are besides used in infinite based automaton engineering.

Task II

Hazard analysis:

One of the chief issues in automaton fabrication industries is safety factor. By utilizing the plasma cutting procedure, produces many jeopardies like smoke gases noise and extremist violet beams. Stain less steel film editing is more potentially harmful because it contains Cr and Nickel ill entailed country flammable gases may besides bring forth a jeopardies or hazards. Whatever the agreements made in the company that ‘s for employers and the merchandises otherwise, it will be given to a large loss in the production rate and company economic conditions, before bring forthing the automaton no 1 adopted the safety factors in the company. As the engineering starts turning so many safety factors are adopted in the industries like by supplying the basic cognition about the merchandise to the employers, supplying the helmet, supplying the safety jackets to the employers and employers are to the full trained how to get away from the exigency. As a engineering developed safety factors installed in the company harmonizing to the installing of automaton the applied scientists adopted the circuit interrupting system with the automaton. The system is attached with the control system, which is supervised by the detectors the detectors sense the robot place of the automaton arm and act harmonizing to the minute. If the automaton arm moving in incorrect way or outside the finish the detectors senses the minute and sends the bid to the exigency interrupting system one time acquiring the bids from the detectors it instantly breaks the connexion and halt the automaton farther action. By following this safety factor, it reduces the unwanted hazards, which happen from the automaton.

The workspace:

Before the automaton was developed the cutting operation was done by manus to make the operation it requires so many employers for cutting the metal by manus operation it is non possible to accomplish accurate cuts, it consumes batch of money, the production rate is excessively low and truth is low. To avoid these we installed the plasma-cutting automaton in the company by put ining, it ‘s possible to accomplish the crisp cuts, possible to keep the clip, production rate can be increased and company economic status can be increased


To cut down the wastage, clip and money the automaton is installed in the company by put ining the automaton it is possible to file away the more production rate in the company and possible to do needed form and size harmonizing to the company demands.

Robot choice:

A rhenium programmable multifunctional operator designed to travel stuff parts tools or specialised devices through assorted programmed gesture for the public presentation of assorted undertaking is called automaton

The automaton has gas/air lines and a Lincoln electric wire provender motor overseas telegram. These are routed inside the automaton arm. Because of this dependability can be increased, step up can be reduced and external cabling demand can be eliminated. Panasonic VR006 plasma cutting automaton is used which precisely meets the demands of the company.The plasma cutting automaton offers a high public presentation and sensitive is designed for the assortment of operations in the industry. The plasma-cutting automaton includes such a safety protections. Six brakes are provided at six axes is a first-class pick for the fabrication industry. The automaton arm has the capacity of managing the discharge welding and care applications. Plasma cutting automaton is a six axis robot the axis ‘s like, J1, J2, J3, J4, J5 and J6, the automaton arm moves in the scope of

J1 can travel in the scope of +/-155 grade

J2 can travel in the scope of +/-150deg to 90 deg

J3 can travel in the scope of +/-180 deg

J4 can travel in the scope of +/-180 deg

J5 can travel in the scope of +95 deg to -155 deg

J6 can travel in the scope of +/-400 deg

with a warhead of six kgs, the high range of the automaton is 1360mm, repeatability of the automaton is +/- 0.15mm the mass of the automaton is 105 kilogram. The automaton is to the full equipped with detectors and gripper ‘s. The detector used for feeling the automaton arm minute and grippers used to keep the arc torch in plasma cutting procedure arc torch is the of import thing. The climb of the automaton is so simple can be placed on floor or ceiling.

Panasonic VR-006 plasma cutting automaton


Cuting procedure

Metallic element is the most impotent object in the present life universe due to its high strength and public presentation, it ‘s really hard to cut the metal by manus film editing. It is easy to cut the metal by utilizing the plasma-cutting torch by this it is possible to file away the fastest cuts and sharpest cut. The plasma cutting procedure consists of detectors, grippers, arm and torch. In this procedure inert gas moves out from the cylinder at high velocity towards the nose, the traveling gas consist of negative ions. When traveling ions came in contact with the metal, it produces the discharge because the metal contain an positive ions in it when gas comes in contact with the metal a electrical circuit is created in between metal and tip of the torch due to this plasma discharge is produced. The plasma is sufficiently hot to run the metal being cut and moves sufficiently fast to blow liquefied metal off from the cut. By utilizing that arc cutting operation is performed.

The map of the detector is to feel the metal to be placed and send the signals to the computing machine one time the computing machine receives the signals from the detector the operator gives the bid to the automaton to cut the metal harmonizing to the demand and the detector will non let the torch to run without the metal been placed. The gripper ( tool holder ) placed at the terminal of the automaton arm the chief map of the gripper it to manage the torch nearer the metal surface.

Benefits of plasma film editing

It cuts steel and non-ferrous stuffs less than an inch midst easy.

It is faster than oxyfuel when cutting thin stuffs

Less waste

Better, more accurate cuts

Safer worker environment with mechanization.

A little compact design for infinite economy.

Wide working envelope.

Brake systems that come criterion on all six axes.

Offset carpus design for improve entree to welding countries

Crisp cuts can be done.

Waist of stuff, clip can be reduced

velocity, truth and scope of stuffs that it can cut

Flow chart for plasma film editing procedure

Tool is been fixed to robot arm

Robot arm goes to the film editing

Sensor detect the stuff

High presser gas is been flow through nose

Cuting of the stuff is been taken topographic point

Speed of the automaton

Plasma cutting automatons have many velocities harmonizing to the demand. The maker provides different cutting velocity for all the thickness of metal measured in IPM. If the operator selected the metal of A?-inch, machine offers a good cut companied to the 1 rated at lower norm

If so operator executing a longer skins by automated cuts be certain to look into the machinery responsibility, responsibility rhythm is simple the clip you can continuously cut before machine or torch will over heat.

Duty rhythm is per centum of 10 minuet period for ex ; a 60 per centum responsibility rhythm at 50 mononuclear phagocyte systems u can cut with 50 mononuclear phagocyte systems end product power continuously for six minuet out of 10 infinitesimal period if the higher the responsibility rhythm U can cut without taking the interruption or spread ‘s

The plasma cutting automatons have a good film editing velocity, the automaton has to cut the steel or not ferric metal it consist of six axis like J1, J2, J3, J4, J5and J6 and operates at of

J1 moves at velocity of 150/s

J2 moves at velocity of 155/s

J3 moves at velocity of 155/s

J4 moves at velocity of 300/s

J5 moves at velocity of 300/s

J6 moves at velocity of 400/s

Detectors: Detectors are the religious system of the automaton the map of the detector is to mensurate the physical measures like contact, distance, visible radiation, sound, metal, strain, rotational magnetic attraction, temperature and height. As the automaton moves the microcontroller instantly receives the signal from the detector by the precisely location.sensor allow the arm to do or understand the necessary alterations in the workspace. Whatever signals received from the microcontroller will direct to the computing machine and the computing machine acts as a encephalon f the automaton, which provides the intending full information about the surrounding to the automaton. Sensor permit a automaton to hold a equal field of position a scope of sensing and ability to observe the object in the piece runing in existent clip.

In plasma film editing automaton uses a metal observing detector ( shield up detector ) which detects the metal ; give the information to the computing machine through the microcontroller the microcontroller sends the information to the detector which sends the bid to the computing machine. Once having the bids from the computing machine the automaton arm start playing. If metal is non placed in the film editing place the cutter that it will non get down the arc torch until unless the nose is placed on the metal. Sensor are classified into two types

Proproceptive detector: it measures the value internally to robot.

Excroceptive detector: it measure the information from the environment.

Metal DetectorA Sensor


Gripper is the chief portion in plasma film editing operation in plasma cutting operation alternatively of the gripper the torch holder is used to keep the torch ; the tool holder is merely like a cubitus type gripper. One terminal of the gripper is attached to the terminal effector and other terminal is fitted with arc gun. An improved tool holder arm assembly including a two-piece tool holder building that includes an arm clinch holding alignment pins, and an arm chief organic structure with corresponding alliance holes for having the clinch pins, and a agency for securable attaching the chief organic structure with the clinch. Whatever the bids received from the operator the arm act harmonizing to the bids, the tool holder is made up of such a tough stuff because the discharge contain a high temperature. It is non possible to accomplish any operation without the tool holder or gripper, by utilizing a tool holder it is possible to file away the crisp cuts and needed forms.



An industrial safety pattern provide the good non hurts work topographic point in which people can work for robot maker safety regulations includes but the first precedence is given to the employee working under the environment. The three are of the safety that needs to be sing they are normal on the job status, programme mentainence and service. One safety device inclination is common to let all three and is the most basic and cost effectual safety available countries of safety. The working status under a company require enhanced barrier type of enclose around the automaton to forestall the accident been go oning, it prevent the objects in add-on prevent the accident and deliberative motion into a robot workspace by people. Depending upon the other application other safety must be necessary like protecting the automaton from the other equipment and other equipment from the automaton is really important and complex issue. The automaton must be placed in the ventral are because it produces the extremist violet beams that harms the human organic structure due to this skin disease are caused. The automaton should dwell a exigency interrupting system, if a automaton arm moves in incorrect way the breakage system automatically halt the automaton. There are at least four status are to be see

Interfacing automaton with other pieces of the equipment and ensuing interlock conditions.

The consequence of the E-shop and infinite invasion type control switches non merely in the automaton besides in other equipment every bit good during the shutdown stage.

The consequence of the power failure or the E-shop of the start-up status.

The usage of the programmable accountant with robot accountant in control of the equipment in a cell.


The approximative economy of the company is more than the 50 % of approximate cost so the automaton installing in the company can likely be justified economically. The concluding economical justification can finish until the technology analysis is completed. The company employers should accept a automaton.

Merely presuming two twelvemonth payback period for this undermentioned expression

Formula for the payback period is

P = I / ( L-E )


P= payback period

I = Entire capital investing

E= Cares cost

L= Total one-year labour cost

For individual displacement:

P = I / ( L ( WD * No hour displacements ) – Tocopherol ( WD * No hour displacements ) )

For dual displacement:

P= I / ( L ( WD * ( 2 *No hrs displacements ) ) – Tocopherol ( WD * ( 2 *No hrs displacements ) ) ) .


WD – means no of working yearss.

No hour shifts – means figure of hours during the displacement

Assuming the values

I = Cost of the automaton ( in lb )

L = Cost of the labour for one displacement in a twelvemonth

E = Maintenance cost of the automaton