Indian Engagement In Afghanistan History Essay

Of all the states in the bomber continent, the one state, which India would wish to act upon the most, is Afghanistan. No other state in the immediate vicinity of India allows the sort of purchase on Pakistan, as Afghanistan can. This is a fact good understood by both, India and Pakistan, and therefore figures significantly in their traffics with that state.

2. Afghanistan – a historical position. The history of Afghanistan is said to be written in blood. Afghanistan has been in convulsion throughout its history. The existent history of Afghanistan begins when it emerged as a separate land in the mid- 18th century under Ahmed Shah Abdali. When the British ruled India, they tried to convey Afghanistan under their crease. Having failed to convey Afghanistan under their regulation, they created it as a buffer to look into the Soviet influence due souths.

3. The last four decennaries. The last four decennaries have particularly been convoluted, for Afghanistan. It commenced with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by the so Prime Minister Daoud Khan, on 17 Jul 1973. Daoud Khan was in bend, subsequently assassinated, by the Communist officers led by Gen Abdul Qader on 27 Apr 1978. Noor Mohd Tarraki who was in prison boulder clay so, was made the President of Afghanistan and Haffezullah Amin, the Prime Minister. Though both of them formed the Marxist authorities, the power battle between them merely grew as clip went by, ensuing in Amin going the more powerful of the two. On 14 Sep 1979, President Tarraki, who enjoyed more support from Moscow, was killed by Hafeezullah Amin, much against the liking of Soviets. The Soviets, feeling a menace to their clasp over the state from Amin and his policies, moved into Afghanistan someplace between 21 and 25 Dec 1979, and installed Babrak Kamral, who was in expatriate boulder clay so, as the President after assassinating the incumbent President, Hafeezullah Amin.

4. Indian Interests in Afghanistan. Indian involvements in Afghanistan, every bit good as those of other participants in the issue, stems from Afghanistan ‘s geo strategic location. While strategic containment of Pakistan and safeguarding of involvements of the Hindus and Sikhs settled in Afghanistan played to a great extent on the heads of earlier Indian leaders ; harbouring/ preparation of terrorists in Af- Pak boundary line every bit good as India ‘s economic involvements in Central Asiatic Region have added to the state ‘s involvements in Afghanistan in recent old ages. India has been closely involved in Afghanistan, particularly in the last three decennaries. Indian attempts have met with successes every bit good as reverses in this period, every bit much as the Afghans saw their lucks swing, because of the consecutive governments in Kabul.


5. The purpose of this service paper is to discourse the Indian stance vis a vis Afghanistan, and its battle with that state since the Soviet intercession in 1979, and analyse the consequence of India ‘s attempts boulder clay day of the month.


6. India ‘s battle in Afghanistan can non be seen in isolation as that of the recent old ages. Rather, the Indian engagement in Afghanistan has to be viewed in three distinguishable stages. First, India ‘s reactions and function shortly after the Soviet intercession in Afghanistan in late Dec 1979. Second, the period instantly after the backdown of Soviet forces in Feb 1989 and eventually the Indian attempt in Afghanistan station ouster of Taliban from power in Oct 01.

Phase I – The Soviet Intervention

7. States, the universe over, with the exclusion of the Soviet Bloc, were united in reprobating the Soviet military intercession in Afghanistan in Dec 1979. This included those who were non-aligned. Afghanistan, being itself a non-aligned state boulder clay so, was seen to hold been taken over by one of the ace powers.

8. Indian Reaction. When Soviet forces rolled into Afghanistan, India was under the caretaker authorities of Mr Charan Singh. The Indian authorities ‘s response was that India ever “ opposed any outside intervention in the internal personal businesss of one state by another ” . In the UN general assembly session to discourse the Afghan issue, India took a stance that the Soviet Union had sent military personnels at the petition of the Afghan authorities, and that, India believed that Soviet Union would retreat its military personnels from Afghanistan when requested by the Afghan authorities. In fact, India was the first non-Soviet axis representative to talk basically in favor of the Soviet place. While mentioning to the Afghan event, India ‘s official statement, hence, chose the word ‘development ‘ instead than “ intercession ” .1

9. Consequence of India ‘s Stance. India ‘s base in the UN General Assembly caused daze and surprise amongst a big figure of non-aligned states. It did ache India ‘s international stature and politically isolated it from its South Asiatic neighbors. India was seen as non playing its rightful function of a major regional participant in the declaration of the issue. India, on its portion, managed to insulate the Afghan issue from the mainstream of Indo- Soviet dealingss, so that the two states could hold to differ on this issue, without impairing their broad runing cooperation.2 In the overall concretion, India managed to beef up her ties with the so USSR which would turn out really valuable in old ages to come, though at a limited cost of losing its credibleness in the part.

10. A topographic point where India ‘s stance cost dearly was in the Black Marias of the Afghan people. For a ferocious Afghan, foreign presence in his dirt was tantamount to the biggest abuse to him, and therefore, most of the Afghans resented the Soviet presence in their state. The Afghans were therefore, defeated with India ‘s response to the Soviet intercession. However, India ‘s historic ties with that state and its enormously popular civilization managed to absorb some of the sick feelings, and therefore, Afghans remained by and large friendly and warm towards India even during the Soviet epoch.

Phase II – Post Soviet Disengagement

11. During their presence in Afghanistan, the power battle within the regulating council, coupled with the guerilla warfare of the US trained and armed Mujahedeen


1Arundhati Roy, Soviet intercession in Afghanistan – Causes, Consequences and India ‘s Response ( New Delhi: Associated Publishing House, 1987 ) , p.123.

2 Ibid, p 60.

groups extracted a heavy monetary value on the Soviets in the 80s. The Soviets, holding realised that they could non keep on to Afghanistan, declared their determination to draw out their military personnels in late 1988 and by 05 Feb 1989 completed its backdown from Afghanistan.

12. Indian Policy Alignment. Though New Delhi by and big forfeited its political milage in Afghanistan during the period of Soviet intercession, it did stay

in touch with those political elements opposed to the Soviet-backed government including, in add-on to the moderate political forces, anti-regime guerilla leaders such as Ahmed Shah Masoud.3 Towards the ulterior period of the Soviet intercession, as the force per unit area on the Afghan authorities was being built up by the Mujahedeen groups, India aligned herself clearly with the Northern Alliance, made up chiefly of the Tajiks, with Ahmed Shah Masoud and Prof Burhabuddin Rabbani as their leaders. Having realised that the Pushtun cabals led by Gulbuddin Hekmatayar and Pir Syed Ahmed Gilani would hold a pro-Pakistan stance, the best possible option for India was her continued support to the Northern Alliance during its conflicts with the Pushtun cabals for deriving control of Kabul.

13. After the Soviet military personnels had left Afghanistan, India, harmonizing to former foreign Secretary, JN Dixit, followed a three tined policy class: –

( a ) Maintain contact with leaders of all groups including Sibhatullah Mojadadi, Burhanuddin Rabbani, Gulbuddin Hekmetyar and Rashid Dostam so that finally it could cover with whosoever came to power.

( B ) Continue to supply aid in the economic and public wellness domains to the extent feasible.

( degree Celsius ) Explore possibilities, in coaction with provinces like Russia and Iran, of bracing the state of affairs in Afghanistan.3

14. The period instantly after the backdown of Soviet forces, saw intense power battle between all the cabals to derive a place of laterality, through


3 Partha Pratim Basu, “ India and Post Taliban Afghanistan ” . India Quarterly, Jul – Sep 08, p.100

1991 and 92. India managed to keep its relevancy through all the combat, as eventually, it was Burhabuddin Rabbani, a Tajik who finally became the President in Jun 1992. Hekmatyar, a Pushtun was appointed as the Prime Minister in 1993. Rabbani remained in power as the president boulder clay 1996, much against the liking of Pakistan.

15. Taleban. The outgrowth of Taliban was the most decisive stage in the equation between India, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pakistan was able to develop an effectual counter to India ‘s influence in Afghanistan by the creative activity and nurturing of the fundamentalist administration of Taliban. Within a short span of two old ages, the Taliban, taking advantage of the ne’er stoping power battles in Kabul, rolled into the capital metropolis and defeated the forces of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who was so commanding the defense mechanism forces. By terminal Sep 1996, Kabul was in the custodies of the Taliban. Both President Rabbani and Prime Minister Hekmatyar escaped from Kabul go forthing behind the control of the state to the Taliban. This marked the terminal of Indian involvements in Afghanistan, after a long period of good dealingss. India was forced to close down its embassy in Kabul and withdrew its diplomatic presence from the metropolis.

Phase III – Post Taleban

16. The Sep 11 onslaughts on WTC in New York in 2001 can be termed as a turning point in the modern-day universe history. The event strengthened the US decide to root out terrorist act. The first casualty in this offense was the Taliban regulation in Afghanistan as they refused to manus over Al Qaeda leaders holed up in their state. Within a span of two months, US led NATO forces installed an interim disposal dwelling of 29 members stand foring the major cultural groups in Afghanistan, after subverting Taleban from power.

17. Indian Engagement in Re-construction of Afghanistan. India was speedy to reopen its Embassy in Kabul after the interim authorities took over under President Hamid Karzai. India, nevertheless, limited its attempts in Afghanistan to non military engagement, which was the logical measure to follow as the many-sided forces in Afghanistan were under the NATO leading and non under UN authorization. India realised the importance of winning back the Black Marias of the Afghans and saw immense potency in the rebuilding of Afghanistan. Consequently, India pledged 1.3 billion $ , a immense sum by any criterions, for set abouting the proposed Reconstruction of Afghanistan. Additionally, 1 million metric tons of wheat was besides pledged as assistance. However, merely a part of it could be dispatched, as Pakistan did non let theodolite rights to the cargo. India revitalized the Indira Gandhi Children ‘s Hospital by directing a squad of physicians and puting up of cantonments for unreal limbs. 4

18. A deputation of the Confederation of Indian Industry ( CII ) visited Kabul in Feb 02. The deputation included representatives of Ashok Leyland, Mahindra and Mahindra, Hero Cycles, Hindustan Dorr Oliver, Usha International, and so on. Subsequently, the CII set up its office in Kabul.

19. India resumed air services with Afghanistan wef Jan 02. Additionally, India gifted three Airbus 300 B4 aircraft worth 7 million $ to Ariana Airlines. India besides leased a squad of 12 pilots, teachers and trainers to Ariana. India agreed to offer aid in the field of wellness, instruction and preparation installations. An understanding of bilateral cooperation was signed between India and Afghanistan when President Hamid Karzai visited India in Feb 02. The wide inside informations of the Agreement are as follows: –

Health. Rebuilding of wellness substructure, which included building of six medical attention Centres and nomadic medical installations every bit good as rehabilitation of some of the bing medical installations

( B ) Education. Rebuilding of educational substructure ( six schools and engineering schools ) , rehabilitation of some of the bing educational establishments every bit good as supply of learning AIDSs.

Public Transport. Supply 50 buses/ other vehicles and material support for resuscitating public conveyance installations in Kabul and other metropoliss.

Industry. Rehabilitation of bing Industrial park in Kabul and

building of a new Industrial Park.


4Maj Gen Samay Ram UYSM, AVSM, VSM Retd. The new Afghanistan Pawn of America ( New Delhi: Manas Publication, 2004 ) , p.164.

Information Technology.

Puting up of computing machine preparation and care installations.

Computer hardware and package support for the Afghan Government Ministry.

Combined attempt from the Indian IT and building industry to reconstruct Afghanistan utilizing IT for study, appraisal and put to deathing housing/ substructure undertakings.


Examine undertakings for co-operation specifically for development of rural countries.

Examine avenues of specific co-operation in the field of renewable energy resources.

Undertake feasibleness surveies to undertakings in H2O and power sectors by a composite Indian squad.


( I ) Impart developing to authorities functionaries from assorted Afghans ministries related to capacity edifice and human resource development at assorted developing establishments in India.

( two ) Training certain subdivisions of the Afghan Police in Indian preparation academies.

Road Construction. Indian Border Roads Organisation ( BRO ) to develop roads in the state.

( J ) In add-on, the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee ( SGPC ) has besides been invited to assist in the fix of the Gurudwaras and other Sikh shrines in Afghanistan.5


5 Ibid. pp 165-167.

20. India extended further aid to Afghanistan during Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh ‘s visit to Kabul in Aug 05. New undertakings in the field of wellness and agribusiness were signed. A new enterprise on ‘Small Development Projects ‘ was launched to work with local communities in development undertakings. Another important proclamation was the edifice of new Afghan parliament edifice by Indian CPWD with grant allocated by GOI. Close to 4000 Indian ‘s were to be engaged in Afghanistan in all the civil undertakings put together.

21. Pakistani Reaction. Pakistan has been watching with turning malaise, the increasing function of India in its back door. Some of those concerns were articulated by the Pakistan Army head, Gen Ashfaq Parvez Kayani when he said that, India remains the primary menace to Pakistan and the focal point of the Pakistani military. He spoke of the peace, security and stableness of Afghanistan as the chief component of Pakistan ‘s “ strategic deepness ” , and said Pakistan had a more “ legitimate ” outlook in the affair of developing the Afghan security forces than India.6 Ahmed Rashid, a good known Pakistani journalist who has been covering Central Asia and fundamentalist motions like Al Qaeda and Taliban for the last 25 old ages, in his widely acclaimed book – “ Descent into Chaos ” brings out the followers: – “ India ‘s success in Afghanistan had stirred up a hornet ‘s nest in Islamabad, which shortly came to believe that India was “ taking over Afghanistan ” . India had implemented a 500 million US $ Reconstruction scheme that was one of the best planned from any state. It was designed to win over every sector of Afghan society, give India a high profile with the Afghans, derive the maximal political advantage, and of class undercut Pakistani influence. Indian companies were straight favoured and won major road-building contracts, including the contract for the route from Kandahar to the Pakistani boundary line. When India reopened two consulates in Kandahar and Jalalabad that has been shuttered since 1979, Pakistan accused Indians of utilizing them to sabotage Pakistan by funding Pashtuns, Baloch and Sindhi dissenters. Meanwhile, there were no high-profile Pakistani-funded undertakings that Afghans could see, although Pakistan ‘s private sector traded massively with Kabul. ”

22. Resistance to Indian Efforts. Pakistan, through ISI and the Taliban has been active in opposing Indian attempts of Reconstruction in Afghanistan. Bombing of


6 World Wide Web. the

the Indian Embassy in Kabul on 07 Jul 08 was the most direct onslaught aimed at detering American indians from farther engagement in Afghanistan. Though it could non interrupt the will of the Indian authorities, the unfortunate loss of 38 lives including that of the Indian Defence Attache can non be forgotten. Kabul instantly accused the ISI of transporting out the onslaught and suspended all future negotiations with Pakistan. Within yearss, both New Delhi and Washington besides accused the ISI of complicity. On 12 Jul 08 Admiral Mike Mullen and CIA deputy manager Stephen Kappes arrived in Islamabad to demo Gen Kayyani and the political leading, the grounds they had of ISI complicity with Taliban forces of Jalalluddin Haqqani in transporting out the bombardments. Attempts by Pakistan Prime Minister Syed Yousaf Gilani to switch the ISI to the Interior ministry was met with the rage of Gen Kayyani and the ISI head, and therefore the proposal was shelved.7

23. There have besides been a figure of onslaughts on Indian subjects involved in the rebuilding procedure every bit good as on the advancement of Indian attempts by the Taliban- ISI combine. A 2nd onslaught on the Embassy in 09, nobbling and killing of members of Indian Border Roads Organisation involved in building of roads in Afghanistan and an onslaught aiming a hotel and guesthouse that was used by Indian subjects were amongst the ill-famed 1s. India has so far been able to remain on in its Reconstruction procedure chiefly due to the good will which it has created every bit good as the desperate necessity of these activities which have been realised by the Karzai authorities.

24. Turn of Tide in Afghanistan. Taliban was reorganizing in the law- less countries of NWFP since 2002 and, as the US seemed to be pre-occupied in Iraq, they started stepping up onslaughts. By terminal of 2005 Taliban was doing brave onslaughts on NATO military personnels in Afghanistan. NATO states were progressively acquiring wary of the land state of affairs in Afghanistan and were by now looking at avenues to retreat their military personnels.

25. Diplomatic Set back. Pakistan has been forcing difficult to stay in the driver ‘s place on Afghan policy. At their insisting, India was kept out of the Istanbul


7 Ahmed Rashid. Descent into pandemonium. The universe ‘s most unstable part & A ; the menace to planetary security. ( Penguin books. 2008 ) , p.406.

meeting taking up to the 28 Jan 10 London conference. The Afghanistan conference in London went on unexpected lines for India. India did non expect that the British would accept the Pakistani line that Islamabad could present peace by negociating a trade with the Taliban. At least for now, Pakistan appears to be winning by hard-selling the line that without the engagement of the ISI, re-integration will stay a non-starter.

26. Afghan Peace Jirga. The London conference was followed by a much hyped peace Jirga which ended on 04 Jun 10 in Kabul with a call for doing peace with the Taliban by incorporating them in the political mainstream. In a 16- article declaration, the Jirga called on the Afghan and NATO led international forces to let go of Taliban captives against whom no solid grounds was available. The Taliban were urged to abdicate force and cut off their ties with Al Qaeda panic web. As per the organizers of the Jirga, there was no alternate to doing peace with the Taliban since neither the US led NATO forces nor could the Afghan ground forces warrant security to Afghans.8

27. Effect on Indian Efforts. The peace overtures towards Taliban by the Afghan disposal is a clear set back to India ‘s attempts in that state. For India, planetary blessing of the rapprochement procedure implies that Pakistan, with its ISI

and ground forces, is likely to take a prima function in Afghanistan. Pakistan can be said to hold brow-beaten India in this issue and did pull off to set a inquiry grade on universe leader ‘s heads sing India ‘s supposed non-relevance in Afghanistan. As London conference showed, Islamabad got its manner. Since January London conference, there is a turning perceptual experience that the West, including US is inquiring India to scale down its activities in Afghanistan as the Indian presence in the signifier of Reconstruction undertakings is resented by Pakistan. The US, which is already in the backdown manner, has succumbed to the Pakistan ‘s blackmail tactics and is ready to profess any demands if it helps to acquire it out of the intensifying Afghan morass. A senior European diplomat, admitted that Europe does non desire “ excessively much of India ” in Afghanistan as it would do that state a theater of Indo-Pak competition and will perplex the issue program to that extent.8 US Special minister plenipotentiary for Afghanistan and _________________________

8Ayesha Abdullah, “ Choreographers ‘ Acts – Is India losing the new Afghan game? ” . Strategic Affairs- Jun 10

Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke had reportedly told the so NSA, during his last visit to India, that India would hold to be removed from all decision-making on Afghanistan, on Pakistan ‘s insisting.

Way Ahead for India

28. Pakistan is likely to pull out a heavy monetary value from the US, if it manages to assist them in conveying the Afghan state of affairs under control. A Taliban coup d’etat, aided by

Pakistan after the issue of NATO forces, is a regular incubus for India ‘s foreign policy-making and strategic constitution that has nurtured its influence and dealingss with the Karzai government. In malice of the Taliban rapprochement program, India has non given up seeking to carry Washington to see the Afghan state of affairs from its position. The Afghan issue is reported to hold figured conspicuously in the inaugural India- US strategic duologue held on 02 Jun – 03 Jun 10. Officially, there was an effort to project a congruity of involvement in making “ a stable, autonomous, democratic and pluralistic Afghanistan ” . India and US agreed to research chances for coordination on civilian aid undertakings that advance Afghan ego sufficiency and construct civilian capacity.8

29. Road Map. There are two schools of ideas as to the route map for India station Peace Jirga. The first says that Afghanistan is a cemetery, and India has had a good tally at that place for the past decennary. But if the US security screen goes with the chance of a Talibanised power construction in Kabul, India should cut down its presence, acquire its people out, and maintain a modicum of influence to forestall the state from going a pre-9/11 anti-India infinite. Significantly, India has n’t taken on new substructure undertakings in Afghanistan recently. But another school says India should non merely keep its presence but add different dimensions to it. India ‘s end therefore should be to forestall a Taliban return. Recent sentiment polls put India ‘s popularity evaluation among Afghans at 71 per cent, in utmost contrast to merely 2 per cent for Pakistan. But the bottom-line is that India is on its ain in Afghanistan.9

30. In instance India decides to remain on, India needs to back up Karzai through a period when he will certainly be doing experiential trades to guarantee a life after the US.


9Indrani Baghchi, Diplomatic editor TOI. World Wide Web.

For India, Karzai is a better stake than the Taliban. There are protagonists in Karzai ‘s circle like Asadullah Khalid ( former governor of Kandahar ) and Gul Agha Sherzai ( Nangarhar ) whom India can assist. India will besides hold to step up its battle with the Pushtuns. Since 2001, India has been making exactly this, and it ‘s no happenstance that India ‘s tremendously successful little undertakings are scattered through the Pushtun states. But the Pushtuns will ever hold of course Pakistani propensities, which have to be factored in every bit good. 9

31. India ‘s immediate challenges in Afghanistan therefore, will include, other than procuring its citizens, covering with US positions on India ‘s function in the state, and winning back Pushtun sentiments. India ‘s biggest challenge in prosecuting with the Taliban would be its linkages with anti-India terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba. A distinction needs to be made between the assorted groups of the Taliban in footings of the extent of the linkages with such groups.

32. Another option, though with limited options, still available to India, is what India ‘s former Foreign Secretary JN Dixit suggests in his book, “ India ‘s Foreign Policy-Challenge of Terrorism ” , that, we could work in cooperation with Central Asiatic Region provinces, Iran, Russia and China to bring forth political force per unit area to brace Afghanistan, as none of the states supra would wish a extremist Islam province surrounding them. How receptive would be China, to India ‘s concluding demands to be seen.


33. India ‘s lucks in Afghanistan has seen a figure of ups and downs get downing with the Soviet intercession in that state and the subsequent silent support of the Indian authorities, to the latest peace Jirga and possible integrating of Taliban in the Afghan authorities. India has been active in its attempts to hold its pes print in Afghanistan chiefly to counter the Pakistan attempt to put in a pro-Pakistan authorities in that state, which would increase its strategic deepness. India ‘s involvement and attempts in Afghanistan is in direct contradiction to that of Pakistan. Pakistan being the natural neighbor of Afghanistan ever resented India ‘s influence in that

state. However, India has been by far able to keep a healthy relation with the assorted Afghan regimes excluding the pure Taliban regulation from 1996 to 2001.

34. The Indian stance during the three stages brought out in the paper displays the adulthood and foresightfulness with which the state has been managing the Afghan issue. While the important Soviet support to Indian economic system in the 80 ‘s guided the foreign policy so, the support to non-Pushtuns through Northern Alliance was a pre-requisite to avoid Pakistan influence in Afghanistan, during the battle for the state station Soviet backdown. India stood vindicated in its support to Northern Alliance when US forces installed an interim authorities under Hamid Karzai, a Pushtun, with heavy support from elements of the Northern Alliance after get the better ofing Taliban in 2001.

35. India may take comfort from the fact that non all Taliban is pro-Pakistan. Aditya Sinha, Editor-in-Chief New Indian Express wrote in his column on 03 Jul 10, about what Abdul Salam Zaeef, the Taliban embassador to Pakistan had to state about his host state. Abdul Salam Zaeef, an influential and intelligent Taliban wrote in his memoirs written in Guantanamo Bay therefore, “ Pakistan was known among the captives as Majbooristan, the land that is obliged to carry through each of America ‘s demands. Pakistan, which plays a cardinal function in Asia, is so celebrated for perfidy that it is said that they can acquire milk from a bull. They have two linguas in one oral cavity, and two faces on one caput, so they can talk everybody ‘s linguistic communication ; they use everybody, deceive everybody… ”

36. Finally, the Indian hope will rest on all the good work it has done boulder clay day of the month in Afghanistan, and that, the Taliban elements in the likely alliance authorities recognises the danger of the dual edged blade of Pakistan policy as Abdul Salam Zaeef did. A batch will depend on the current Afghan authorities ‘s ability to stay together and forestall a complete coup d’etat of their state by the Taliban. However, if the Taliban succeeds in Afghanistan wholly, with all moderate voices submerging in their utmost Islamisation of the state, so one can anticipate a repetition of what happened in India, after the retreat of the Soviets from Afghanistan. There will be far excessively many of unemployed jihadis in Pakistan who would desire to go on their jehad. The new fundamental law and the will of the people may be the lone straw left for accomplishing a gloss of administration in Afghanistan. For India, this may be a wise clip to hesitate ; and watch how the new dispensation works out, and take mensural stairss in visible radiation of the unfolding events.

Wellington ( P Sasi Kumar )

Sep 10 Lt Cdr

Word Count

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2. Entire effectual words – 3983